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Antibiotics prophylaxis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914764/enhanced-recovery-pathway-in-patients-undergoing-distal-pancreatectomy-a-case-matched-study
#1
Nicolò Pecorelli, Giovanni Capretti, Gianpaolo Balzano, Renato Castoldi, Marianna Maspero, Luigi Beretta, Marco Braga
BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery (ER) pathways have improved outcomes across multiple surgical specialties, but reports concerning their application in distal pancreatectomy (DP) are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess compliance with an ER protocol and its impact on short-term outcomes in patients undergoing DP. METHODS: Prospectively collected data were reviewed. One hundred consecutive patients undergoing DP were treated within an ER pathway comprising 18 care elements...
November 30, 2016: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912796/staphylococcal-species-heterogeneity-in-the-nasal-microbiome-following-antibiotic-prophylaxis-revealed-by-tuf-gene-deep-sequencing
#2
Claire L McMurray, Katherine J Hardy, Szymon T Calus, Nicholas J Loman, Peter M Hawkey
BACKGROUND: Staphylococci are a major constituent of the nasal microbiome and a frequent cause of hospital-acquired infection. Antibiotic surgical prophylaxis is administered prior to surgery to reduce a patient's risk of postoperative infection. The impact of surgical prophylaxis on the nasal staphylococcal microbiome is largely unknown. Here, we report the species present in the nasal staphylococcal microbiome and the impact of surgical prophylaxis revealed by a novel culture independent technique...
December 2, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912036/failure-to-redose-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-long-surgery-increases-risk-of-surgical-site-infection
#3
Nongyao Kasatpibal, Joanne D Whitney, E Patchen Dellinger, Bala G Nair, Kenneth C Pike
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic prophylaxis is a key component of the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI). Failure to manage antibiotic prophylaxis effectively may increase the risk of SSI. This study aimed to examine the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis on SSI risk. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among patients having general surgery between May 2012 and June 2015 at the University of Washington Medical Center. Peri-operative data extracted from hospital databases included patient and operation characteristics, intra-operative medication and fluid administration, and survival outcome...
December 2, 2016: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911391/a-murine-model-of-group-b-streptococcus-vaginal-colonization
#4
Kathryn A Patras, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS), is a Gram-positive, asymptomatic colonizer of the human gastrointestinal tract and vaginal tract of 10 - 30% of adults. In immune-compromised individuals, including neonates, pregnant women, and the elderly, GBS may switch to an invasive pathogen causing sepsis, arthritis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Because GBS is a leading bacterial pathogen of neonates, current prophylaxis is comprised of late gestation screening for GBS vaginal colonization and subsequent peripartum antibiotic treatment of GBS-positive mothers...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910000/a-review-of-experimental-and-off-label-therapies-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#5
REVIEW
Csaba Fehér, Alex Soriano, Josep Mensa
In spite of increased awareness and the efforts taken to optimize Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) management, with the limited number of currently available antibiotics for C. difficile the halt of this increasing epidemic remains out of reach. There are, however, close to 80 alternative treatment methods with controversial anti-clostridial efficacy or in experimental phase today. Indeed, some of these therapies are expected to become acknowledged members of the recommended anti-CDI arsenal within the next few years...
December 1, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906606/influence-of-a-shorter-duration-of-post-operative-antibiotic-prophylaxis-on-infectious-complications-in-patients-undergoing-elective-liver-resection
#6
Masahiko Sakoda, Satoshi Iino, Yuko Mataki, Yota Kawasaki, Hiroshi Kurahara, Kosei Maemura, Shinichi Ueno, Shoji Natsugoe
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic prophylaxis has been recommended to reduce post-operative infectious complications. Discontinuation of post-operative antibiotic administration within 24 hours of operation is currently recommended. Many surgeons, however, conventionally tend to extend the duration of prophylactic antibiotic use. In this study, we performed a retrospective analysis to assess the efficacy of extended post-operative antibiotic use in patients who underwent elective liver resection...
December 1, 2016: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905216/-epidemiology-of-surgical-site-infection-in-a-neurosurgery-department
#7
Patricia López Pereira, Cristina Díaz-Agero Pérez, Nieves López Fresneña, Julio Las Heras Mosteiro, Aurelio Palancar Cabrera, Ángela Lourdes Rincón Carlavilla, Jesús María Aranaz Andrés
OBJECTIVE: To know the rates of infection of the surgical wound in the Department of Neurosurgery between 2011 and 2014. METHODS: An observational, prospective study was conducted of the rates of surgical wound infection among patients admitted for more than 48 h to the Neurosurgery Department of a tertiary-level university hospital between July 2011 and December 2014. RESULTS: The study surveyed a total of 536 surgical procedures performed in 521 patients...
