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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806741/risk-of-cancer-in-patients-with-genital-warts-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#1
Ching-Yi Cho, Yu-Cheng Lo, Miao-Chiu Hung, Chou-Cheng Lai, Chun-Jen Chen, Keh-Gong Wu
BACKGROUND: Condyloma acuminata currently affects around 1% of sexually active adults, and its incidence is increasing. The coexistence of genital warts (GW) and certain cancers and an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and various malignancies have been reported. Therefore, we conducted this large national study to analyze the risk of malignancies among men and women with GW in Taiwan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between January 2000 and December 2013, approximately 3 million patients were reported to the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806450/evaluation-of-combination-measles-mumps-rubella-varicella-vaccine-introduction-in-australia
#2
Kristine Macartney, Heather F Gidding, Lieu Trinh, Han Wang, Aditi Dey, Brynley Hull, Karen Orr, Jocelynne McRae, Peter Richmond, Michael Gold, Nigel Crawford, Jennifer A Kynaston, Peter McIntyre, Nicholas Wood
Importance: Incorporating combination vaccines, such as the measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine, into immunization schedules should be evaluated from a benefit-risk perspective. Use of MMRV vaccine poses challenges due to a recognized increased risk of febrile seizures (FSs) when used as the first dose in the second year of life. Conversely, completion by age 2 years of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella immunization may offer improved disease control. Objective: To evaluate the effect on safety and coverage of earlier (age 18 months) scheduling of MMRV vaccine as the second dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) in Australia...
August 14, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806355/seroprevalence-of-anti-polio-antibodies-in-children-from-polio-high-risk-areas-of-pakistan-a-cross-sectional-survey-2015-2016
#3
Imtiaz Hussain, Ondrej Mach, Atif Habib, Zaid Bhatti, Zamir Suhag, M Steven Oberste, William C Weldon, Roland W Sutter, Sajid B Soofi, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Pakistan is one of the 3 remaining wild poliovirus endemic countries. We collected sera from children to assess the prevalence of poliovirus antibodies in selected high-risk areas for poliovirus transmission. METHODS: Children in 2 age groups (6-11 and 36-48 months) were randomly selected between November 2015 and March 2016 in 6 areas of Pakistan (Sindh Province: Karachi and Kashmore; Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province: Peshawar, Bannu and Nowshera; Punjab Province: Faisalabad)...
September 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805672/challenges-in-estimating-vaccine-coverage-in-refugee-and-displaced-populations-results-from-household-surveys-in-jordan-and-lebanon
#4
Timothy Roberton, William Weiss, Shannon Doocy
Ensuring the sustained immunization of displaced persons is a key objective in humanitarian emergencies. Typically, humanitarian actors measure coverage of single vaccines following an immunization campaign; few measure routine coverage of all vaccines. We undertook household surveys of Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon, outside of camps, using a mix of random and respondent-driven sampling, to measure coverage of all vaccinations included in the host country's vaccine schedule. We analyzed the results with a critical eye to data limitations and implications for similar studies...
August 12, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805359/medicare-program-prospective-payment-system-and-consolidated-billing-for-skilled-nursing-facilities-for-fy-2018-snf-value-based-purchasing-program-snf-quality-reporting-program-survey-team-composition-and-correction-of-the-performance-period-for-the-nhsn-hcp
#5
(no author information available yet)
This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year (FY) 2018. It also revises and rebases the market basket index by updating the base year from 2010 to 2014, and by adding a new cost category for Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Services. The rule also finalizes revisions to the SNF Quality Reporting Program (QRP), including measure and standardized resident assessment data policies and policies related to public display...
August 4, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803415/a-measles-outbreak-in-sindh-pakistan-caused-by-a-genotype-b3-virus
#6
Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Abdul Hameed, Naeem Ali, Massab Umair, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Salmaan Sharif, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Shahzad Shaukat, Mehar Angez, Adnan Khurshid, Ribqa Akhtar, Nayab Mehmood, Nazish Badar
Measles continues to be a major public health issue causing substantial outbreaks worldwide, mostly affecting young children. Molecular analysis of measles viruses provides important information on outbreak linkages and transmission pathways that can be helpful towards implementation of appropriate control programs. In Pakistan, the control of measles is still tenuous, and progress towards elimination has been irregular and challenging. In the 2013 measles outbreak we received 4,682 sera collected from suspected patients in 23 districts across Sindh...
