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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169111/identification-of-phenolic-components-via-lc-ms-analysis-and-biological-activities-of-two-centaurea-species-c-drabifolia-subsp-drabifolia-and-c-lycopifolia
#1
Gokhan Zengin, Dimitrina Zheleva-Dimitrova, Reneta Gevrenova, Paraskev Nedialkov, Andrei Mocan, Ana Ćirić, Jasmina Glamočlija, Marina Soković, Abdurrahman Aktumsek, M Fawzi Mahomoodally
The Centaurea genus has great potential in traditional systems and has attracted much interest in the design of novel drug formulations. The present study was focused on the chemical fingerprints and biological properties of Centaurea drabifolia subsp. drabifolia and Centaurea lycopifolia extracts. Spectrophotometric and LC-MS techniques were used to establish the chemical profiles of the studied extracts. Enzyme inhibitory potential was assessed against key enzymes linked to global health problems, namely neurodegenerative diseases (acetylcholinesterase), pigmentation (tyrosinase), and diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168874/bioreactor-model-of-neuromuscular-junction-with-electrical-stimulation-for-pharmacological-potency-testing
#2
Surapon N Charoensook, Damian J Williams, Syandan Chakraborty, Kam W Leong, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
In vitro models of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) are emerging as a valuable tool to study synaptogenesis, synaptic maintenance, and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Many models have previously been developed using a variety of cell sources for skeletal muscle and motoneurons. These models can advanced by integrating beneficial features of the native developmental milieu of the NMJ. We created a functional in vitro model of NMJ by bioreactor cultivation of transdifferentiated myocytes and stem cell-derived motoneurons, in the presence of electrical stimulation...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168797/role-of-vitamin-e-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-evidence-from-animal-models
#3
REVIEW
Agnese Gugliandolo, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder representing the major cause of dementia. It is characterized by memory loss, and cognitive and behavioral decline. In particular, the hallmarks of the pathology are amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), formed by aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Oxidative stress plays a main role in AD, and it is involved in initiation and progression of AD. It is well known that Aβ induced oxidative stress, promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and consequently lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, tau hyperphosphorylation, results in toxic effects on synapses and neurons...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168666/diagnostic-methods-used-in-searching-for-markers-of-atrophy-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Przemyslaw Puz, Arkadiusz Steposz, Anetta Lasek-Bal, Karina Bartoszek, Patrycja Radecka, Aleksandra Karuga-Pierścieńska
The results of available studies on assessment of neurodegenerative lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients using different approaches have not been conclusive. Currently, clinical assessment is the most commonly used (involving primarily mobility assessment), along with magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological testing. In this review we describe available clinical, neuroimaging, electrophysiological and laboratory tests used to assess the neurodegeneration in MS. Laboratory markers to determine the risk of disease, its conversion and prognosis in MS patients are being constantly sought...
November 23, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168432/bayesian-latent-time-joint-mixed-effect-models-for-multicohort-longitudinal-data
#5
Dan Li, Samuel Iddi, Wesley K Thompson, Michael C Donohue
Characterization of long-term disease dynamics, from disease-free to end-stage, is integral to understanding the course of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, and ultimately, how best to intervene. Natural history studies typically recruit multiple cohorts at different stages of disease and follow them longitudinally for a relatively short period of time. We propose a latent time joint mixed effects model to characterize long-term disease dynamics using this short-term data. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are proposed for estimation, model selection, and inference...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168380/quantitative-study-of-oligomerization-of-yeast-prion-sup35nm-proteins
#6
Yanjing Wang, Chi Wu
The fibrillation of misfolded neurodegenerative diseases related proteins has been extensively studied in the last few decades, but the initial oligomerization has been rarely touched even though some recent evidences indicated that small protein oligomers are more neurotoxic than long protein fibers. It is rather difficult to study the initial oligomerization (nucleation) because most of experimental methods, such as β-sheet related fluorescence assay and X-ray diffraction, are helpless in detecting small structure-less protein oligomers...
November 23, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167799/the-integrated-stress-response-in-budding-yeast-lifespan-extension
#7
REVIEW
Spike D L Postnikoff, Jay E Johnson, Jessica K Tyler
Aging is a complex, multi-factorial biological process shared by all living organisms. It is manifested by a gradual accumulation of molecular alterations that lead to the decline of normal physiological functions in a time-dependent fashion. The ultimate goal of aging research is to develop therapeutic means to extend human lifespan, while reducing susceptibility to many age-related diseases including cancer, as well as metabolic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. However, this first requires elucidation of the causes of aging, which has been greatly facilitated by the use of model organisms...
