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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346380/rapidly-progressive-dementia-an-eight-year-2008-2016-retrospective-study
#1
Patil Anuja, Vishnu Venugopalan, Naheed Darakhshan, Pandit Awadh, Vinny Wilson, Goyal Manoj, Modi Manish, Lal Vivek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rapidly progressive dementia (RPD) is an emergency in cognitive neurology, defined as cognitive impairment affecting the daily living activities developed over less than 1 year. This study investigated the profile of patients with rapidly progressive dementia at first presentation. METHODS: Retrospective case analysis was done in 187 patients with rapidly progressive dementia who presented to the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India from January 2008 to August 2016...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306909/detection-of-egfr-kras-and-braf-mutations-in-metastatic-cells-from-cerebrospinal-fluid
#2
Diane Frankel, Isabelle Nanni-Metellus, Andrée Robaglia-Schlupp, Pascale Tomasini, Julien Guinde, Fabrice Barlesi, Philippe Astoul, L'Houcine Ouafik, Florent Amatore, Véronique Secq, Elise Kaspi, Patrice Roll
BACKGROUND: In lung adenocarcinoma, molecular profiling of actionable genes has become essential to set up targeted therapies. However, the feasibility and the relevance of molecular profiling from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the context of meningeal metastasis have been poorly assessed. METHODS: We selected patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma harbouring metastatic cells in the CSF after cytological analysis. Seven samples from six patients were eligible for molecular testing of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue (KRAS), v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homologue B1 (BRAF) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) mutations using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) high-resolution melting curve analysis and Sanger sequencing after DNA extraction from the cell pellets of the CSF...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279701/a-rare-case-of-docetaxel-induced-hydrocephalus-presenting-with-gait-disturbances-mimicking-and-coexisting-with-taxane-associated-polyneuropathy-the-relevance-of-differential-diagnosis-clinical-assessment-and-response-to-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt
#3
Lucas Ezequiel Serrano Sponton, Elke Januschek
Docetaxel constitutes a widely used chemotherapeutic agent as a first-line treatment for several neoplastic diseases. One of the most common side effects induced by this drug is polyneuropathy, which among other symptoms can cause gait disbalance. However, in exceptional cases gait disturbances could be related to docetaxel-induced hydrocephalus, a rare event that up to the present has been overseen throughout the medical literature and should be meticulously differentiated from polyneuropathy, since its clinical features, treatment, and prognosis differ drastically...
September 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204290/meningeal-carcinomatosis-and-spinal-cord-infiltration-caused-by-a-locally-invasive-pulmonary-adenocarcinoma-in-a-cat
#4
Christoforos Posporis, Llorenç Grau-Roma, Olga Travetti, Maria Oliveira, Laura Polledo, Annette Wessmann
Case summary: A 12-year-old domestic shorthair cat was presented with acute non-painful hindlimb proprioceptive ataxia localising to T3-L3 spinal cord segments. MRI revealed paravertebral muscular hyperintensity on T2-weighted images at the level of T7-T8 vertebrae. The cat improved on conservative management but deteriorated 3 months later. Repeated MRI showed meningeal enhancement at the same level and hyperintensity of the paravertebral musculature extending to the right thoracic wall and pleural space on short tau inversion recovery images...
July 2017: JFMS Open Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163992/cd56-negative-aggressive-nk-cell-leukemia-relapsing-as-multiple-cranial-nerve-palsies-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
M Guerreiro, F Príncipe, M J Teles, S Fonseca, A H Santos, E Fonseca, P Gomes, C Marques, M Lima
Background: Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia (ANKL) is extremely rare and habitually manifests as a systemic disease with multiorgan failure that rapidly evolves to death. The neoplastic natural killer (NK) cells usually harbor the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with a latent viral infection pattern type II; they often have a cytoplasmic CD3ε+ and surface CD3-, CD2+, and CD56+ immunophenotype, and they show complex genetic abnormalities affecting multiple tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes...
2017: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110365/magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-of-canine-gliomatosis-cerebri
#6
Daniela Schweizer-Gorgas, Diana Henke, Anna Oevermann, Johann Lang, Marc Vandevelde, Frank Steffen
A retrospective, case series study was undertaken to identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of gliomatosis cerebri in dogs. Fourteen dogs were included by review of histopathological records and contemporaneous MRI. On MRI, all lesions presented as ill-defined, intraaxial lesions within the left and right forebrain hemispheres with involvement of white and gray matter. Lesions presented as hyperintense areas on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences and as hypointense or isointense areas on T1-weighted images, with mild parenchymal contrast enhancement in three dogs...
