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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346788/vitamin-d-classic-and-novel-actions
#1
Ángel Gil, Julio Plaza-Diaz, María Dolores Mesa
BACKGROUND: Classically, vitamin D has been implicated in bone health by promoting calcium absorption in the gut and maintenance of serum calcium and phosphate concentrations, as well as by its action on bone growth and reorganization through the action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts cells. However, in the last 2 decades, novel actions of vitamin D have been discovered. The present report summarizes both classic and novel actions of vitamin D. SUMMARY: 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D, the active metabolite of vitamin D, also known as calcitriol, regulates not only calcium and phosphate homeostasis but also cell proliferation and differentiation, and has a key a role to play in the responses of the immune and nervous systems...
January 18, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346778/diverse-brain-myeloid-expression-profiles-reveal-distinct-microglial-activation-states-and-aspects-of-alzheimer-s-disease-not-evident-in-mouse-models
#2
Brad A Friedman, Karpagam Srinivasan, Gai Ayalon, William J Meilandt, Han Lin, Melanie A Huntley, Yi Cao, Seung-Hye Lee, Patrick C G Haddick, Hai Ngu, Zora Modrusan, Jessica L Larson, Joshua S Kaminker, Marcel P van der Brug, David V Hansen
Microglia, the CNS-resident immune cells, play important roles in disease, but the spectrum of their possible activation states is not well understood. We derived co-regulated gene modules from transcriptional profiles of CNS myeloid cells of diverse mouse models, including new tauopathy model datasets. Using these modules to interpret single-cell data from an Alzheimer's disease (AD) model, we identified microglial subsets-distinct from previously reported "disease-associated microglia"-expressing interferon-related or proliferation modules...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346380/rapidly-progressive-dementia-an-eight-year-2008-2016-retrospective-study
#3
Patil Anuja, Vishnu Venugopalan, Naheed Darakhshan, Pandit Awadh, Vinny Wilson, Goyal Manoj, Modi Manish, Lal Vivek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rapidly progressive dementia (RPD) is an emergency in cognitive neurology, defined as cognitive impairment affecting the daily living activities developed over less than 1 year. This study investigated the profile of patients with rapidly progressive dementia at first presentation. METHODS: Retrospective case analysis was done in 187 patients with rapidly progressive dementia who presented to the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India from January 2008 to August 2016...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346273/report-on-the-symposium-molecular-mechanisms-involved-in-neurodegeneration
#4
Giselle Pentón-Rol, Majel Cervantes-Llanos
The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases is currently a major concern in public health because of the lack of neuroprotective and neuroregenerative drugs. The symposium on Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Neurodegeneration held in Varadero, Cuba, updated the participants on the basic mechanisms of neurodegeneration, on the different approaches for drug discovery, and on early research results on therapeutic approaches for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer's disease and in silico research were covered by many of the presentations in the symposium, under the umbrella of the "State of the Art of Non-clinical Models for Neurodegenerative Diseases" International Congress, held from 20 to 24 June 2017...
January 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345616/inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-in-cholinergic-projection-neurons-fully-rescues-aging-associated-olfactory-circuit-degeneration-in-drosophila
#5
Ashiq Hussain, Atefeh Pooryasin, Mo Zhang, Laura F Loschek, Marco La Fortezza, Anja B Friedrich, Catherine-Marie Blais, Habibe K Üçpunar, Vicente A Yépez, Martin Lehmann, Nicolas Gompel, Julien Gagneur, Stephan J Sigrist, Ilona C Grunwald Kadow
Loss of the sense of smell is among the first signs of natural aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Cellular and molecular mechanisms promoting this smell loss are not understood. Here, we show that Drosophila melanogaster also loses olfaction before vision with age. Within the olfactory circuit, cholinergic projection neurons show a reduced odor response accompanied by a defect in axonal integrity and reduction in synaptic marker proteins. Using behavioral functional screening, we pinpoint that expression of the mitochondrial reactive oxygen scavenger SOD2 in cholinergic projection neurons is necessary and sufficient to prevent smell degeneration in aging flies...
January 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345576/radiotracers-for-amyloid-imaging-in-neurodegenerative-disease-state-of-the-art-and-novel-concepts
#6
Angelina Cistaro, Pierpaolo Alongi, Federico Caobelli, Laura Cassalia
The pathological accumulation of various peptides is the common base of many neurodegenerative processes, likewise Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is carachterized by amyloid deposits which may cause modification in neurotransmission, switching on inflammatory mechanisms, neuronal death and cerebral atrophy. Diagnosis in vivo is challenging as the criteria rely mainly on clinical manifestations, which become evident only in a late stage of the disease. Currently AD diagnosis can be definitively confirmed just by postmortem histopathologic examination but in vivo imaging may improve the clinician's ability to identify AD at the earliest stage...