October 24, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167725/transdifferentiation-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-into-oligoprogenitor-cells
#8
Ardeshir Moayeri, Maryam Nazm Bojnordi, Sara Haratizadeh, Amir Esmaeilnejad-Moghadam, Rafieh Alizadeh, Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi
Introduction: The nerve fibers in central nervous system are surrounded by myelin sheet which is formed by oligodendrocytes. Cell therapy based on oligodendrocytes and their precursors transplantation can hold a promising alternative treatment for myelin sheet repair in demyelinating diseases. Methods: Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (hDPSCs) are noninvasive, autologous and easy available source with multipotency characteristics, so they are in focus of interest in regenerative medicine...
September 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167483/encapsulation-of-primary-dopaminergic-neurons-in-a-gdnf-loaded-collagen-hydrogel-increases-their-survival-re-innervation-and-function-after-intra-striatal-transplantation
#9
Niamh Moriarty, Abhay Pandit, Eilís Dowd
Poor graft survival limits the use of primary dopaminergic neurons for neural repair in Parkinson's disease. Injectable hydrogels have the potential to significantly improve the outcome of such reparative approaches by providing a physical matrix for cell encapsulation which can be further enriched with pro-survival factors. Therefore, this study sought to determine the survival and efficacy of primary dopaminergic grafts after intra-striatal delivery in a glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-loaded collagen hydrogel in a rat model of Parkinson's disease...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167408/conjugated-linoleic-acid-prevents-age-dependent-neurodegeneration-in-a-mouse-model-of-neuropsychiatric-lupus-via-the-activation-of-an-adaptive-response
#10
Antonio Monaco, Ida Ferrandino, Floriana Boscaino, Ennio Cocca, Luisa Cigliano, Francesco Maurano, Diomira Luongo, Maria Stefania Spagnuolo, Mauro Rossi, Paolo Bergamo
Oxidative stress is a key mediator of autoimmune/neurodegenerative disorders. The antioxidant/anti-inflammatory effect of a synthetic conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) mixture in MRL/MpJ-Faslpr mice (MRL/lpr), an animal model of neuropsychiatric lupus, was previously associated with the improvement of Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) defences in the spleen and liver. However, little is known about the neuroprotective ability of CLA mixture. This study investigates the age-dependent progression of oxidative stress and the hyperactivation of redox-sensitive compensatory pathways (macroautophagy, Nrf2) in old/diseased MRL/lpr mice brains, and examines the effect produced by dietary CLA supplementation...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167405/the-microtubule-associated-protein-tau-mediates-the-organization-of-microtubules-and-their-dynamic-exploration-of-actin-rich-lamellipodia-and-filopodia-of-cortical-growth-cones
#11
Sayantanee Biswas, Katherine Kalil
Proper organization and dynamics of the actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton are essential for growth cone behaviors during axon growth and guidance. The microtubule associated protein tau is known to mediate actin/MT interactions in cell free systems but the role of tau in regulating cytoskeletal dynamics in living neurons is unknown. We used cultures of cortical neurons from postnatal day 0 (P0)-P2 golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) of either sex to study the role of tau in the organization and dynamics of the axonal growth cone cytoskeleton...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167375/loss-of-apobec1-rna-editing-function-in-microglia-exacerbates-age-related-cns-pathophysiology
#12
Daniel C Cole, Youngcheul Chung, Khatuna Gagnidze, Kaitlyn H Hajdarovic, Violeta Rayon-Estrada, Dewi Harjanto, Benedetta Bigio, Judit Gal-Toth, Teresa A Milner, Bruce S McEwen, F Nina Papavasiliou, Karen Bulloch
Microglia (MG), a heterogeneous population of phagocytic cells, play important roles in central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis and neural plasticity. Under steady-state conditions, MG maintain homeostasis by producing antiinflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors, support myelin production, and remove synapses and cellular debris, as well as participating in "cross-correction," a process that supplies neurons with key factors for executing autophagy-lysosomal function. As sentinels for the immune system, MG also detect "danger" signals (pathogenic or traumatic insult), become activated, produce proinflammatory cytokines, and recruit monocytes and dendritic cells to the site of damage through a breached blood-brain barrier or via brain lymphatics...
