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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472891/a-review-of-traumatic-axonal-injury-following-whiplash-injury-as-demonstrated-by-diffusion-tensor-tractography
#1
REVIEW
Sung Ho Jang, Young Hyeon Kwon
Whiplash is a bony or soft tissue injury resulting from an acceleration-deceleration energy transfer in the neck. Although patients with whiplash injury often complain of cerebral symptoms, and previous studies have reported evidence indicating brain injury, such an association has not been clearly elucidated. Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is tearing of axons due to indirect shearing forces during acceleration, deceleration, and rotation of the brain or to direct head trauma. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has a unique advantage to detect TAI in patients whose conventional brain CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results were negative following head trauma...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471249/post-mortem-biochemistry-of-nse-and-s100b-a-supplemental-tool-for-detecting-a-lethal-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Monique Sieber, Jan Dreßler, Heike Franke, Dirk Pohlers, Benjamin Ondruschka
PURPOSE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a very common entity that leads to numerous fatalities all over the world. Therefore, forensic pathologists are in desperate need of supplemental methodological tools for the diagnosis of TBI in everyday practice besides the standard autopsy. The present study determined post-mortem neuron specific enolase (NSE) and S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) levels as biological markers of an underlying TBI in autopsy cases. METHODS: Paired serum and CSF samples of 92 fatalities were collected throughout routine autopsies...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468580/measurement-of-intracranial-pressure-in-freely-moving-rats
#3
Michael R Williamson, Roseleen F John, Frederick Colbourne
Brain injury, such as from stroke and trauma, can be complicated by elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). Although raised ICP can be a significant determinant of morbidity and mortality, clinical studies often report widely varying ICP measurements depending on location of measurement and technique used. For the same reasons, reported ICP measurements also vary widely in animal models. The need for anesthesia or tethered connections with some methods of ICP measurement in animals may introduce additional confounds...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462087/prognosis-of-diffuse-axonal-injury-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Stephen S Humble, Laura D Wilson, Li Wang, Drew A Long, Miya A Smith, Jonathan C Siktberg, Mina F Mirhoseini, Aashim Bhatia, Sumit Pruthi, Matthew A Day, Susanne Muehlschlegel, Mayur B Patel
BACKGROUND: Determine the prognostic impact of MRI-defined DAI after TBI on functional outcomes, quality of life, and 3-year mortality. METHODS: This retrospective single center cohort included adult trauma patients (age>17y) admitted from 2006-2012 with TBI. Inclusion criteria were positive head CT with brain MRI within 2 weeks of admission. Exclusion criteria included penetrating TBI or prior neurologic condition. Separate ordinal logistic models assessed DAI's prognostic value for following scores: 1)hospital-discharge Functional Independence Measure (FIM); 2)long-term Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE); and 3)long-term Quality of Life after Brain Injury-Overall Scale (QOLIBRI-OS)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461428/cervical-spine-imaging-and-injuries-in-young-children-with-non-motor-vehicle-crash-associated-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
M Katherine Henry, Benjamin French, Chris Feudtner, Mark R Zonfrillo, Daniel M Lindberg, James D Anderst, Rachel P Berger, Joanne N Wood
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) practices and cervical spine injuries among young children with non-motor vehicle crash (MVC)-associated traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of a stratified, systematic random sample of 328 children younger than 2 years with non-MVC-associated TBI at 4 urban children's hospitals from 2008 to 2012. We defined TBI etiology as accidental, indeterminate, or abuse...
February 15, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450484/neurological-manifestations-among-us-government-personnel-reporting-directional-audible-and-sensory-phenomena-in-havana-cuba
#6
Randel L Swanson, Stephen Hampton, Judith Green-McKenzie, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, M Sean Grady, Ragini Verma, Rosette Biester, Diana Duda, Ronald L Wolf, Douglas H Smith
Importance: From late 2016 through August 2017, US government personnel serving on diplomatic assignment in Havana, Cuba, reported neurological symptoms associated with exposure to auditory and sensory phenomena. Objective: To describe the neurological manifestations that followed exposure to an unknown energy source associated with auditory and sensory phenomena. Design, Setting, and Participants: Preliminary results from a retrospective case series of US government personnel in Havana, Cuba...
