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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793062/functional-mri-of-brain-physiology-in-aging-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
J Jean Chen
Brain aging and associated neurodegeneration constitute a major societal challenge as well as one for the neuroimaging community. A full understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration still eludes medical researchers, fuelling the development of in vivo neuroimaging markers. Hence it is increasingly recognized that our understanding of neurodegenerative processes likely will depend upon the available information provided by imaging techniques. At the same time, the imaging techniques are often developed in response to the desire to observe certain physiological processes...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792890/the-visual-cortex-and-visual-cognition-in-huntington-s-disease-an-overview-of-current-literature
#2
REVIEW
Emma M Coppen, Jeroen van der Grond, Ellen P Hart, Egbert A J F Lakke, Raymund A C Roos
The processing of visual stimuli from retina to higher cortical areas has been extensively studied in the human brain. In Huntington's disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, it is suggested that visual processing deficits are present in addition to more characteristic signs such as motor disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral changes. Visual deficits are clinically important because they influence overall cognitive performance and have implications for daily functioning. The aim of this review is to summarize current literature on clinical visual deficits, visual cognitive impairment, and underlying visual cortical changes in HD patients...
May 21, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792878/deoxyelephantopin-ameliorates-lipopolysaccharides-lps-induced-memory-impairments-in-rats-evidence-for-its-anti-neuroinflammatory-properties
#3
Shathiswaran N Andy, Vijayapandi Pandy, Zazali Alias, Habsah Abdul Kadir
AIM: Neuroinflammation is a critical pathogenic mechanism of most neurodegenerative disorders especially, Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are known to induce neuroinflammation which is evident from significant upsurge of pro-inflammatory mediators in in vitro BV-2 microglial cells and in vivo animal models. In present study, we investigated anti-neuroinflammatory properties of deoxyelephantopin (DET) isolated from Elephantopus scaber in LPS-induced neuroinflammatory rat model...
May 21, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791508/does-arterial-hypertension-influence-the-onset-of-huntington-s-disease
#4
Leire Valcárcel-Ocete, Asier Fullaondo, Gorka Alkorta-Aranburu, María García-Barcina, Raymund A C Roos, Lena E Hjermind, Carsten Saft, Marina Frontali, Ralf Reilmann, Hugh Rickards, Ana M Zubiaga, Ana Aguirre
Huntington's disease (HD) age of onset (AO) is mainly determined by the length of the CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. The remaining AO variability has been attributed to other little-known factors. A factor that has been associated with other neurodegenerative diseases is arterial hypertension (AHT). The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of AHT to the AO of HD. We used data from a cohort of 630 European HD patients with adult onset collected by the REGISTRY project of the European Huntington's Disease Network...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791076/effects-of-endurance-training-on-hippocampus-dj-1-cb-2-and-blood-glucose-concentration-in-diabetic-rats
#5
Mohammad Kurd, Vahid Valipour Dehnou, Seyed Asadollah Tavakoli, Daniel E Gahreman
AIMS: To investigate the effect of endurance training on Hippocampus DJ-1 and CB2 protein and blood glucose concentration in diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into Diabetic (D), Diabetic and Exercise (DE), Exercise (E), and Control (C) groups. The endurance training was performed five times per week for six weeks. The hippocampus DJ-1 and CB2 were measured using an ELISA method. RESULTS: The level of DJ-1 in D group was significantly higher than other groups (p ≤ 0...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790963/the-presenilin-loop-region-is-essential-for-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-beta-mediated-functions-on-motor-proteins-during-axonal-transport
#6
Rupkatha Banerjee, Zoe Rudloff, Crystal Naylor, Michael Yu, Shermali Gunawardena
Neurons require intracellular transport of essential components for function and viability, and defects in transport has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). One possible mechanism by which transport defects could occur is by improper regulation of molecular motors. Previous work showed that reduction of Presenilin (PS) or Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) stimulated APP vesicle motility. Excess GSK3β caused transport defects and increased motor binding to membranes, while reduction of PS decreased active GSK3β and motor binding to membranes...
May 22, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790959/peripheral-blood-gene-expression-reveals-an-inflammatory-transcriptomic-signature-in-friedreich-s-ataxia-patients
#7
Daniel Nachun, Fuying Gao, Charles Isaacs, Cassandra Strawser, Zhongan Yang, Deepika Dokuru, Victoria Van Berlo, Renee Sears, Jennifer Farmer, Susan Perlman, David R Lynch, Giovanni Coppola
Transcriptional changes in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), a rare and debilitating recessive Mendelian neurodegenerative disorder, have been studied in affected but inaccessible tissues - such as dorsal root ganglia, sensory neurons, and cerebellum - in animal models or small patient series. However, transcriptional changes induced by FRDA in peripheral blood, a readily accessible tissue, have not been characterized in a large sample. We used differential expression, association with disability stage, network analysis, and enrichment analysis to characterize the peripheral blood transcriptome and identify genes that were differentially expressed in FRDA patients (n = 418) compared to both heterozygous expansion carriers (n = 228) and controls (n = 93, 739 individuals in total), or were associated with disease progression, resulting in a disease signature for FRDA...