January 16, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345421/synthesis-of-histidine-containing-oligopeptides-via-histidine-promoted-peptide-ligation
#7
Kai-Jin Huang, Yi-Chen Huang, Yuya Angel Lin
Histidine-containing peptides are valuable therapeutic agents for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the synthesis of histidine-containing peptides is not trivial due to the potential of imidazole sidechain of histidine to act as a nucleophile if unprotected. A peptide ligation method utilizing the imidazole sidechain of histidine has been developed. The key imidazolate intermediate that acts as an internal acyl transfer catalyst during ligation is generated by deprotonation. Transesterification with amino acids or peptides tethered with C-terminal thioester followed by N to N acyl shifts led to the final ligated products...
January 18, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345339/the-role-of-cdk5-mediated-drp1-phosphorylation-in-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-mitochondrial-fission-and-neuronal-apoptosis
#8
Miao-Yu Guo, Lei Shang, Yang-Yang Hu, Li-Ping Jiang, Yu-Ying Wan, Qin-Qin Zhou, Kun Zhang, Hong-Fei Liao, Jing-Lin Yi, Xiao-Jian Han
Alzheimer's disease, one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, is pathologically characterized by Amyloid beta containing plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Amyloid beta (Aβ) induces neuronal apoptosis through the intracellular Ca2+ increase, subsequent hyperactivation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and mitochondrial abnormality. Recently, Cdk5 was identified as an upstream regulator of mitochondrial fission during neuronal apoptosis, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, in vitro phosphorylation assays showed that Cdk5 could phosphorylate the recombinant Drp1 at Serine 579...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345124/disposable-morpho-menelaus-based-flexible-microfluidic-and-electronic-sensor-for-the-diagnosis-of-neurodegenerative-disease
#9
Zhenzhu He, Abdelrahman Elbaz, Bingbing Gao, Junning Zhang, Enben Su, Zhongze Gu
Rapid early disease prevention or precise diagnosis is almost impossible in low-resource settings. Natural ordered structures in nature have great potential for the development of ultrasensitive biosensors. Here, motivated by the unique structures and extraordinary functionalities of ordered structures in nature, a biosensor based on butterfly wings is presented. In this study, a flexible Morpho menelaus (M. menelaus) based wearable sensor is integrated with a microfluidic system and electronic networks to facilitate the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease (ND)...
January 18, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344870/cell-specific-rna-quantification-in-human-sn-da-neurons-from-heterogeneous-post-mortem-midbrain-samples-by-uv-laser-microdissection-and-rt-qpcr
#10
Johanna Duda, Michael Fauler, Jan Gründemann, Birgit Liss
Cell specificity of gene expression analysis is from particular relevance when the abundance of target cells is not homogeneous in the compared tissue samples, like it is the case, e.g., when comparing brain tissues from controls and in neurodegenerative disease states. While single-cell gene expression profiling is already a methodological challenge per se, it becomes even more prone to artifacts when analyzing individual cells from human post-mortem samples. Not only because human samples can never be matched as precisely as those from animal models, but also, because the RNA-quality that can be obtained from human samples usually displays a high range of variability...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344865/isolation-of-distinct-types-of-neurons-from-fresh-brain-tissue-using-laser-microdissection-in-combination-with-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#11
Luisa Aring, Simone Steinbach, Katrin Marcus, Caroline May
Humans age and the ageing process affects cells in all areas of the human body, including nerve cells within the brain. With advancing age there is also a rise in the probability of developing a neurodegenerative disorder such as, e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, or Alzheimer's disease. In all these age-related neurodegenerative disorders, distinct neuron populations within specific brain regions are primarily affected. For example, Parkinson's disease is characterized by a slowly progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra whereas the entorhinal cortex is first affected in Alzheimer's disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344655/protective-effects-of-osthole-against-inflammation-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-in-bv2-cells
#12
Yuxin Bao, Xiaolin Meng, Fangning Liu, Fei Wang, Jinhui Yang, Haiyu Wang, Guanghong Xie
Inflammation and oxidative stress are implicated in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Osthole is a compound that is extracted from She Chuang Zi, which is a type of traditional Chinese medicine. Osthole has previously been demonstrated to exhibit anticancer activities and has a low toxicity. However, to the best of our knowledge, the anti‑inflammatory effects of osthole in microglial cells have not been investigated extensively. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential protective effects of osthole against inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in microglial cells...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344417/the-effect-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-on-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#13
REVIEW
Wei Qin, Shiya Chen, Shasha Yang, Qian Xu, Chuanshan Xu, Jing Cai
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are special types of cells with the potential for self-renewal and multi-directional differentiation. NSCs are regulated by multiple pathways and pathway related transcription factors during the process of proliferation and differentiation. Numerous studies have shown that the compound medicinal preparations, single herbs, and herb extracts in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have specific roles in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs. In this study, we investigate the markers of NSCs in various stages of differentiation, the related pathways regulating the proliferation and differentiation, and the corresponding transcription factors in the pathways...