February 15, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446651/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-evaluation-of-olfactory-dysfunction-and-clinical-neurological-characteristics
#7
Andrea Ciofalo, Marco De Vincentiis, Giannicola Iannella, Giampietro Zambetti, Paola Giacomello, Giancarlo Altissimi, Antonio Greco, Massimo Fusconi, Benedetta Pasquariello, Giuseppe Magliulo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate olfactory function and clinical-neurological characteristics in a group of patients with mild head trauma. METHODS: A total of 352 patients with MTBI underwent olfactory function evaluation. The site of head trauma, loss of consciousness <20 min, memory loss, subjective presence or absence of olfaction and other clinical, neurological and radiological aspects were evaluated and compared with the olfactory dysfunction. RESULTS: A total of 33...
February 15, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444081/alpha-desynchronization-synchronization-during-working-memory-testing-is-compromised-in-acute-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-mtbi
#8
Xianghong Arakaki, Michael Shoga, Lianyang Li, George Zouridakis, Thao Tran, Alfred N Fonteh, Jessica Dawlaty, Robert Goldweber, Janice M Pogoda, Michael G Harrington
Diagnosing and monitoring recovery of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is challenging because of the lack of objective, quantitative measures. Diagnosis is based on description of injuries often not witnessed, subtle neurocognitive symptoms, and neuropsychological testing. Since working memory (WM) is at the center of cognitive functions impaired in mTBI, this study was designed to define objective quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) measures of WM processing that may correlate with cognitive changes associated with acute mTBI...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438791/necessity-of-repeat-ct-imaging-in-isolated-mild-traumatic-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#9
Ashwath Kumar, Anthony Alvarado, Kushal Shah, Paul M Arnold
BACKGROUND: The standard of care for isolated mild traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (itSAH) involves serial head CT examinations at dedicated time-intervals to monitor neurologic status and hemorrhagic progression. Considering recent evidence questioning such an aggressive monitoring protocol, this study aimed to assess the necessity of repeat head CT imaging in managing itSAH. METHODS: All patients who presented to our academic institution with mild traumatic brain injury were evaluated...
February 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417081/pharmacokinetic-behavior-of-phenytoin-in-head-trauma-and-cerebrovascular-accident-patients-in-an-iranian-population
#10
Shahnaz Alimardani, Sima Sadrai, Hamidreza Taghvaye Masoumi, Pooneh Salari, Atabak Najafi, Behzad Eftekhar, Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh
Objective: Acute brain injury is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Phenytoin has been commonly used as an anticonvulsant agent for the treatment or prophylaxis of seizures following acute brain injury. After a severe head injury, several pharmacokinetic changes occur. The aim of this study is the comparative evaluation of phenytoin serum concentration in patients with traumatic and nontraumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: This prospective observational study was performed on twenty adult brain injury patients who were admitted to an Intensive Care Unit and required phenytoin for the treatment or prophylaxis of postinjury seizures...
October 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414471/assessing-women-s-lacrosse-head-impacts-using-finite-element-modelling
#11
J Michio Clark, T Blaine Hoshizaki, Michael D Gilchrist
Recently studies have assessed the ability of helmets to reduce peak linear and rotational acceleration for women's lacrosse head impacts. However, such measures have had low correlation with injury. Maximum principal strain interprets loading curves which provide better injury prediction than peak linear and rotational acceleration, especially in compliant situations which create low magnitude accelerations but long impact durations. The purpose of this study was to assess head and helmet impacts in women's lacrosse using finite element modelling...
January 26, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405787/the-incidence-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-tehran-iran
#12
Ahadi Reza, Esmail Riahi, Abdolhadi Daneshi, Ehsan Golchini
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To assess the demographics, causes, treatment and outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Tehran, Iran. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in a major trauma centre in south of Tehran using clinical data registry of 3818 traumatic patients who admitted to the hospital from 2009 to 2013. The main factors measured were the external cause of trauma, the type of TBI, and treatment outcome. MAIN OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: The highest rate of TBIs occurred in age categories 21‒30 (31...
