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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551877/loss-of-gait-control-assessed-by-cognitive-motor-dual-tasks-pros-and-cons-in-detecting-people-at-risk-of-developing-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Maroua Belghali, Nathalie Chastan, Fabien Cignetti, Damien Davenne, Leslie M Decker
Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases are age-related progressive neurodegenerative diseases of increasing prevalence worldwide. In the absence of curative therapy, current research is interested in prevention, by identifying subtle signs of early-stage neurodegeneration. Today, the field of behavioral neuroscience has emerged as one of the most promising areas of research on this topic. Recently, it has been shown that the exacerbation of gait disorders under dual-task conditions (i.e., simultaneous performance of cognitive and motor tasks) could be a characteristic feature of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases...
May 27, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551556/multi-modal-classification-of-neurodegenerative-disease-by-progressive-graph-based-transductive-learning
#2
Zhengxia Wang, Xiaofeng Zhu, Ehsan Adeli, Yingying Zhu, Feiping Nie, Brent Munsell, Guorong Wu
Graph-based transductive learning (GTL) is a powerful machine learning technique that is used when sufficient training data is not available. In particular, conventional GTL approaches first construct a fixed inter-subject relation graph that is based on similarities in voxel intensity values in the feature domain, which can then be used to propagate the known phenotype data (i.e., clinical scores and labels) from the training data to the testing data in the label domain. However, this type of graph is exclusively learned in the feature domain, and primarily due to outliers in the observed features, may not be optimal for label propagation in the label domain...
May 13, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551440/osmolyte-induced-enhancement-of-expression-and-solubility-of-human-dihydrofolate-reductase-an-in-vivo-study
#3
Naira Rashid, Charu Thapliyal, Pratima Chaudhuri Chattopadhyay
The process of recombinant protein production in E. coli system is often hampered by the formation of insoluble aggregates. Human Dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR), an enzyme involved in the synthesis of purine, thymidilate and several other amino acids like glycine, methionine and serine is highly aggregation prone. It catalyzes the reduction of dihydrofolate (H2F) in order to regenerate tetrahydrofolate (H4F) utilizing NADPH as a cofactor. We have attempted to ameliorate the production of soluble and functional protein by growing and inducing the cells under osmotic stress condition, in the presence of various osmolytes like glycerol, sorbitol, TMAO, proline and glycine at 37°C...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551099/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-plays-an-essential-role-in-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-mediated-neuroprotection-of-dopaminergic-neurons-in-a-mouse-parkinson-s-disease-model
#4
Yuan Liu, Shuai Hao, Beibei Yang, Yi Fan, Xiaodong Qin, Yun Chen, Jun Hu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with an incidence second only to Alzheimer's disease. The main pathological feature of PD is the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Nicotinic receptor agonists are neuroprotective in several PD models and there is considerable evidence that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs) are important therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. However, the involvement of α7-nAChRs and underlying signaling mechanisms in PD pathogenesis are unclear...
May 24, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551012/activation-of-cb2-receptor-system-restores-cognitive-capacity-and-hippocampal-sox2-expression-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Jiang Wu, Mark Hocevar, Joseph F Foss, B Bihua Bie, Mohamed Naguib
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by neuroinflammation, extensive deposits of amyloid-β aggregates, and loss of memory and cognitive abilities. The brains of patients with AD show increased expression of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) receptors and glial markers. CB2 receptors act as a negative feedback regulator; when activated by a CB2 agonist, they can help limit the extent of the neuroinflammatory response and the subsequent development of neuronal damage in the central nervous system...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550528/prion-like-seeding-of-misfolded-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-the-brains-of-dementia-with-lewy-body-patients-in-rt-quic
#6
Kazunori Sano, Ryuichiro Atarashi, Katsuya Satoh, Daisuke Ishibashi, Takehiro Nakagaki, Yasushi Iwasaki, Mari Yoshida, Shigeo Murayama, Kenichi Mishima, Noriyuki Nishida
The prion-like seeding of misfolded α-synuclein (αSyn) involved in the pathogenesis of Lewy body diseases (LBD) remains poorly understood at the molecular level. Using the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QUIC) seeding assay, we investigated whether brain tissues from cases of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), which contain serine 129 (Ser129)-phosphorylated insoluble aggregates of αSyn, can convert Escherichia coli-derived recombinant αSyn (r-αSyn) to fibrils. Diffuse neocortical DLB yielded 50% seeding dose (SD50) values of 10(7)~10(10)/g brain...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550440/csf-concentrations-of-adipsin-and-adiponectin-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#7
Héctor R Martínez, César E Escamilla-Ocañas, Carlos R Camara-Lemarroy, María T González-Garza, Juan M Tenorio-Pedraza, Martín Hernández-Torre
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is described as a neurodegenerative disorder. However, neuroinflammation and chemokine expression are prominent pathological finding at sites of injury. Adipsin and adiponectin are molecules that are implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and neuroimmune disorders. Adipsin and adiponectin concentrations were determined in the CSF of ALS patients and controls and the relationship of these chemokines with clinical severity and disease duration in ALS was determined...