May 22, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790571/-epidemiology-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-other-dementias
#8
REVIEW
J Garre-Olmo
INTRODUCTION: Dementia is a clinical syndrome resulting from a number of causations and which is usually accompanied by progressive and diffuse brain dysfunction. The different subtypes are characterised by a clinical picture with common symptoms that differ in terms of their aetiology, age, clinical presentation, clinical course and associated disorders. AIM: To present an update on the information available about the descriptive epidemiology of dementia and its main subtypes...
June 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790385/kinect4fog-monitoring-and-improving-mobility-in-people-with-parkinson-s-using-a-novel-system-incorporating-the-microsoft-kinect-v2
#9
Amin Amini, Konstantinos Banitsas, William R Young
Parkinson's is a neurodegenerative condition associated with several motor symptoms including tremors and slowness of movement. Freezing of gait (FOG); the sensation of one's feet being "glued" to the floor, is one of the most debilitating symptoms associated with advanced Parkinson's. FOG not only contributes to falls and related injuries, but also compromises quality of life as people often avoid engaging in functional daily activities both inside and outside the home. In the current study, we describe a novel system designed to detect FOG and falling in people with Parkinson's (PwP) as well as monitoring and improving their mobility using laser-based visual cues cast by an automated laser system...
May 23, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790176/tau-filaments-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#10
Michel Goedert
The ordered assembly of Tau protein into abnormal filamentous inclusions is a defining characteristic of many human neurodegenerative diseases. Thirty years ago, we reported that Tau is an integral component of the intraneuronal filaments of Alzheimer's disease. All six brain Tau isoforms make up those filaments. Twenty years ago, we and others showed that mutations in MAPT, the Tau gene, cause familial forms of frontotemporal dementia, thus proving that dysfunction of Tau protein is sufficient to cause neurodegeneration and dementia...
May 22, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790106/imaging-reporter-strategy-to-monitor-gene-activation-of-microglia-polarisation-states-under-stimulation
#11
Franziska M Collmann, Rory Pijnenburg, Gabriele Schneider, Cordula Schäfer, Kat Folz-Donahue, Christian Kukat, Mathias Hoehn
Microglial cells as innate immune key players have a critical and unique role in neurodegenerative disorders. They strongly interact with their microenvironment in a complex manner and react to changes by switching their phenotype and functional activation states. In order to understand the development of brain diseases, it is imperative to elucidate up- or down-regulation of genes involved in microglia polarisation in time-profile by a simple-to-use strategy. Here, we present a new imaging strategy to follow promoter activity of genes involved in microglia polarisation...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790082/chronic-administration-of-pimozide-fails-to-attenuate-motor-and-pathological-deficits-in-two-mouse-models-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#12
Silvia Pozzi, Sai Sampath Thammisetty, Jean-Pierre Julien
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease which presently does not have any efficient therapeutic approach. Pimozide, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved neuroepileptic drug, has been recently proposed as a promising treatment for ALS patients based on apparent stabilization of right hand muscles after a short-time administration. A new clinical trial started at the end of 2017 to recruit patients with a prolonged drug delivery schedule. Here, our aim was to investigate the effects of chronic administration of pimozide on disease progression and pathological events in two mouse models of ALS...
May 22, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790000/o-glcnac-cycling-in-the-developing-adult-and-geriatric-brain
#13
REVIEW
Olof Lagerlöf
Hundreds of proteins in the nervous system are modified by the monosaccharide O-GlcNAc. A single protein is often O-GlcNAcylated on several amino acids and the modification of a single site can play a crucial role for the function of the protein. Despite its complexity, only two enzymes add and remove O-GlcNAc from proteins, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). Global and local regulation of these enzymes make it possible for O-GlcNAc to coordinate multiple cellular functions at the same time as regulating specific pathways independently from each other...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789820/structural-mechanisms-of-oligomer-and-amyloid-fibril-formation-by-the-prion-protein
#14
Ishita Sengupta, Jayant B Udgaonkar
Misfolding and aggregation of the prion protein is responsible for multiple neurodegenerative diseases. Works from several laboratories on folding of both the WT and multiple pathogenic mutant variants of the prion protein have identified several structurally dissimilar intermediates, which might be potential precursors to misfolding and aggregation. The misfolded aggregates themselves are morphologically distinct, critically dependent on the solution conditions under which they are prepared, but always β-sheet rich...