December 1, 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903856/laparoscopic-left-hemicolectomy-for-colon-cancer-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients-a-valid-and-safe-surgical-technique-to-ensure-peritoneal-dialysis-survival
#8
Sara Auricchio, Giulio Mari, Andrea Galassi, Beatrice Dozio, Marco Pozzi, Dario Maggioni, Renzo Scanziani
A laparoscopic approach represents an effective alternative to open surgery in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). In these patients, conventional thinking provides for removal of the peritoneal catheter during left colon resections because of higher risk of patient contamination and peritonitis. The present paper describes 3 cases of laparoscopic left hemicolectomy for colon cancer performed in PD patients without complications and without peritoneal catheter removal, leading to subsequent early PD resumption...
November 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900630/current-delivery-of-hyperthermic-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy-with-cytoreductive-surgery-cs-hipec-and-perioperative-practices-an-international-survey-of-high-volume-surgeons
#9
Allison H Maciver, Eisar Al-Sukhni, Jesus Esquivel, Joseph J Skitzki, John M Kane, Valerie A Francescutti
BACKGROUND: Cytoreductive surgery and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CS/HIPEC) is performed for selected indications at a limited number of specialized centers worldwide. Currently there is no standardized approach to the perioperative care process. We sought to capture current practices in the perioperative management of patients who undergo CS/HIPEC at high-volume centers. METHODS: Surgeon members of the American Society of Peritoneal Surface Malignancies working at high-volume CS/HIPEC centers (>10 cases/year) were invited to complete an online survey...
November 29, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899130/antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-reduction-mammaplasty-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Edgard Silva Garcia, Daniela Francescato Veiga, Joel Veiga-Filho, Isaías Vieira Cabral, Natália Lana Larcher Pinto, Neil Ferreira Novo, Miguel Sabino Neto, Lydia Masako Ferreira
BACKGROUND: The role of antibiotics in surgical procedures where the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) is low remains uncertain. There is, to date, no evidence to justify the routine use of antibiotics in postoperative reduction mammaplasty. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of postoperative antibiotic treatment on the occurrence of SSI after breast reduction surgery. METHODS: This is a double-blind randomized clinical trial with 124 breast hypertrophy patients allocated to two treatment groups: antibiotic (n = 62) and placebo (n = 62)...
November 30, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897120/dropless-cataract-surgery-an-overview
#11
Richard L Lindstrom, M Stewart Galloway, Andrzej Grzybowski, Jeffrey T Liegner
Risk reduction and the attainment of good outcomes in contemporary cataract surgery depend in part on patient compliance with a postoperative regimen of topical eye drops. Topical drops are expensive and challenging to instill properly for patients. The consequences of noncompliance or poor compliance can be significant for the patient (in the case of a complication) and for society (in the case of development of antibiotic resistance). For all of these reasons, new approaches that reduce the need for topical therapy are beginning to emerge, including intracameral injection, sustained or slow-release drug delivery mechanisms, and the recently introduced "Dropless cataract surgery," which involves intravitreal injection of single-use, compounded combination of antibiotics and corticosteroids...
November 29, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895901/prevention-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-in-non-ventilated-adult-patients-a-narrative-review
#12
REVIEW
Leonor Pássaro, Stephan Harbarth, Caroline Landelle
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is one of the leading hospital-acquired infections worldwide and has an important impact. Although preventive measures for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are well known, less is known about appropriate measures for prevention of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). AIM: The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the current standards for preventing HAP in non-ventilated adult patients. METHODS: A search of the literature up to May 2015 was conducted using Medline for guidelines published by national professional societies or professional medical associations...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891664/healthcare-costs-doubled-when-children-had-urinary-tract-infections-caused-by-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-bacteria
#13
Oona Nieminen, Matti Korppi, Merja Helminen
AIM: The impact of the emergence of antimicrobial resistant organisms has rarely been studied in children, including the healthcare costs of urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria. We evaluated the effect of ESBL on UTI healthcare costs and risk factors for paediatric UTIs. METHODS: This retrospective case-control study covered 2005-2014 and focused on children below 16 years of age treated in a University hospital: 22 children with UTIs caused by ESBL-producing bacteria and 56 ESBL-negative UTI controls...