February 6, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390491/absent-mindedness-and-injury-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-a-patient-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#13
Sung Ho Jang, Jeong Pyo Seo
RATIONALE: No study on the association of absent-mindedness and injury of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) has been reported. We report on a patient who showed absent-mindedness and injury of the ARAS following mild traumatic brain injury. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient complained of absent-mindedness since the head trauma, which was mainly observed while dining for several (5-10) minutes approximately 3 to 4 times a day: according to the patient's family, he usually stopped eating while holding the spoon in the air for approximately 5∼10 minutes...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390470/delayed-degeneration-of-the-left-fornical-crus-with-verbal-memory-impairment-in-a-patient-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#14
Sung Ho Jang, Jeong Pyo Seo
RATIONALE: We report on a patient who showed delayed degeneration of the left fornical crus with verbal memory impairment following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). PATIENT CONCERNS:: fter flexion and hyperextension of her head to the opposite side, the patient experienced a dazed feeling for a while at the time of head trauma. The patient's Glasgow Coma Scale score was 15, and mini-mental state examination score was 30...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390458/recovery-of-injured-broca-s-portion-of-arcuate-fasciculus-in-the-dominant-hemisphere-in-a-patient-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Sung Ho Jang, Ji Wan Ha, Hyun Young Kim, You Sung Seo
RATIONALE: Recovery of injured AF in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been reported. In this study, we report on a patient with TBI who recovered from an injury to Broca's portion of AF in the dominant hemisphere, diagnosed by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 28-year-old right-handed male patient suffered head trauma resulting from sliding while riding a motorcycle. DIAGNOSES: He was diagnosed with a traumatic contusional hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and subdural hemorrhage in the left fronto-temporal lobe...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390431/limb-kinetic-apraxia-in-a-patient-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#16
Sung Ho Jang, Jeong Pyo Seo
RATIONALE: We report on a patient who developed limb-kinetic apraxia (LKA) due to an injured corticofugal tract (CFT) from the secondary motor area following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), demonstrated on diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). PATIENT CONCERNS: She was struck in the right leg by a sedan at a crosswalk and fell to the ground. She lost consciousness and experienced post-traumatic amnesia for approximately ten minutes. She was obliged to wear a cast for a left humerus fracture for two months, and she found she could not move her left hand quickly with intention after removal of the cast; consequently her left hand was almost non-functional...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387960/nonoperative-management-of-blunt-splenic-trauma-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury-feasibility-and-outcomes
#17
Navpreet K Dhillon, Galinos Barmparas, Gretchen M Thomsen, Kavita A Patel, Nikhil T Linaval, Emma Gillette, Daniel R Margulies, Eric J Ley
INTRODUCTION: Preventing secondary insult to the brain is imperative following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although TBI does not preclude nonoperative management (NOM) of splenic injuries, development of hypotension in this setting may be detrimental and could therefore lead trauma surgeons to a lower threshold for operative intervention and a potentially higher risk of failure of NOM (FNOM). We hypothesized that the presence of a TBI in patients with blunt splenic injury would lead to a higher risk of FNOM...
January 31, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369261/screening-of-pediatric-facial-fractures-by-brain-computed-tomography-diagnostic-performance-comparison-with-facial-computed-tomography
#18
JongChan Ryu, Seong Jong Yun, Sun Hwa Lee, Yoon Hee Choi
OBJECTIVES: Facial bone fractures secondary to head trauma are more common in children than in adults. Recently, multidetector row computed tomography (CT) has been considered superior to conventional radiography. Some studies have reported that facial soft tissue injuries require both facial and brain CT and that brain CT is helpful in screening facial bone fractures. However, these studies included only adult patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of brain CT and the need for additional facial CT to detect facial bone fractures in emergency pediatrics...
January 23, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368186/protection-before-impact-the-potential-neuroprotective-role-of-nutritional-supplementation-in-sports-related-head-trauma
#19
REVIEW
Jonathan M Oliver, Anthony J Anzalone, Stephanie M Turner
Even in the presence of underreporting, sports-related concussions/mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) are on the rise. In the absence of proper diagnosis, an athlete may return to play prior to full recovery, increasing the risk of second-impact syndrome or protracted symptoms. Recent evidence has demonstrated that sub-concussive impacts, those sustained routinely in practice and competition, result in a quantifiable pathophysiological response and the accumulation of both concussive and sub-concussive impacts sustained over a lifetime of sports participation may lead to long-term neurological impairments and an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases...
January 24, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354334/traumatic-pseudoaneurysm-of-the-distal-anterior-cerebral-artery-following-penetrating-brain-injury-caused-by-a-crossbow-bolt-a-case-report
#20
Daiichiro Ishigami, Takahiro Ota
Traumatic intracranial aneurysms are one possible complication after penetrating brain injury. A 25-year-old man with a history of major depression presented with a crossbow bolt penetrating the head. On arrival, Glasgow Coma Scale score was E4V5M6, with no apparent neurological deficit. Computed tomography (CT) of the head showed the crossbow bolt passing near the corpus callosum, with surrounding contusion. Three-dimensional rotational angiography showed no anterior cerebral artery injuries. The crossbow bolt was removed after bifrontal craniotomy, with no postoperative infection...
January 2018: NMC Case Report Journal
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