May 26, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550305/dynamics-and-ligand-induced-conformational-changes-in-human-prolyl-oligopeptidase-analyzed-by-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange-mass-spectrometry
#8
Alexandra Tsirigotaki, Roos Van Elzen, Pieter Van Der Veken, Anne-Marie Lambeir, Anastassios Economou
Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) is conserved in many organisms across life. It is involved in numerous processes including brain function and neuropathology, that require more than its strict proteolytic role. It consists of a seven-bladed β-propeller juxtaposed to a catalytic α/β-hydrolase domain. The conformational dynamics of PREP involved in domain motions and the gating mechanism that allows substrate accessibility remain elusive. Here we used Hydrogen Deuterium eXchange Mass Spectrometry (HDX-MS) to derive the first near-residue resolution analysis of global PREP dynamics in the presence or absence of inhibitor bound in the active site...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550283/high-resolution-bioelectrical-imaging-of-a%C3%AE-induced-network-dysfunction-on-cmos-meas-for-neurotoxicity-and-rescue-studies
#9
Hayder Amin, Thierry Nieus, Davide Lonardoni, Alessandro Maccione, Luca Berdondini
Neurotoxicity and the accumulation of extracellular amyloid-beta1-42 (Aβ) peptides are associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and correlate with neuronal activity and network dysfunctions, ultimately leading to cellular death. However, research on neurodegenerative diseases is hampered by the paucity of reliable readouts and experimental models to study such functional decline from an early onset and to test rescue strategies within networks at cellular resolution. To overcome this important obstacle, we demonstrate a simple yet powerful in vitro AD model based on a rat hippocampal cell culture system that exploits large-scale neuronal recordings from 4096-electrodes on CMOS-chips for electrophysiological quantifications...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550256/cortical-thickness-and-depressive-symptoms-in-cognitively-normal-individuals-the-mayo-clinic-study-of%C3%A2-aging
#10
Anna Pink, Scott A Przybelski, Janina Krell-Roesch, Gorazd B Stokin, Rosebud O Roberts, Michelle M Mielke, David S Knopman, Clifford R Jack, Ronald C Petersen, Yonas E Geda
Altered cortical thickness has been observed in aging and various neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, reduced hippocampal volume has been reported in late-life depression. Even mild depressive symptoms are common in the elderly. However, little is known about the structural MRI measures of depressive symptoms in normal cognitive aging. Thus we sought to examine the association between depressive symptoms with cortical thickness and hippocampal volume as measured by brain MRI among community-dwelling participants...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550249/avn-492-a-novel-highly-selective-5-ht6r-antagonist-preclinical-evaluation
#11
Alexandre V Ivachtchenko, Ilya Okun, Vladimir Aladinskiy, Yan Ivanenkov, Angela Koryakova, Ruben Karapetyan, Oleg Mitkin, Ramiz Salimov, Andrey Ivashchenko
Discovery of 5-HT6 receptor subtype and its exclusive localization within the central nervous system led to extensive investigations of its role in Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and obesity. In the present study, we present preclinical evaluation of a novel highly-potent and highly-selective 5-HT6R antagonist, AVN-492. The affinity of AVN-492 to bind to 5-HT6R (Ki = 91 pM) was more than three orders of magnitude higher than that to bind to the only other target, 5-HT2BR, (Ki = 170 nM). Thus, the compound displayed great 5-HT6R selectivity against all other serotonin receptor subtypes, and is extremely specific against any other receptors such as adrenergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, histaminergic, etc...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550248/cd44-splice-variants-as-potential-players-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology
#12
Elhanan Pinner, Yaron Gruper, Micha Ben Zimra, Don Kristt, Moshe Laudon, David Naor, Nava Zisapel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive deficits, deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal cell death. Neuroinflammation is commonly believed to participate in AD pathogenesis. CD44 is an inflammation-related gene encoding a widely-distributed family of alternatively spliced cell surface glycoproteins that have been implicated in inflammation, metastases, and inflammation-linked neuronal injuries. Here we investigated the expression patterns of CD44S (which does not contain any alternative exon) and CD44 splice variants in postmortem hippocampal samples from AD patients and matched non-AD controls...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550168/reduced-expression-of-foxp1-as-a-contributing-factor-in-huntington-s-disease
#13
Anto Sam Crosslee Louis Sam Titus, Tanzeen Yusuff, Marlène Cassar, Elizabeth Thomas, Doris Kretzschmar, Santosh R D'Mello
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the huntington protein (htt). The neuropathological hallmark of HD is the loss of neurons in the striatum and, to a lesser extent, in the cortex. Foxp1 is a member of the Forkhead family of transcription factors expressed selectively in the striatum and the cortex. In the brain, three major Foxp1 isoforms are expressed - isoform-A (∼90 kDa), isoform-D (∼70 kDa) and isoform-C (∼50 kDa). We find that expression of Foxp1 isoforms A and D is selectively reduced in the striatum and cortex of R6/2 HD mice as well as in the striatum of HD patients...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549949/recent-advancements-in-liposomes-targeting-strategies-to-cross-blood-brain-barrier-bbb-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Mukta Agrawal, Ajazuddin, Dulal K Tripathi, Swarnlata Saraf, Shailendra Saraf, Sophia G Antimisiaris, Spyridon Mourtas, Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes, Amit Alexander