November 7, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889413/molecular-diagnosis-of-bloodstream-infections-in-onco-haematology-patients-with-pcr-esi-ms-technology
#14
Elena Jordana-Lluch, Belén Rivaya, Clara Marcó, Montserrat Giménez, Ma Dolores Quesada, Agustín Escobedo, Montserrat Batlle, Elisa Martró, Vicente Ausina
OBJECTIVES: Onco-haematological patients are prone to develop infections, and antibiotic prophylaxis may lead to negative blood cultures. Thus, the microbiological diagnosis and subsequent administration of a targeted antimicrobial therapy is often difficult. The goal of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of IRIDICA (PCR/ESI-MS technology) for the molecular diagnosis of bloodstream infections in this patient group. METHODS: A total of 463 whole blood specimens from different sepsis episodes in 429 patients were analysed using the PCR/ESI-MS platform, comparing the results with those of blood culture and other clinically relevant information...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889221/the-swedish-infant-high-grade-reflux-trial-study-presentation-and-vesicoureteral-reflux-outcome
#15
Josefin Nordenström, Gundela Holmdahl, Per Brandström, Rune Sixt, Eira Stokland, Ulla Sillén, Sofia Sjöström
INTRODUCTION: High-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in infants is associated with congenital renal abnormalities, recurrent UTI, and bladder dysfunction. Endoscopic treatment (ET) is a well-established method in children with low to moderate reflux grades, but there is a lack of randomised controlled trials regarding the use of ET versus continuous antibiotic prophylaxis in infants with high-grade VUR. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether high-grade VUR in infants can be treated with endoscopic injection and whether ET is superior to antibiotic prophylaxis in the treatment of VUR...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885778/single-dose-versus-multiple-dose-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-caesarean-section-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
R Pinto-Lopes, B Sousa-Pinto, L F Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic antibiotics are traditionally given as a single dose for caesarean section. However, inconsistent application of recommendations and recent evidence prompted a literature review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the optimal regimen for antibiotic prophylaxis in caesarean section by comparing single versus multiple doses of the same intervention. SEARCH STRATEGY: MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS, CENTRAL and ongoing trials databases were searched...
November 24, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883161/-is-it-necessary-to-prescribe-antibiotics-in-impacted-third-molar-surgical-removal-comparative-study-between-prescribing-patterns
#17
I Izuzquiza, K A Jamtøy, N P Fossland, I Martínez-Padilla, F Falahat, L Alou, J Prieto, M L Gómez-Lus
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether there is a significant difference in infection rate after surgery tooth extraction in two different hospitals from Norway and Spain where different surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis protocols are applied. METHODS: An analytical observational study was conducted, retrospective cohorts type, analyzing healthy patients with no risk factors, who were third molar tooth operated in maxillofacial services of two different hospitals: St. Olav in Trondheim (Norway) and Clínico San Carlos in Madrid (Spain)...
November 22, 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882401/-antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-transrectal-prostate-biopsy
#18
L Schneidewind
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878620/the-role-of-single-shot-metronidazole-in-the-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-following-ileostomy-reversal-surgery
#19
Roland Fernandes, Paul Robinson, Karan Rangarajan, Sophie Scott, Laura Angco
PURPOSE: Symptomatic infection with Clostridium difficile is strongly linked to antibiotic use and rates are higher for colorectal surgery. In February 2015, trust policy for antibiotic prophylaxis of ileostomy reversal surgery was changed from three doses of metronidazole plus cefuroxime to single-dose metronidazole, in a bid to reduce rates of Clostridium difficile infection. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a single, large hospital trust between February 2014 and February 2016, before and after change in antimicrobial policy...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878110/discontinuation-of-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-ap-in-children-with-spina-bifida-a-case-series-analysis
#20
Kevin G Couloures, Michael Anderson, Michael Machiorlatti, Olivera Marsenic, Lawrence Opas
BACKGROUND: Spina bifida increases the risk for urinary tract infections (UTI). Antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP) reduces symptomatic UTI's but selects resistant organisms. Measures to ensure regular and complete emptying of the bladder combined with treatment of constipation reduce the risk for UTI. OBJECTIVES: Demonstrate that close adherence to a catheterization regimen in children with spina bifida (Selective Treatment - ST) reduces the need for antimicrobial prophylaxis...
September 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
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