November 6, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074315/basal-cell-carcinoma-of-the-scalp-with-destruction-and-invasion-into-the-calvarium-and-dura-mater-report-of-7-cases-and-review-of-literature
#7
Churl-Su Kwon, Omar Al Awar, Valeria Ripa, Ghassan Said, Saulius Rocka
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin malignancy in humans. Giant BCC is a rarer entity that is characterised by aggressive biological behaviour. Intracranial invasion by a BCC on the scalp is extremely rare. The gold standard treatment of BCCs is represented by surgical excision with a wide variety of reconstructive techniques. In this paper, we describe the largest series to date of recurrent BCCs with intracranial extension involving the dura mater. We report recurrent giant BCC of the scalp with dura mater invasion in 7 patients...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987194/overview-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-cytology
#8
Jasmin Rahimi, Adelheid Woehrer
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology, i.e., the cytologic evaluation of its cellular composition, forms an integral part of the neurologist's armamentarium. Total and differential cell counts provide important first information across a spectrum of pathologic conditions involving the central nervous system and its coverings. CSF samples require immediate processing, ideally within 1 hour from collection. Upon centrifugation cytology is commonly assessed on May-Grunwald-Giemsa stains. Several additional stains are available for the identification of infectious agents such as bacteria or fungi, or the further specification of neoplastic cells by immunocytochemistry...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853696/amelanotic-melanocytoma-of-the-sella-mimicking-pituitary-adenoma
#9
Boleslaw Lach, Kesava Reddy, Doron D Sommer, Anthony C Whitton, Reena Baweja
We describe a 50-year-old man with a well-demarcated intra- and extrasellar lesion and clinical signs of a non-functioning pituitary adenoma. Neuropathological examination revealed tumor composed of non-pigmented spindle cells arranged in tightly packed nests separated by delicate vascular septae. There was no significant cellular atypia or mitotic activity, and Ki67-positive nuclei were present in less than 1% of cells. The neoplastic cells were positive for S-100 and vimentin, and negative for numerous cellular markers including HMB45, anti-melanoma cocktail antibodies, and Masson melanin stain...
August 30, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806983/profiling-of-metalloprotease-activities-in-cerebrospinal-fluids-of-patients-with-neoplastic-meningitis
#10
Catharina Conrad, Kristina Dorzweiler, Miles A Miller, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Herwig Strik, Jörg W Bartsch
BACKGROUND: Neoplastic invasion into leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, resulting in neoplastic meningitis (NM) is a fatal complication of advanced solid and hematological neoplasms. Identification of malignant involvement of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) early in the disease course has crucial prognostic and therapeutic implications, but remains challenging. As indicators of extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and breakdown of the blood-brain-barrier, Matrix Metalloproteases (MMPs) and A Disintegrin and Metalloproteases (ADAMs) are potential analytes for cerebral pathophysiology and metastatic dissemination of tumor cells into the CSF...
August 14, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758039/primary-angiitis-of-the-center-nervous-system-a-clinical-challenge-diagnosed-postmortem
#11
Bayan Al Share, Ali Zakaria, Evan Hiner, Ziyad Iskenderian, Nader Warra
Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare vasculitis involving medium and small blood vessels of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges, without systemic involvement. The diffuse and patchy nature of its pathology is reflected by a wide spectrum of nonspecific clinical symptoms. Diagnosis is challenging due to lack of defined clinical criteria or specific imaging findings. Specific workup should be done only after exclusion of other etiologies, including infectious, neoplastic, toxic, and other vascular etiologies including systemic vasculitis...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720215/autoimmune-meningitis-and-encephalitis-in-adult-onset-still-disease-case-report
#12
Milena Bożek, Magdalena Konopko, Teresa Wierzba-Bobrowicz, Grzegorz Witkowski, Grzegorz Makowicz, Halina Sienkiewicz-Jarosz
INTRODUCTION: Adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) is a rare systemic inflammatory disease of unknown cause. Its symptoms usually include persistent fever, fugitive salmon-colored rash, arthritis, sore throat (not specific), but it may also lead to internal organs' involvement, which presents with enlargement of the liver and spleen, swollen lymph nodes, carditis or pleuritis - potentially life-threatening complications. In rare cases, AOSD can cause aseptic meningitis or/and encephalitis...
