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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104700/inhibition-of-4ebp-phosphorylation-mediates-the-cytotoxic-effect-of-mtor-kinase-inhibitors-in-aggressive-b-cell-lymphomas
#1
Chengfeng Bi, Xuan Zhang, Ting Lu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Xianhuo Wang, Bin Meng, Huilai Zhang, Ping Wang, Julie M Vose, Wing C Chan, Timothy W McKeithan, Kai Fu
Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central integrator of nutrient and growth factor inputs that controls cell growth in eukaryotes. The second generation of mTOR kinase inhibitors (TORKi), directly targeting the mTOR catalytic site, are more effective than rapamycin and its analogs in cancer treatment, particularly in inducing apoptosis. However, the mechanism underlying the cytotoxic effect of TORKi remains elusive. Herein, we demonstrated that TORKi-induced apoptosis is predominantly dependent on loss of mTORC1-mediated 4EBP activation...
January 19, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101526/rapamycin-resistant-mtor-activity-is-required-for-sensory-axon-regeneration-induced-by-a-conditioning-lesion
#2
Weitao Chen, Na Lu, Yue Ding, Yuan Wang, Leung Ting Chan, Xu Wang, Xin Gao, Songshan Jiang, Kai Liu
Neuronal mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity is a critical determinant of the intrinsic regenerative ability of mature neurons in the adult central nervous system (CNS). However, whether its action also applies to peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons after injury remains elusive. To address this issue unambiguously, we used genetic approaches to determine the role of mTOR signaling in sensory axon regeneration in mice. We showed that deleting mTOR in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons suppressed the axon regeneration induced by conditioning lesions...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086984/deptor-not-only-a-mtor-inhibitor
#3
REVIEW
Valeria Catena, Maurizio Fanciulli
Deptor is an important protein that belongs to the mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes, able to interact with mTOR and to inhibit its kinase activity. As a natural mTOR inhibitor, Deptor is involved in several molecular pathways, such as cell growth, apoptosis, autophagy and ER stress response. For this reason, Deptor seems to play an important role in controlling cellular homeostasis. Despite several recent insights characterizing Deptor functions and regulation, its complete role within cells has not yet been completely clarified...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078713/the-novel-mtor-complex-1-2-inhibitor-p529-inhibits-human-lung-myofibroblast-differentiation
#4
Keith T Ferguson, Elizabeth E Torr, Ksenija Bernau, Jonathan Leet, Davis Sherris, Nathan Sandbo
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and deadly disorder with very few therapeutic options. Palomid 529 (8-(1-hydroxyethyl)-2-methoxy-3-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)-benzo[c]chromen-6-one; P529) is a novel dual inhibitor of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1/2 (mTORC1/2). In these studies, we investigated the effect of P529 on TGF-β-dependent signaling and myofibroblast differentiation. TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of the mTORC1 targets, p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), were both dose dependently inhibited by P529 in human lung fibroblasts with maximal inhibition occurring between 10-20 µM...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065789/choline-kinase-alpha-mediates-interactions-between-the-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-and-mtorc2-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-to-promote-drug-resistance-and-xenograft-tumor-progression
#5
Xi-Meng Lin, Liang Hu, Jin Gu, Ruo-Yu Wang, Liang Li, Jing Tang, Bao-Hua Zhang, Xing-Zhou Yan, Yan-Jing Zhu, Cong-Li Hu, Wei-Ping Zhou, Shao Li, Jing-Feng Liu, Frank J Gonzalez, Meng-Chao Wu, Hong-Yang Wang, Lei Chen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Choline kinase alpha (CHKA) catalyzes conversion of choline to phosphocholine and can contribute to carcinogenesis. Little is known about the role of CHKA in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We performed whole-exome and transcriptome sequence analyses of 9 paired HCC and non-tumor adjacent tissues. We performed tissue chip analyses of 120 primary HCC and non-tumor adjacent tissues from patients who received surgery in Shanghai, China from January 2006 through December 2009; 48 sets of specimens (HCC and non-tumor adjacent tissues) were also analyzed...
