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head trauma, brain injury,

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923754/successful-coil-embolization-of-pediatric-carotid-cavernous-fistula-due-to-ruptured-post-traumatic-giant-internal-carotid-artery-aneurysm
#1
Daisuke Wajima, Ichiro Nakagawa, Hun Soo Park, Shohei Yokoyama, Takeshi Wada, Kimihiko Kichikawa, Hiroyuki Nakase
BACKGROUND: The goal of the treatment of direct carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is to occlude the arteriovenous shunt and to preserve the patency of the concerned internal carotid artery (ICA). However, for the ipsilateral post-traumatic fragile cerebrum, coil embolization plus parent artery occlusion for the high flow direct CCF would be better for the prevention of hyper-perfusion syndrome and the intracranial hemorrhage. We experienced such a case and managed it successfully. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 6-year-old boy was suffered from severe head trauma caused by being hit by a car...
December 3, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914661/statin-discontinuation-and-mortality-in-an-older-adult-population-with-traumatic-brain-injury-a-four-year-multi-centre-observational-cohort-study
#2
Alessandro Orlando, Christine Thomas, Matthew Carrick, D Sue Slone, Charles W Mains, David Bar-Or
INTRODUCTION: Statin discontinuation has been investigated in a wide range of diseases and injuries, but there is a paucity of data in the older adult population with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of this study was to re-examine the extent to which early discontinuation of pre-injury statin (PIS) therapy increases the risk of poor patient outcomes in older adult patients suffering a TBI. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational cohort study of adult trauma patients with a blunt TBI across three trauma centres over four years...
November 25, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908782/adaptive-responses-of-neuronal-mitochondria-to-bioenergetic-challenges-roles-in-neuroplasticity-and-disease-resistance
#3
REVIEW
Sophia M Raefsky, Mark P Mattson
An important concept in neurobiology is "neurons that fire together, wire together" which means that the formation and maintenance of synapses is promoted by activation of those synapses. Very similar to the effects of the stress of exercise on muscle cells, emerging findings suggest that neurons respond to activity by activating signaling pathways (e.g., Ca(2+), CREB, PGC-1α, NF-κB) that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular stress resistance. These pathways are also activated by aerobic exercise and food deprivation, two bioenergetic challenges of fundamental importance in the evolution of the brains of all mammals, including humans...
November 29, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904004/delayed-diagnosis-of-blunt-carotid-trauma-in-a-seat-belt-syndrome-with-associated-abdominal-wall-injury-a-case-report
#4
Savino Occhionorelli, Dario Andreotti, Daniela Tartarini, Lorenzo Cappellari, Rocco Stano, Lucia Morganti, Giorgio Vasquez
: The aim of this case report is to be aware of occult carotid lesions in thoracic- abdominal trauma because, carotid artery injury consequent to blunt trauma is rare, affecting less than 1% of patients as reported in literature. A 45-years-old female, involved in a traffic accident, arrived to Emergency Room hemodynamically stable, with a Glasgow Coma Scale of 15, complaining abdominal pain, without any neurological signs. She underwent Computed Tomography (CT) scan that showed a complete disruption of left abdominal wall muscles, associated with massive bowel loops herniation...
November 28, 2016: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899434/development-of-cgrp-dependent-pain-and-headache-related-behaviours-in-a-rat-model-of-concussion-implications-for-mechanisms-of-post-traumatic-headache
#5
Dara Bree, Dan Levy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic headache (PTH) is one of the most common, debilitating and difficult symptoms to manage after a mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion. However, the mechanisms underlying PTH remain elusive, in part due to the lack of a clinically relevant animal model. Here, we characterized for the first time, headache and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of concussion evoked by a mild closed head injury (mCHI) - the major type of military and civilian related trauma associated with PTH - and tested responses to current and novel headache therapies...
November 29, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894562/todd-s-paresis-in-acute-mild-head-trauma
#6
Alan Cowley, David Wright, Thomas Breen, Richard Lyon
We present the case of an adult male who sustained Todd's paresis after a traumatically induced seizure in a patient with an isolated facial injury. The precipitating event was head trauma from a golf club. The patient had no previous history of seizures and went on to make a complete neurologic recovery with no cerebral pathology noted. A literature review suggests that Todd's paresis after trauma is very rare as opposed to occurring in the medical or long-term brain injury settings. Although the authors acknowledge that it may occur in trauma, the awareness within the prehospital setting is sufficiently rare for this case report to be of interest to prehospital clinicians; it is important prehospital clinicians are aware of this condition...