December 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344259/lesions-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-leukemia-pathological-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-at-presentation-in-14-patients
#14
Jing Liu, Yaming Wang, Xuefei Sun, Shuo Liu, Zhenkun Yu, Nan Ji, Shengjun Sun, Yuanbo Liu
The present study aimed to characterize the specific pathology and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings observed in patients with leukemia with central nervous system (CNS) lesions, and to determine their value in the management of such patients. Lesions of the CNS were observed during and following treatment of leukemia. The data from stereotactic biopsy-proven pathology (12 patients) and MRI examinations (14 patients) were retrospectively evaluated. Proton-magnetic resonance-spectroscopy was performed in three patients...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343804/compound-heterozygous-spata5-variants-in-four-families-and-functional-studies-of-spata5-deficiency
#15
Sanna Puusepp, Reka Kovacs-Nagy, Bader Alhaddad, Matthias Braunisch, Georg F Hoffmann, Urania Kotzaeridou, Lucia Lichvarova, Mailis Liiv, Christine Makowski, Merle Mandel, Thomas Meitinger, Sander Pajusalu, Richard J Rodenburg, Dzhamilja Safiulina, Tim M Strom, Inga Talvik, Annika Vaarmann, Callum Wilson, Allen Kaasik, Tobias B Haack, Katrin Õunap
Variants in the SPATA5 gene were recently described in a cohort of patients with global developmental delay, sensorineural hearing loss, seizures, cortical visual impairment and microcephaly. SPATA5 protein localizes predominantly in the mitochondria and is proposed to be involved in mitochondrial function and brain developmental processes. However no functional studies have been performed. This study describes five patients with psychomotor developmental delay, microcephaly, epilepsy and hearing impairment, who were thought clinically to have a mitochondrial disease with subsequent whole-exome sequencing analysis detecting compound heterozygous variants in the SPATA5 gene...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342921/rna-targeted-therapies-and-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#16
REVIEW
Stéphane Mathis, Gwendal Le Masson
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor disease in adults. Its pathophysiology remains mysterious, but tremendous advances have been made with the discovery of the most frequent mutations of its more common familial form linked to the C9ORF72 gene. Although most cases are still considered sporadic, these genetic mutations have revealed the role of RNA production, processing and transport in ALS, and may be important players in all ALS forms. There are no disease-modifying treatments for adult human neurodegenerative diseases, including ALS...
January 15, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342421/the-relation-between-plasma-%C3%AE-synuclein-level-and-clinical-symptoms-or-signs-of-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Michalina Malec-Litwinowicz, Andrzej Plewka, Danuta Plewka, Edyta Bogunia, Michał Morek, Andrzej Szczudlik, Michał Szubiga, Monika Rudzińska-Bar
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson disease (PD) is the common neurodegenerative disease. α-Synuclein (ASN), main aggregating protein in neural cells of CNS in PD, was found in peripheral fluids. Testing ASN in plasma is potential test for diagnose PD, but previous studies are controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate if plasma ASN level may be a valuable biomarker, is the level of plasma ASN concentration different in various motor subtypes of diseases, is there a relation between the level of plasma ASN and the severity of motor symptoms...
November 21, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342318/optical-structural-analysis-of-individual-%C3%AE-synuclein-oligomers
#18
Juan Alberto Varela, Margarida Rodrigues, Suman De, Patrick Flagmeier, Sonia Gandhi, Christopher M Dobson, David Klenerman, Steven Lee
Small aggregates of misfolded proteins play a key role in neurodegenerative disorders. Such species are difficult to study due to the lack of methods capable of resolving these heterogeneous aggregates, which are smaller than the optical diffraction limit. We demonstrate here an all-optical fluorescence microscopy method to characterise the structure of individual protein-aggregates based on the fluorescence anisotropy of dyes such as thioflavin-T, and show that this technology is capable of studying oligomers in human biofluids such as cerebrospinal fluid...
January 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342151/cd8-signaling-in-microglia-macrophage-m1-polarization-in-a-rat-model-of-cerebral-ischemia
#19
Jan Boddaert, Kenny Bielen, Bart 's Jongers, Ekta Manocha, Laetitia Yperzeele, Patrick Cras, Daniel Pirici, Samir Kumar-Singh
Classical or M1 activity of microglia/macrophages has been described in several neurodegenerative and brain inflammatory conditions and has also been linked to expansion of ischemic injury in post-stroke brain. While different pathways of M1 polarization have been suggested to occur in the post-stroke brain, the precise underlying mechanisms remain undefined. Using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model, we showed a progressive M2 to M1 polarization in the perilesional brain region with M1 cells becoming one of the dominant subsets by day 4 post-stroke...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342113/mitochondria-oxidative-stress-and-the-kynurenine-system-with-a-focus-on-ageing-and-neuroprotection
#20
REVIEW
Katalin Sas, Elza Szabó, László Vécsei
In this review, the potential causes of ageing are discussed. We seek to gain insight into the main physiological functions of mitochondria and discuss alterations in their function and the genome, which are supposed to be the central mechanisms in senescence. We conclude by presenting the potential modulating role of the kynurenine pathway in the ageing processes. Mitochondrial dynamics are supposed to have important physiological roles in maintaining cell homeostasis. During ageing, a decrease in mitochondrial dynamics was reported, potentially compromising the function of mitochondria...
January 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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