January 5, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002802/dual-inhibition-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway-suppresses-the-growth-of-leiomyosarcomas-but-leads-to-erk-activation-through-mtorc2-biological-and-clinical-implications
#6
Benjamin Fourneaux, Vanessa Chaire, Carlo Lucchesi, Marie Karanian, Raphael Pineau, Audrey Laroche-Clary, Antoine Italiano
The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway plays a crucial role in the development of leiomyosarcomas (LMSs). In this study, we tested the efficacy of dual PI3K/mTOR (BEZ235), PI3K (BKM120) and mTOR (everolimus) inhibitors in three human LMS cell lines. In vitro and in vivo studies using LMS cell lines showed that BEZ235 has a significantly higher anti-tumor effect than either BKM120 or everolimus, resulting in a greater reduction in tumor growth and more pronounced inhibitory effects on mitotic activity and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling...
December 16, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960162/the-mtorc2-akt-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-mediated-activation-of-trpc6-participates-in-adriamycin-induced-podocyte-apoptosis
#7
Hai-Tao Zhang, Wei-Wei Wang, Li-Hong Ren, Xia-Xia Zhao, Zhi-Hui Wang, De-Li Zhuang, Yun-Nuo Bai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although increased expression and gain function of transient receptor potential cation channel 6 (TRPC6) has been associated with the pathogenesis of some proteinuric glomerular diseases, it remains elusive how TRPC6 participates in the process of podocyte damage. METHODS: The potential signaling responsible for TRPC6 activation was investigated using immunoblot assays in an in vitro podocyte injury model induced by Adriamycin (ADR). Podocyte apoptosis was measured using FITC-conjugated Annexin V and Propidium Iodide staining...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959383/combination-of-metformin-and-sorafenib-suppresses-proliferation-and-induces-autophagy-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-via-targeting-the-mtor-pathway
#8
Sunbin Ling, Lei Song, Ning Fan, Tingting Feng, Lu Liu, Xu Yang, Mingjie Wang, Yanling Li, Yu Tian, Feng Zhao, Ying Liu, Qihong Huang, Zhaoyuan Hou, Fei Xu, Lei Shi, Yan Li
The multi‑kinase inhibitor sorafenib is the only drug for which randomized control trials have shown improved patient survival in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, life expectancy is extended in these cases by only a few months. The anti‑type II diabetes agent metformin was used in this study in an effort to find a more efficient approach to HCC treatment. Sorafenib effectively reversed the activation status of mTORC2 induced by metformin and enhanced the suppression of the mTORC1 and MAPK pathway by metformin in HCC cells, which may be responsible for reduced proliferation upon combined treatment...
January 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935857/potentiation-of-the-anticancer-effects-of-everolimus-using-a-dual-mtorc1-2-inhibitor-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#9
Jong-Ok Kim, Kee-Hwan Kim, In Sang Song, Kwang-Sik Cheon, Ok-Hee Kim, Sang Chul Lee, Sang Kuon Lee, Say-June Kim
There is lots of evidence to support the critical involvement of mTOR signaling in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it has not been determined how the roles of individual mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibitors played in the HCC therapeutics. We thus compared the effects of everolimus, Ku0063794, and a combination of the two therapies on HCC cells, using various in vitro studies (HepG2, Hep3B, and Huh7 cells), ex vivo culturing of HCC tissues obtained from patients, and the in vivo mouse xenograft model of HCC cells...