November 2016: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889010/neuropsychiatric-aspects-of-concussion
#7
REVIEW
Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Amir Garakani, Lawrence S Gross, Marcia K Goin, Janet Pine, Andrew E Slaby, Calvin R Sumner, David A Baron
Over the past decade, concussion has become the most widely discussed injury in contact sports. However, concussions also occur in several other settings, such as non-contact sports, elderly individuals, young children, military personnel, and victims of domestic violence. Concussion is frequently undiagnosed as a cause of psychiatric morbidity, especially when the patient has no history of loss of consciousness or direct head trauma. Almost all of the extant literature focuses on traumatic brain injury and assumes that concussion is merely a mild form of traumatic brain injury, which has resulted in a lack of understanding about what concussion is, and how to diagnose, monitor, and treat its varied neuropsychiatric symptoms...
December 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885947/quickbrain-mri-for-the-detection-of-acute-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
David C Sheridan, Craig D Newgard, Nathan R Selden, Mubeen A Jafri, Matthew L Hansen
OBJECTIVE The current gold-standard imaging modality for pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is CT, but it confers risks associated with ionizing radiation. QuickBrain MRI (qbMRI) is a rapid brain MRI protocol that has been studied in the setting of hydrocephalus, but its ability to detect traumatic injuries is unknown. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients with TBI who were undergoing evaluation at a single Level I trauma center between February 2010 and December 2013...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862642/external-validation-of-the-pecarn-head-trauma-prediction-rules-in-japan
#9
Kentaro Ide, Satoko Uematsu, Kenichi Tetsuhara, Satoshi Yoshimura, Takahiro Kato, Tohru Kobayashi
OBJECTIVES: The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) head trauma prediction rules are used to assist computed tomography (CT) decision-making for children with minor head trauma. Although the PECARN rules have been validated in North America and Europe, they have not yet been validated in Asia. In Japan, there are no clinical decision rules for children with minor head trauma. The rate of head CT for children with minor head trauma in Japan is high since CT is widely accessible across the country...
November 12, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853132/traumatic-brain-injuries
#10
Kaj Blennow, David L Brody, Patrick M Kochanek, Harvey Levin, Ann McKee, Gerard M Ribbers, Kristine Yaffe, Henrik Zetterberg
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are clinically grouped by severity: mild, moderate and severe. Mild TBI (the least severe form) is synonymous with concussion and is typically caused by blunt non-penetrating head trauma. The trauma causes stretching and tearing of axons, which leads to diffuse axonal injury - the best-studied pathogenetic mechanism of this disorder. However, mild TBI is defined on clinical grounds and no well-validated imaging or fluid biomarkers to determine the presence of neuronal damage in patients with mild TBI is available...
November 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836434/overuse-of-head-ct-examinations-for-the-investigation-of-minor-head-trauma-analysis-of-contributing-factors
#11
Eyal Klang, Arkadi Beytelman, Dan Greenberg, Jacob Or, Larisa Guranda, Eli Konen, Eyal Zimlichman
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of CT studies performed in the emergency department of a tertiary hospital that are not indicated by Canadian CT Head Rule (CCHR) guidelines and to analyze factors that contribute to unnecessary examinations. METHODS: A total of 955 brain CT examinations performed for minor head injuries were randomly retrospectively selected. Medical records were assessed for the following parameters: demographics, cause of head trauma, and referring physician's seniority and specialty...
November 8, 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822741/isolated-brain-trauma-in-cats-triggers-rapid-onset-of-hypovolemia
#12
Peter Bentzer, Per-Olof Grände
BACKGROUND: Hemodynamic instability responsive to fluid resuscitation is common after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), also in the absence of systemic hemorrhage. The present study tests if an isolated severe TBI induces a decrease in plasma volume (PV). METHODS: The study was performed in three groups of anesthetized and tracheostomized male cats (n = 21). In one group (n = 8), the cats were prepared with a cranial borehole (10 mm i.d) used to expose the brain to a fluid percussion brain injury (FPI) (1...
November 7, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818218/role-of-microglia-in-a-mouse-model-of-paediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Vibol Chhor, Raffaella Moretti, Tifenn Le Charpentier, Stephanie Sigaut, Sophie Lebon, Leslie Schwendimann, Marie-Virginie Oré, Chiara Zuiani, Valentina Milan, Julien Josserand, Regina Vontell, Julien Pansiot, Vincent Degos, Chrysanthy Ikonomidou, Luigi Titomanlio, Henrik Hagberg, Pierre Gressens, Bobbi Fleiss
The cognitive and behavioural deficits caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) to the immature brain are more severe and persistent than TBI in the mature brain. Understanding this developmental sensitivity is critical as children under four years of age sustain TBI more frequently than any other age group. Microglia (MG), resident immune cells of the brain that mediate neuroinflammation, are activated following TBI in the immature brain. However, the type and temporal profile of this activation and the consequences of altering it are still largely unknown...