November 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167179/proteinopathies-and-oxphos-dysfunction-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Hibiki Kawamata, Giovanni Manfredi
Mitochondria participate in essential processes in the nervous system such as energy and intermediate metabolism, calcium homeostasis, and apoptosis. Major neurodegenerative diseases are characterized pathologically by accumulation of misfolded proteins as a result of gene mutations or abnormal protein homeostasis. Misfolded proteins associate with mitochondria, forming oligomeric and fibrillary aggregates. As mitochondrial dysfunction, particularly of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS), occurs in neurodegeneration, it is postulated that such defects are caused by the accumulation of misfolded proteins...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166803/oxidative-stress-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-role-of-reactive-species
#14
Cezary Grochowski, Jakub Litak, Piotr Kamieniak, Ryszard Maciejewski
Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a wide term describing the condition affecting perforating arterial branches as well as arterioles, venules and capillaries. Cerebral vascular net is one of the main targets of localized oxidative stress processes causing damage to vasculature, changes in the blood flow and blood-brain barrier and, in consequence, promoting neurodegenerative alterations in the brain tissue. Numerous studies report the fact of oxidation to proteins, sugars, lipids and nucleic acids, occurring in most neurodegenerative diseases mainly in the earliest stages and correlations with the development of cognitive and motor disturbances...
November 22, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166700/dlp1-dependent-mitochondrial-fragmentation-and-redistribution-mediate-prion-associated-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-neuronal-death
#15
Chaosi Li, Di Wang, Wei Wu, Wei Yang, Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Ying Zhao, Yuhan Duan, Lu Wang, Xiangmei Zhou, Deming Zhao, Lifeng Yang
Mitochondrial malfunction is a universal and critical step in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases including prion diseases. Dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1) is one of the key regulators of mitochondrial fission. In this study, we investigated the role of DLP1 in mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction in neurons using in vitro and in vivo prion disease models. Mitochondria became fragmented and redistributed from axons to soma, correlated with increased mitochondrial DLP1 expression in murine primary neurons (N2a cells) treated with the prion peptide PrP(106-126) in vitro as well as in prion strain-infected hamster brain in vivo...
November 22, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165795/therapeutic-potency-of-mtor-signaling-pharmacological-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-proinflammatory-diseases-current-status-and-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
Arash Soltani, Amirhossein Bahreyni, Nadia Boroumand, Mostafa Karimi Roshan, Majid Khazaei, Mikhail Ryzhikov, Saman Soleimanpour, Amir Avan, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway controls cell energy metabolism. There is an interplay between mTOR and proinflammatory signaling pathways, supporting the role of the pathway in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Inhibition of mTOR signaling using specific pharmacological inhibitors could offer therapeutic promise in several inflammatory-associated diseases. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the regulatory effects of mTOR signaling on inflammation and the therapeutic potency of mTOR pharmacological inhibitors in the treatment of inflammatory diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, atherosclerosis, sepsis and rheumatoid arthritis for a better understanding and hence a better management of these diseases...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165538/augmented-reality-sustaining-autonomous-way-finding-in-the-community-for-older-persons-with-cognitive-impairment
#17
K Sejunaite, C Lanza, S Ganders, A Iljaitsch, M W Riepe
BACKGROUND: Impairment of autonomous way-finding subsequent to a multitude of neurodegenerative and other diseases impedes independence of older persons and their everyday activities. OBJECTIVE: It was the goal to use augmented reality to aid autonomous way-finding in a community setting. DESIGN: A spatial map and directional information were shown via head-up display to guide patients from the start zone on the hospital campus to a bakery in the nearby community...
2017: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165354/the-role-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp1-in-type-3-diabetes-glp-1-controls-insulin-resistance-neuroinflammation-and-neurogenesis-in-the-brain
#18
REVIEW
Choon Sang Bae, Juhyun Song
Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized by the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein and neuroinflammation, is the most common neurodegenerative disease globally. Previous studies have reported that some AD patients show impaired glucose utilization in brain, leading to cognitive decline. Recently, diabetes-induced dementia has been called "type 3 diabetes", based on features in common with those of type 2 diabetes and the progression of AD. Impaired glucose uptake and insulin resistance in the brain are important issues in type 3 diabetes, because these problems ultimately aggravate memory dysfunction in the brain...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164967/increased-serum-midkine-levels-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-patients
#19
Erman Esnafoglu, Selma Cırrık
BACKGROUND: Midkine (MK) is a heparin binding growth factor and is involved in neurogenesis, neural development and neuroprotection. Additionally MK may contribute to cancer development and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders and schizophrenia. Considering these effects of midkine, this study researched whether MK is involved in Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) pathogenesis. METHODS: We evaluated serum MK levels of 38 patients with ASD and 32 healthy control group...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164496/correction-to-opicapone-a-review-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Lesley J Scott
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common chronic, progressive, neurodegenerative disease, with a mean age of onset of 57 years [1, 2].
November 21, 2017: Drugs
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