December 7, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926859/rapamycin-reverses-metabolic-deficits-in-lamin-a-c-deficient-mice
#10
Chen-Yu Liao, Sydney S Anderson, Nicole H Chicoine, Jarrott R Mayfield, Emmeline C Academia, Joy A Wilson, Chalermkwan Pongkietisak, Morgan A Thompson, Earl P Lagmay, Delana M Miller, Yueh-Mei Hsu, Mark A McCormick, Monique N O'Leary, Brian K Kennedy
The role of the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, in regulation of adiposity remains controversial. Here, we evaluate mTOR signaling in lipid metabolism in adipose tissues of Lmna(-/-) mice, a mouse model for dilated cardiomyopathy and muscular dystrophy. Lifespan extension by rapamycin is associated with increased body weight and fat content, two phenotypes we link to suppression of elevated energy expenditure. In both white and brown adipose tissue of Lmna(-/-) mice, we find that rapamycin inhibits mTORC1 but not mTORC2, leading to suppression of elevated lipolysis and restoration of thermogenic protein UCP1 levels, respectively...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922192/evidence-for-pipecolate-oxidase-in-mediating-protection-against-hydrogen-peroxide-stress
#11
Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Ezhumalai Muthukrishnan, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Justin L Mott, Donald F Becker
Pipecolate, an intermediate of the lysine catabolic pathway, is oxidized to Δ(1) -piperideine-6-carboxylate (P6C) by the flavoenzyme l-pipecolate oxidase (PIPOX). P6C spontaneously hydrolyzes to generate α-aminoadipate semialdehyde, which is then converted into α-aminoadipate acid by α-aminoadipatesemialdehyde dehydrogenase. l-pipecolate was previously reported to protect mammalian cells against oxidative stress. Here, we examined whether PIPOX is involved in the mechanism of pipecolate stress protection...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884298/mhy1485-activates-mtor-and-protects-osteoblasts-from-dexamethasone
#12
Sai Zhao, Caiyun Chen, Shouguo Wang, Feng Ji, Yue Xie
Dexamethasone (Dex) exerts cytotoxic effects to cultured osteoblasts. The potential effect of MHY1485, a small-molecular mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activator, against the process was studied here. In both osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and primary murine osteoblasts, treatment with MHY1485 significantly ameliorated Dex-induced cell death and apoptosis. mTOR inhibition, through mTOR kinase inhibitor OSI-027 or mTOR shRNAs, abolished MHY1485-mediated osteoblast cytoprotection against Dex. Intriguingly, activation of mTOR complex (mTORC1), but not mTORC2, is required for MHY1485's anti-Dex activity...
December 9, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854154/small-gtpases-in-c-elegans-metabolism
#13
Daniel Z Bar, Chayki Charar, Yosef Gruenbaum
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionary conserved protein with a serine/threonine kinase activity that regulates cell growth, proliferation, motility, survival, protein synthesis, autophagy and transcription. It is embedded in 2 large protein complexes: mTORC1 and mTORC2. Regulation of specific mTOR pathway functions depends on multiple GTPases, that act either as regulators of mTOR protein complexes, coupling energy availability with mTORC1 activity, or as downstream effectors of both mTORC1 and mTORC2...
November 17, 2016: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826244/judicious-toggling-of-mtor-activity-to-combat-insulin-resistance-and-cancer-current-evidence-and-perspectives
#14
REVIEW
Pei Shi Ong, Louis Z Wang, Xiaoyun Dai, Sheng Hsuan Tseng, Shang Jun Loo, Gautam Sethi
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), via its two distinct multiprotein complexes, mTORC1, and mTORC2, plays a central role in the regulation of cellular growth, metabolism, and migration. A dysregulation of the mTOR pathway has in turn been implicated in several pathological conditions including insulin resistance and cancer. Overactivation of mTORC1 and disruption of mTORC2 function have been reported to induce insulin resistance. On the other hand, aberrant mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling via either genetic alterations or increased expression of proteins regulating mTOR and its downstream targets have contributed to cancer development...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758884/mtorc2-signaling-drives-the-development-and-progression-of-pancreatic-cancer
#15
David R Driscoll, Saadia A Karim, Makoto Sano, David M Gay, Wright Jacob, Jun Yu, Yusuke Mizukami, Aarthi Gopinathan, Duncan I Jodrell, T R Jeffry Evans, Nabeel Bardeesy, Michael N Hall, Brian J Quattrochi, David S Klimstra, Simon T Barry, Owen J Sansom, Brian C Lewis, Jennifer P Morton
mTOR signaling controls several critical cellular functions and is deregulated in many cancers, including pancreatic cancer. To date, most efforts have focused on inhibiting the mTORC1 complex. However, clinical trials of mTORC1 inhibitors in pancreatic cancer have failed, raising questions about this therapeutic approach. We employed a genetic approach to delete the obligate mTORC2 subunit Rictor and identified the critical times during which tumorigenesis requires mTORC2 signaling. Rictor deletion resulted in profoundly delayed tumorigenesis...