September 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643686/-pachymeningitis-associated-with-igg4-disease
#13
Dan Zimelewicz Oberman, Carolina Cuello Oderiz, Matteo Baccanelli, Silvia Christiansen, María Cristina Zurrú
Hypertrophic pachymeningitis is an infrequent disorder. It can be idiopathic or secondary to infectious, autoimmune or neoplastic disease. The recently described 〈IgG4-related disease〉 could be the origin of many cases considered cryptogenic. We present the case of a 60-year-old man, with a history of headache and episcleritis in both eyes, with partial response to corticoid therapy. The brain MR study with gadolinium showed enhancement and thickening of the dura mater, extending from lateral wall of left temporal and occipital lobes to ipsilateral tentorium...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557973/cerebrospinal-fluid-dissemination-and-neoplastic-meningitis-in-primary-brain-tumors
#14
Sajeel Chowdhary, Sherri Damlo, Marc C Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: Neoplastic meningitis, also known as leptomeningeal disease, affects the entire neuraxis. The clinical manifestations of the disease may affect the cranial nerves, cerebral hemispheres, or the spine. Because of the extent of disease involvement, treatment options and disease staging should involve all compartments of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and subarachnoid space. Few studies of patients with primary brain tumors have specifically addressed treatment for the secondary complication of neoplastic meningitis...
January 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379128/-associated-factors-with-the-presence-of-secondary-neoplastic-cells-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-suspected-carcinomatous-meningitis
#15
Fernando Warley, María Belén Binella, Diego Hernan Giunta, Cristina M Elizondo, Bruno Leonel Ferreyro, Lucia Caraballo
BACKGROUND: Improvement in oncologic therapy has increased survival in oncologic patients. There has been a concomitant increase in the incidence of secondary meningeal involvement. Early diagnosis is mandatory. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with the presence of secondary neoplastic cells in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with suspected carcinomatous meningitis (CM) Methods: Cross-sectional study involving adult patients with solid cancer diagnosis and suspected CM between 2004 and 2014 at Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires...
2017: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345737/-meningeal-carcinomatosis-in-breast-cancer-from-diagnosis-to-treatment
#16
REVIEW
C Elm'hadi, Z Es Sbai, M Reda Khmamouche, M Toreis, R Tanz, H Errihani, M Ichou
The appearance of meningeal carcinomatosis in breast cancer is an event that is being reported increasingly more frequently in the literature. It seems to be related with the lengthening of the patients' lives, improved sensitivity to diagnostic imaging and impermeability of the blood-brain barrier to the chemotherapeutic agents. It is an evolutionary form that affirms the metastatic invasion of the subarachnoidal space and is correlated with limited survival. Its diagnosis is difficult, due to the lack of specificity of the clinical signs dominated by headaches, cognitive disorders and possible signs and symptoms of progressive focal lesions...
April 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332472/primary-diffuse-leptomeningeal-gliomatosis-do-we-miss-the-diagnosis
#17
Sébastien Lepreux, Sharmilla Sagnier, Jean-Thomas Perez, François Léger, Igor Sibon, Anne Vital
Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis (PDLG) is characterized by diffuse infiltration of the leptomeningeal space by neoplastic glial cells without evidence of intra-parenchymatous primary tumor. We report a case of PDLG in a 68-year-old man, who died 1 month after onset of symptoms. The diagnosis was made on autopsy data. We discuss the particularities of this entity, which is not registered in the WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system (2016). In case of an unexplained inflammatory meningeal process and in the presence of atypical cells in the cerebrospinal fluid, PDLG needs to be considered...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242865/metronomic-capecitabine-effectively-blocks-leptomeningeal-carcinomatosis-from-breast-cancer-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Michela Maur, Claudia Omarini, Federico Piacentini, Annalisa Fontana, Elisa Pettorelli, Stefano Cascinu
BACKGROUND Meningeal carcinomatosis is a rare complication in breast cancer patients. At present, there are no defined guidelines for its management. The efficacy of systemic treatment seems to depend on its ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier and its interaction with tumor vasculature. Metronomic chemotherapy is a known modality of drug administration able to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. CASE REPORT We present a case of symptomatic leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from breast cancer successfully treated with capecitabine...
February 28, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178723/neoplastic-meningitis-one-of-the-last-frontiers-of-oncology
#19
Frank D Vrionis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178709/neoplastic-meningitis-due-to-lung-breast-and-melanoma-metastases
#20
REVIEW
Emilie Le Rhun, Sophie Taillibert, Marc C Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: Neoplastic meningitis, a central nervous system (CNS) complication of cancer metastatic to the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is relevant to oncologists due to the impact of the disease on patient quality of life and survival rates. METHODS: A review of the literature of articles published in English was conducted with regard to neoplastic meningitis. RESULTS: The incidence of neoplastic meningitis is increasing because patients with cancer are surviving longer in part because of the use of novel therapies with poor CNS penetration...
January 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
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