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Antibiotics prophylaxis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525497/enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-for-suspected-ovarian-malignancy-a-survey-of-perioperative-practice-among-gynecologic-oncologists-in-australia-and-new-zealand-to-inform-a-clinical-trial
#1
Kristina Lindemann, Peey-Sei Kok, Martin Stockler, Peter Sykes, Alison Brand
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this survey was to review the current standard of perioperative care of patients with suspected advanced ovarian cancer in Australia and New Zealand in order to determine the level of equipoise for specific interventions. METHODS: In May 2016, a web-based questionnaire (SurveyMonkey Inc, Palo Alto, CA) was sent to all gynecologic oncologists in Australia and New Zealand (n = 56). Descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS: Response rate was 75%...
June 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522817/lactobacillus-johnsonii-ameliorates-intestinal-extra-intestinal-and-systemic-pro-inflammatory-immune-responses-following-murine-campylobacter-jejuni-infection
#2
Stefan Bereswill, Ira Ekmekciu, Ulrike Escher, Ulrike Fiebiger, Kerstin Stingl, Markus M Heimesaat
Campylobacter jejuni infections are progressively increasing worldwide. Probiotic treatment might open novel therapeutic or even prophylactic approaches to combat campylobacteriosis. In the present study secondary abiotic mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and perorally reassociated with a commensal murine Lactobacillus johnsonii strain either 14 days before (i.e. prophylactic regimen) or 7 days after (i.e. therapeutic regimen) peroral C. jejuni strain 81-176 infection. Following peroral reassociation both C...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521004/guidelines-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-travelers-diarrhea-a-graded-expert-panel-report
#3
Mark S Riddle, Bradley A Connor, Nicholas J Beeching, Herbert L DuPont, Davidson H Hamer, Phyllis Kozarsky, Michael Libman, Robert Steffen, David Taylor, David R Tribble, Jordi Vila, Philipp Zanger, Charles D Ericsson
Background: : Travelers' diarrhea causes significant morbidity including some sequelae, lost travel time and opportunity cost to both travelers and countries receiving travelers. Effective prevention and treatment are needed to reduce these negative impacts. Methods: : This critical appraisal of the literature and expert consensus guideline development effort asked several key questions related to antibiotic and non-antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment, utility of available diagnostics, impact of multi-drug resistant (MDR) colonization associated with travel and travelers' diarrhea, and how our understanding of the gastrointestinal microbiome should influence current practice and future research...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520998/medications-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-travellers-diarrhea
#4
David N Taylor, Davidson H Hamer, David R Shlim
Background: . Travellers' diarrhea (TD) remains one of the most common illnesses encountered by travellers to less developed areas of the world. Because bacterial pathogens such as enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E. coli , Campylobacter spp. and Shigella spp. are the most frequent causes, antibiotics have been useful in both prevention and treatment of TD. Methods.: Results of trials that assessed the use of medications for the prevention and treatment of TD were identified through PubMed and MEDLINE searches using search terms 'travellers' diarrhea', 'prevention' and 'treatment'...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520596/fungal-keratitis-associated-with-airborne-organic-debris-and-soft-contacts-lenses-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Michael J Hodkin, Ryan C Gustus
OBJECTIVES: To report two cases of fungal keratitis in soft contact lens wearers who were exposed to environmental mold. METHODS: Case reports, with review of the relevant literature. RESULTS: Two otherwise healthy middle-aged women who were soft contact lens wearers developed fungal keratitis about 1 week after heavy exposure to environmental mold. Culture results showed Aspergillus from one patient and the unusual combination of Trichoderma and Penicillium from the other...
May 16, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516809/real-time-mri-guided-percutaneous-sclerotherapy-treatment-of-venous-low-flow-malformations-in-the-head-and-neck
#6
Sasan Partovi, Ziang Lu, Lorenna Vidal, Dean A Nakamoto, Ji Buethe, Michael Coffey, Indravadan J Patel
Purpose This manuscript describes the technique of real-time MRI-guided sclerotherapy for low-flow venous malformations in the head and neck based on our institutional experience. Materials and methods Ethanolamine oleate is used as the sclerosant and is mixed with gadolinium for visualization during the procedure. The five procedural steps include: (I) an initial tri-plane T2-weighted sequence to visualize the lesion; (II) a T1 FSE or trueFISP sequence to assess needle placement and advancement within the lesion; (III) a tri-plane T1 FLASH sequence to monitor sclerosant injection; (IV) a T1 FSE or VIBE sequence to assess sclerosant coverage of the malformation before needle removal; (V) a post-procedural tri-plane T1 fat-saturated sequence to confirm sclerosant coverage of the lesion...