In this modern era, with the help of various advanced technologies, medical science has overcome most of the health-related issues successfully. Though, some diseases still remain unresolved due to various physiological barriers. One such condition is Alzheimer; a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory impairment, behavioral abnormalities, mood swing and disturbed routine activities of the person suffering from. It is well known to all that the brain is entirely covered by a protective layer commonly known as blood brain barrier (BBB) which is responsible to maintain the homeostasis of brain by restricting the entry of toxic substances, drug molecules, various proteins and peptides, small hydrophilic molecules, large lipophilic substances and so many other peripheral components to protect the brain from any harmful stimuli...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549937/is-learning-episodic-memory-distinct-cognitive-and-neuroanatomic-correlates-of-immediate-recall-during-learning-trials-in-neurologically-normal-aging-and-neurodegenerative-cohorts
#15
K B Casaletto, G Marx, S Dutt, J Neuhaus, R Saloner, L Kritikos, B Miller, J H Kramer
Although commonly interpreted as a marker of episodic memory during neuropsychological exams, relatively little is known regarding the neurobehavior of "total learning" immediate recall scores. Medial temporal lobes are clearly associated with delayed recall performances, yet immediate recall may necessitate networks beyond traditional episodic memory. We aimed to operationalize cognitive and neuroanatomic correlates of total immediate recall in several aging syndromes. Demographically-matched neurologically normal adults (n=91), individuals with Alzheimer's disease (n=566), logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (n=34), behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (n=97), semantic variant PPA (n=71), or nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA (n=39) completed a neurocognitive battery, including the CVLT-Short Form trials 1-4 Total Immediate Recall; a majority subset also completed a brain MRI...
May 23, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549934/in-vitro-metabolomic-approaches-to-investigating-the-potential-biological-effects-of-phenolic-compounds-an-update
#16
REVIEW
Úrsula Catalán, Laura Barrubés, Rosa Maria Valls, Rosa Solà, Laura Rubió
Dietary phenolic compounds (PCs) have been receiving interest for their presumed roles in disease prevention. However, there is a lack of studies on the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this regard, in vitro metabolomic approaches are suitable for the investigation of the molecular changes in response to PC exposure. Up to date, the biological effects of PCs have only been examined for PCs from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), olive oil, and resveratrol using cell-based metabolomic approach, although transcriptomic and/or proteomic studies have also been conducted in the same in vitro cell experiment in some cases...
May 23, 2017: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549772/codon-optimized-rpgr-improves-stability-and-efficacy-of-aav8-gene-therapy-in-two-mouse-models-of-x-linked-retinitis-pigmentosa
#17
M Dominik Fischer, Michelle E McClements, Cristina Martinez-Fernandez de la Camara, Julia-Sophia Bellingrath, Daniyar Dauletbekov, Simon C Ramsden, Doron G Hickey, Alun R Barnard, Robert E MacLaren
X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) is generally a severe form of retinitis pigmentosa, a neurodegenerative, blinding disorder of the retina. 70% of XLRP cases are due to mutations in the retina-specific isoform of the gene encoding retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR(ORF15)). Despite successful RPGR(ORF15) gene replacement with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors being established in a number of animal models of XLRP, progression to human trials has not yet been possible. The inherent sequence instability in the purine-rich region of RPGR(ORF15) (which contains highly repetitive nucleotide sequences) leads to unpredictable recombination errors during viral vector cloning...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549769/variations-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-proteome-following-traumatic-brain-injury-and-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#18
David E Connor, Ganta V Chaitanya, Prashant Chittiboina, Paul McCarthy, L Keith Scott, Lisa Schrott, Alireza Minagar, Anil Nanda, J Steven Alexander
BACKGROUND: Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has shown great promise in identifying potential markers of injury in neurodegenerative diseases [1-13]. Here we compared CSF proteomes in healthy individuals, with patients diagnosed with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in order to characterize molecular biomarkers which might identify these different clinical states and describe different molecular mechanisms active in each disease state. METHODS: Patients presenting to the Neurosurgery service at the Louisiana State University Hospital-Shreveport with an admitting diagnosis of TBI or SAH were prospectively enrolled...
May 13, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549757/mobile-phone-applications-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#19
M Linares-Del Rey, L Vela-Desojo, R Cano-de la Cuerda
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. However, diagnosing, assessing, and treating these patients is a complex process requiring continuous monitoring. In this context, smartphones may be useful in the management of patients with PD. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to perform a systematic review of the literature addressing the use of mobile phone applications (apps) in PD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a literature search of articles published in English or Spanish between 2011 and 2016 analysing or validating apps specifically designed for or useful in PD...
May 23, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549134/transdiagnostic-neurology-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
Masud Husain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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