November 4, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817882/does-early-beta-blockade-in-isolated-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-reduce-the-risk-of-post-traumatic-depression
#14
Rebecka Ahl, Gabriel Sjolin, Shahin Mohseni
INTRODUCTION: Depressive symptoms occur in approximately half of trauma patients, negatively impacting on functional outcome and quality of life following severe head injury. Pontine noradrenaline has been shown to increase upon trauma and associated β-adrenergic receptor activation appears to consolidate memory formation of traumatic events. Blocking adrenergic activity reduces physiological stress responses during recall of traumatic memories and impairs memory, implying a potential therapeutic role of β-blockers...
October 31, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815240/persistent-effects-of-playing-football-and-associated-subconcussive-head-trauma-on-brain-structure-and-function-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
A A Tarnutzer, D Straumann, P Brugger, N Feddermann-Demont
AIM/OBJECTIVE: There is ongoing controversy about persistent neurological deficits in active and former football (soccer) players. We reviewed the literature for associations between football activities (including heading/head injuries) and decline in brain structure/function. DESIGN: Systematic literature review. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane-CRCT, SportDiscus, Cochrane-DSR=4 (accessed 2 August 2016). ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Original studies reporting on football-related persistent effects on brain structure/function...
November 4, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806518/a-comprehensive-analysis-of-dispatching-of-traumatic-brain-injuries-in-the-fifth-period-at-the-rajaie-hospital-in-ghachsaran
#16
Abouzar Alidadi, Rooholah Zaboli, Razzagh Abedi, Mohammad Reza Soltanizarandi
INTRODUCTION: Increasing car accidents in young group and head-stroke mechanisms in developing countryis are the main cause of brain lesions and injuries related to trauma, so that traumatic severe brain lesions and injuries and uncontrollable hemorrhage are the major cause of mortality and morbidity due to trauma. Statistical analysis and factors along with main injuries can give us useful information in the field of injury management, patient dispatching management, proper scheduling, and patients dispatching to appropriate centers...
July 25, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806488/in-hospital-outcome-based-on-the-mode-of-ems-transportation-in-a-high-income-rapidly-developing-middle-eastern-country
#17
Hassan Al-Thani, Ayman El-Menyar, Yugan Pillay, Monira Mollazehi, Ahammed Mekkodathil, Rafael Consunji
BACKGROUND: Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) are considered as a standard component of advanced pre-hospital emergency care system. We assessed the clinical presentation and outcomes of trauma patients transported by HEMS versus ground emergency medical services (GEMS). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected trauma registry data at a level I trauma center was conducted for patients transported by GEMS and HEMS between 2011 and 2013...
July 6, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805998/big-children-or-little-adults-a-statewide-analysis-of-adolescent-isolated-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-outcomes-at-pediatric-versus-adult-trauma-centers
#18
Brian W Gross, Mathew M Edavettal, Alan D Cook, Cole D Rinehart, Caitlin A Lynch, Eric H Bradburn, Daniel Wu
BACKGROUND: The appropriate managing center for adolescent trauma patients is debated. We sought to determine whether outcome differences existed for adolescent severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) patients treated at pediatric versus adult trauma centers. We hypothesized that no difference in mortality, functional status at discharge (FSD) or overall complication rate would be observed between center types. METHODS: All adolescent trauma patients (aged 15-17 years) presenting with isolated sTBI (head Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score ≥3; all other AIS body region scores ≤2) to accredited level I-II trauma centers in Pennsylvania from 2003-2015 were extracted from the Pennsylvania Trauma Outcome Study database...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805992/volumetric-analysis-of-day-of-injury-computed-tomography-is-associated-with-rehabilitation-outcomes-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Sarah Majercik, Joseph Bledsoe, David Ryser, Ramona O Hopkins, Joseph E Fair, R Brock Frost, Joel MacDonald, Ryan Barrett, Susan Horn, David Pisani, Erin D Bigler, Scott Gardner, Mark Stevens, Michael J Larson
INTRODUCTION: Day-of-injury (DOI) brain lesion volumes in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients are rarely used to predict long-term outcomes in the acute setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between acute brain injury lesion volume and rehabilitation outcomes in patients with TBI at a Level One Trauma Center. METHODS: Patients with TBI who were admitted to our rehabilitation unit after the acute care trauma service from February 2009-July 2011 were eligible for the study...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800540/validation-of-crash-model-in-prediction-of-14-day-mortality-and-6-month-unfavorable-outcome-of-head-trauma-patients
#20
Behrooz Hashemi, Mahnaz Amanat, Alireza Baratloo, Mohammad Mehdi Forouzanfar, Farhad Rahmati, Maryam Motamedi, Saeed Safari
INTRODUCTION: To date, many prognostic models have been proposed to predict the outcome of patients with traumatic brain injuries. External validation of these models in different populations is of great importance for their generalization. The present study was designed, aiming to determine the value of CRASH prognostic model in prediction of 14-day mortality (14-DM) and 6-month unfavorable outcome (6-MUO) of patients with traumatic brain injury. METHODS: In the present prospective diagnostic test study, calibration and discrimination of CRASH model were evaluated in head trauma patients referred to the emergency department...
November 2016: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
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