January 1, 2017: Phlebology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514703/bacterial-infections-and-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-liver-cirrhosis-prophylaxis-and-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Damian Piotrowski, Anna Boroń-Kaczmarska
Infections are common among patients with liver cirrhosis. They occur more often in cirrhotic patient groups than in the general population and result in higher mortality. One reason for this phenomenon is bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen that occurs as a consequence of intestinal bacterial overgrowth, increased permeability and decreased motility. The most common infections in cirrhotic patients are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and urinary tract infections, followed by pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections...
May 14, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504863/diagnostic-accuracy-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-intrapartum-detection-of-group-b-streptococcus-colonization
#8
Rikke Bek Helmig, Jan Berg Gertsen
Many pregnant women are treated with antibiotics during labor to prevent transmission of group B Streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) to their baby during the passage of the birth canal, and thus reducing the risk of serious infection of the newborn. Methods for intrapartum testing for GBS has been introduced to select women for whom intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis should be offered. For such an intrapartum test to be useful in clinical practice, it has to be specific as well as sensitive. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the accuracy of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay compared to an optimized culture method for GBS MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period from 12...
May 15, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501000/combination-of-a-biodegradable-three-dimensional-3d-printed-cage-for-mechanical-support-and-nanofibrous-membranes-for-sustainable-release-of-antimicrobial-agents-for-treating-the-femoral-metaphyseal-comminuted-fracture
#9
Ying-Chao Chou, Demei Lee, Tzu-Min Chang, Yung-Heng Hsu, Yi-Hsun Yu, Err-Cheng Chan, Shih-Jung Liu
The aim of this study was to develop a biodegradable three-dimensional-printed polylactide (PLA) cage for promoting bony fixation and an antibiotics-embedded poly(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanofibrous membrane for infectious prophylaxis during treating the comminuted metaphyseal fracture in a rabbit femoral model. The in vitro studies included measuring the mechanical properties of the 3D printed cage and determining release activities of vancomycin and ceftazidime from the nanofibers. The in vivo study included comparisons of rabbits of the femoral metaphyseal comminuted fracture treated with or without the combined biodegradable polymers...
May 2, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492106/higher-risk-of-revision-for-infection-using-systemic-clindamycin-prophylaxis-than-with-cloxacillin
#10
Otto Robertsson, Olof Thompson, Annette W-Dahl, Martin Sundberg, Lars Lidgren, Anna Stefánsdóttir
Background and purpose - Clindamycin has not been compared with other antibiotics for prophylaxis in arthroplasty. Since 2009, the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register (SKAR) has been collecting information on the prophylactic antibiotic regime used at every individual operation. In Sweden, when there is allergy to penicillin, clindamycin has been the recommended alternative. We examined whether there were differences in the rate of revision due to infection depending on which antibiotic was used as systemic prophylaxis...
May 11, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488041/malunion-of-long-bone-fractures-in-a-conflict-zone-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#11
Grace Bauhahn, Harald Veen, Rigo Hoencamp, Nelson Olim, Edward C T H Tan
INTRODUCTION: Malunion is a well-recognized complication of long-bone fractures which accounts for more than 25% of injuries in conflict zones. The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of malunion sustained by casualties with penetrating gunshot wounds in an International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) surgical substitution project in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and compare these results with current literature. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed...
May 9, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486938/barriers-and-facilitators-related-to-the-uptake-of-four-strategies-to-prevent-neonatal-early-onset-group-b-haemolytic-streptococcus-disease-a-qualitative-study
#12
Diny G E Kolkman, Margot A H Fleuren, Maurice G A J Wouters, Christianne J M de Groot, Marlies E B Rijnders
BACKGROUND: Actions to prevent early onset disease in neonates are based on different strategies including administering antibiotic prophylaxis during labour in case of 1) maternal GBS colonisation (screening strategy), 2) identified risk factors (risk-based strategy) or 3) a combination of these two conditions (maternal GBS colonisation and identified risk factors: combination strategy and the Dutch guideline). Low adherence to guidelines preventing EOGBS has been reported. Each strategy has drawbacks and clinical outcomes are affected by care providers' and women's adherence...
May 9, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484678/reduced-surgical-site-infection-rates-following-spine-surgery-using-an-enhanced-prophylaxis-protocol
#13
Alexa M Dessy, Frank J Yuk, Akbar Y Maniya, James G Connolly, John T Nathanson, Jonathan J Rasouli, Tanvir F Choudhri
BACKGROUND: Postoperative surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication after spine surgery. Reduction of SSI has many benefits including, but not limited to, the reduced length of stay, readmission rates, and morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an enhanced antibiotic prophylaxis reduced the rate of surgical site infections in spine surgery. METHODS: This is a retrospective observation study which analyzed the incidence of postoperative SSI following a consecutive series of 1,486 cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine operations performed at a single institution by the senior author between the dates of October 2001 to March 2014...