December 1, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748764/mtorc1-and-mtorc2-in-cancer-and-the-tumor-microenvironment
#16
REVIEW
L C Kim, R S Cook, J Chen
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a crucial signaling node that integrates environmental cues to regulate cell survival, proliferation and metabolism, and is often deregulated in human cancer. mTOR kinase acts in two functionally distinct complexes, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2), whose activities and substrate specificities are regulated by complex co-factors. Deregulation of this centralized signaling pathway has been associated with a variety of human diseases including diabetes, neurodegeneration and cancer...
October 17, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729429/mtor-activity-and-its-prognostic-significance-in-human-colorectal-carcinoma-depending-on-c1-and-c2-complex-related-protein-expression
#17
Tamás Sticz, Anna Molnár, Ágnes Márk, Melinda Hajdu, Noémi Nagy, Gyula Végső, Tamás Micsik, László Kopper, Anna Sebestyén
AIMS: Tumour heterogeneity and altered activation of signalling pathways play important roles in therapy resistance. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling network is a well-known regulator of several functions that contribute to tumour growth. mTOR exists in two functionally different multiprotein complexes. We aimed to determine mTOR activity-related proteins in clinically followed, conventionally treated colon carcinomas and to analyse the correlation between clinical data and mTORC1 and mTORC2 activity...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649066/calpain-activated-mtorc2-akt-pathway-mediates-airway-smooth-muscle-remodelling-in-asthma
#18
S-S Rao, Q Mu, Y Zeng, P-C Cai, F Liu, J Yang, Y Xia, Q Zhang, L-J Song, L-L Zhou, F-Z Li, Y-X Lin, J Fang, P A Greer, H-Z Shi, W-L Ma, Y Su, H Ye
BACKGROUND: Allergic asthma is characterized by inflammation and airway remodelling. Airway remodelling with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) and larger smooth muscle mass are correlated with increased airway responsiveness and asthma severity. Calpain is a family of calcium-dependent endopeptidases, which plays an important role in ECM remodelling. However, the role of calpain in airway smooth muscle remodelling remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of calpain in asthmatic airway remodelling as well as the underlying mechanism...
September 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563814/molecular-regulation-of-apoptotic-machinery-and-lipid-metabolism-by-mtorc1-mtorc2-dual-inhibitors-in-preclinical-models-of-her2-pik3camut-breast-cancer
#19
Jianchang Qian, Yaqing Chen, Tao Meng, Lanping Ma, Lanfang Meng, Xin Wang, Ting Yu, Arie Zask, Jingkang Shen, Ker Yu
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a rational target for cancer treatment. While the mTORC1-selective rapalogs have shown significant benefits in the clinic, antitumor response may be further improved by inhibiting both mTORC1 and mTORC2. Herein, we established target profile of a novel mTOR kinase inhibitor (mTOR-KI) MTI-31 and employed it to study new therapeutic mechanism in breast cancer. MTI-31 demonstrated a potent mTOR binding affinity with >5000 fold selectivity over the related PI3K family isoforms...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530328/cytotoxic-properties-of-a-deptor-mtor-inhibitor-in-multiple-myeloma-cells
#20
Yijiang Shi, Tracy R Daniels-Wells, Patrick Frost, Jihye Lee, Richard S Finn, Carolyne Bardeleben, Manuel L Penichet, Michael E Jung, Joseph Gera, Alan Lichtenstein
DEPTOR is a 48 kDa protein that binds to mTOR and inhibits this kinase in TORC1 and TORC2 complexes. Overexpression of DEPTOR specifically occurs in a model of multiple myeloma. Its silencing in multiple myeloma cells is sufficient to induce cytotoxicity, suggesting that DEPTOR is a potential therapeutic target. mTORC1 paralysis protects multiple myeloma cells against DEPTOR silencing, implicating mTORC1 in the critical role of DEPTOR in multiple myeloma cell viability. Building on this foundation, we interrogated a small-molecule library for compounds that prevent DEPTOR binding to mTOR in a yeast-two-hybrid assay...
October 1, 2016: Cancer Research
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