May 23, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789578/sk-channel-activation-is-neuroprotective-in-conditions-of-enhanced-er-mitochondrial-coupling
#15
Birgit Honrath, Inge E Krabbendam, Carmen IJsebaart, Valentina Pegoretti, Nadia Bendridi, Jennifer Rieusset, Martina Schmidt, Carsten Culmsee, Amalia M Dolga
Alterations in the strength and interface area of contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria contribute to calcium (Ca2+ ) dysregulation and neuronal cell death, and have been implicated in the pathology of several neurodegenerative diseases. Weakening this physical linkage may reduce Ca2+ uptake into mitochondria, while fortifying these organelle contact sites may promote mitochondrial Ca2+ overload and cell death. Small conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ (SK) channels regulate mitochondrial respiration, and their activation attenuates mitochondrial damage in paradigms of oxidative stress...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789529/inhibiting-p38-mapk-alpha-rescues-axonal-retrograde-transport-defects-in-a-mouse-model-of-als
#16
Katherine L Gibbs, Bernadett Kalmar, Elena R Rhymes, Alexander D Fellows, Mahmood Ahmed, Paul Whiting, Ceri H Davies, Linda Greensmith, Giampietro Schiavo
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by the degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. Defects in axonal transport have been observed pre-symptomatically in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS, and have been proposed to play a role in motor neuron degeneration as well as in other pathologies of the nervous system, such as Alzheimer's disease and hereditary neuropathies. In this study, we screen a library of small-molecule kinase inhibitors towards the identification of pharmacological enhancers of the axonal retrograde transport of signalling endosomes, which might be used to normalise the rate of this process in diseased neurons...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789466/association-of-tea-consumption-with-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-anti-beta-amyloid-effects-of-tea
#17
REVIEW
Curt Anthony Polito, Zhuo-Yu Cai, Yun-Long Shi, Xu-Min Li, Rui Yang, Meng Shi, Qing-Sheng Li, Shi-Cheng Ma, Li-Ping Xiang, Kai-Rong Wang, Jian-Hui Ye, Jian-Liang Lu, Xin-Qiang Zheng, Yue-Rong Liang
Neurodegenerative disease Alzheimer's disease (AD) is attracting growing concern because of an increasing patient population among the elderly. Tea consumption is considered a natural complementary therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, epidemiological studies on the association between tea consumption and the reduced risk of AD are reviewed and the anti-amyloid effects of related bioactivities in tea are summarized. Future challenges regarding the role of tea in preventing AD are also discussed...
May 22, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789375/neurotrophin-responsiveness-of-sympathetic-neurons-is-regulated-by-rapid-mobilization-of-the-p75-receptor-to-the-cell-surface-through-trka-activation-of-arf6
#18
F Edward Hickman, Emily M Stanley, Bruce D Carter
The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) plays an integral role in patterning the sympathetic nervous system during development. Initially, p75NTR is expressed at low levels as sympathetic axons project toward their targets, which enables neurotrophin-3 (NT3) to activate TrkA receptors and promote growth. Upon reaching nerve growth factor (NGF) producing tissues, p75NTR is up regulated resulting in formation of TrkA-p75 complexes, which are high affinity binding sites selective for NGF, thereby blunting NT3 signaling...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789304/neuroimaging-findings-in-menkes-disease-a-rare-neurodegenerative-disorder
#19
Pulkit Rangarh, Neera Kohli
Menkes disease is a rare neurodegenerative metabolic disease with a reported incidence of 1 per 300 000 live births. It occurs due to mutations in ATP7A gene located on X-chromosome leading to deficiency of several copper-containing enzymes. The patient presents with history of neuroregression with characteristic kinky hair. MRI is the imaging modality of choice. Characteristic imaging findings are: bilateral subdural hygromas, cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, white matter changes and tortuous intracranial vessels on angiography...
May 22, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789067/engineering-aspects-of-protein-interactions-and-self-assembly
#20
Miriam Linsenmeier, Paolo Arosio
In the new Laboratory for Biochemical Engineering (LBCE) at ETH Zurich researchers combine principles of chemical engineering with microfluidic technology and biophysical methods to investigate the physical determinants of biomolecular self-assembly in living organisms. In this account, we show the impact of this activity on concrete applications in biomedical sciences and biotechnology. We focus in particular on the field of protein aggregation and phase separation, and we highlight examples in the context of diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease and neurodegenerative disorders, cell compartmentalization as well as manufacturing and delivery of therapeutic proteins...
May 30, 2018: Chimia
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