April 6, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484512/developing-new-pharmacotherapeutic-approaches-to-treating-sickle-cell-disease
#14
Marilyn J Telen
Survival for patients with SCD has been prolonged by improvements in supportive care, including vaccinations, antibiotic prophylaxis, and overall medical management, including tra nsfusion. However, there remains only one approved, partially effective drug for sickle cell disease-hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide). The world desperately needs better ways of both treating and preventing the recurrent painful vaso-occlusive episodes pathognomonic of sickle cell disease as well as the end-organ damage that still leads inexorably to severely shortened life expectancies throughout the world...
February 2017: ISBT Science Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483725/opportunities-for-system-level-improvement-across-antibiotic-use-in-the-surgical-pathway
#15
E Charani, R Ahmad, C Tarrant, G Birgand, A Leather, M Mendelson, S R Moonesinghe, N Sevdalis, S Singh, A Holmes
Optimizing antibiotic prescribing across the surgical pathway (before, during, and after surgery) is a key aspect of tackling important drivers of antimicrobial resistance and simultaneously decreasing the burden of infection at the global level. In the UK alone, 10 million patients undergo surgery every year, which is equivalent to 60% of the annual hospital admissions having a surgical intervention. The overwhelming majority of surgical procedures require effectively limited delivery of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infections...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481857/the-evolution-of-pelvic-exenteration-practice-at-a-single-center-lessons-learned-from-over-500-cases
#16
Cherry E Koh, Michael J Solomon, Kilian G Brown, Kirk Austin, Christopher M Byrne, Peter Lee, Jane M Young
Considerable progress has been made in the management of patients with locally advanced or recurrent cancers of the pelvis over the past 60 years since the inception of pelvic exenteration. Early progress in pelvic exenteration was marred by the high surgical mortality and morbidity, which drew scepticism from the broader surgical community. Subsequent evolution in the procedure hinged on establishing surgical safety and a better understanding of outcome predictors. Surgical mortality from pelvic exenteration is now comparable to that of elective resection for primary colorectal cancers...
June 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480660/antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-radical-prostatectomy-comparison-of-2-day-and-more-than-2-day-prophylaxis
#17
Bosung Shin, Ho Seok Chung, Eu Chang Hwang, Seung Il Jung, Dong Deuk Kwon
The efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in radical prostatectomy (RP) remains to be established. We retrospectively compared the occurrence of perioperative infections after RP between the 2 different antibiotic protocols. This study involved 428 cases of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP). After excluding patients who had no perioperative urine culture data, 313 consecutive patients who underwent LRP for prostate carcinoma were classified into 2 groups according to the duration of antimicrobial prophylaxis...
June 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480258/infection-related-hospital-admissions-after-prostate-biopsy-in-united-states-men
#18
Richard Evans, Aram Loeb, Keith S Kaye, Michael L Cher, Emily T Martin
Antibiotic prophylaxis during prostate biopsy is widespread; however, rates of postbiopsy infections have been rising. In an analysis of insurance claims data for 515045 prostate biopsies, 1.55% were hospitalized with infectious complications, with a mean total payment $14498.96. Infection was the second most common reason for 30-day hospital readmission.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478906/-ecology-and-fluoroquinolon-resistance-profiles-in-febrile-urinary-tract-infections-futi-after-prostate-needle-biopsy-a-retrospective-study-in-466-biopsies
#19
H Duboureau, K Achkar, R Stephan, J L Schmit, F Saint
OBJECTIVE: The biopsies of prostate are the reference examination to assert the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Even if the urinary infectious complications are rare thanks to the systematic oral antibiotic prophylaxis, they may still be serious. The SPILF (Society of Infectious Pathology and French language) published in 2014, an important increase of the resistances in fluoroquinolones for Escherichia coli (3 to 25%), whereas this is the most bacterium frequently found in the urinary infections (70-80%)...
May 3, 2017: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477320/controversies-regarding-management-of-vesico-ureteric-reflux
#20
Ramesh Babu, Sujit Chowdhary
The primary goal in the management of a child with urinary tract infection (UTI) is to prevent recurrence of UTI and acquired renal damage. Approximately 15% of children develop renal scarring after a first episode of febrile UTI. Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) is diagnosed in 30-40% of children imaged after first febrile UTI. The 'top-down' approach involving ultrasound and dimercaptosuccinic acid scan (DMSA) first after an appropriate interval following UTI, can help in avoiding voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), an invasive test with higher radiation exposure...
May 6, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
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