August 12, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802757/the-typhoid-vaccine-acceleration-consortium-tyvac-vaccine-effectiveness-study-designs-accelerating-the-introduction-of-typhoid-conjugate-vaccines-and-reducing-the-global-burden-of-enteric-fever-report-from-a-meeting-held-on-26-27-october-2016-oxford-uk
#7
James E Meiring, Malick Gibani
Typhoid fever is estimated to cause between 11.9-26.9 million infections globally each year with 129,000-216,510 deaths. Access to improved water sources have reduced disease incidence in parts of the world but the use of efficacious vaccines is seen as an important public health tool for countries with a high disease burden. A new generation of Vi typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs), licensed for use in young children and expected to provide longer lasting protection than previous vaccines, are now available...
August 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802754/cost-benefit-analyses-of-supplementary-measles-immunisation-in-the-highly-immunized-population-of-new-zealand
#8
D T S Hayman, J C Marshall, N P French, T E Carpenter, M G Roberts, T Kiedrzynski
As endemic measles is eliminated from countries through increased immunisation, the economic benefits of enhanced immunisation programs may come into question. New Zealand has suffered from outbreaks after measles introductions from abroad and we use it as a model system to understand the benefits of catch up immunisation in highly immunised populations. We provide cost-benefit analyses for measles supplementary immunisation in New Zealand. We model outbreaks based on estimates of the basic reproduction number in the vaccinated population (Rv, the number of secondary infections in a partially immunised population), based on the number of immunologically-naïve people at district and national levels, considering both pre- and post-catch up vaccination scenarios...
August 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802753/challenges-in-immunisation-service-delivery-for-refugees-in-australia-a-health-system-perspective
#9
A Mahimbo, H Seale, M Smith, A Heywood
BACKGROUND: Refugees are at risk of being under-immunised in their countries of origin, in transit and post-resettlement in Australia. Whilst studies have focused on identifying barriers to accessibility of health services among refugees, few focus on providers' perspectives on immunisation service delivery to this group. Health service providers are well placed to provide insights into the pragmatic challenges associated with refugee health service delivery, which can be useful in identifying strategies aimed at improving immunisation coverage among this group...
August 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801947/how-will-transitioning-from-cytology-to-hpv-testing-change-the-balance-between-the-benefits-and-harms-of-cervical-cancer-screening-estimates-of-the-impact-on-cervical-cancer-treatment-rates-and-adverse-obstetric-outcomes-in-australia-a-high-vaccination-coverage
#10
Louiza S Velentzis, Michael Caruana, Kate T Simms, Jie-Bin Lew, Ju-Fang Shi, Marion Saville, Megan A Smith, Sarah J Lord, Jeffrey Tan, Deborah Bateson, Michael Quinn, Karen Canfell
Primary HPV screening enables earlier diagnosis of cervical lesions compared to cytology, however, its effect on the risk of treatment has not been investigated. We estimated the cumulative lifetime risk (CLR) of cervical cancer and excisional treatment; and change in adverse obstetric outcomes in HPV unvaccinated women and cohorts offered vaccination (>70% coverage in 12-13 years) for the Australian cervical screening program. 2-yearly cytology screening (ages 18-69 years) was compared to 5-yearly primary HPV screening with partial genotyping for HPV16/18 (ages 25-74 years)...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801154/progress-in-prophylactic-human-papillomavirus-hpv-vaccination-in-2016-a-literature-review
#11
Polona J Maver, Mario Poljak
Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine represents a revolutionary step forward in preventing HPV-related cancers, especially cervical carcinoma. Alongside appropriate screening, it has the potential to dramatically reduce cervical cancer incidence and even eradicate it. Following extensive evaluations in clinical trials, the first decade of routine HPV vaccine use provides overwhelming evidence of the vaccines' safety and their real-life effectiveness. In 2016, further clinical trials showed high vaccine efficacy in adult women, especially those that were HPV DNA-negative at baseline, and indicated possible protection from HPV-related diseases after treatment of precancerous cervical lesions...
August 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799590/potentiating-the-immune-response-of-muc1-based-antitumor-vaccines-using-a-peptide-based-nanovector-as-a-promising-vaccine-adjuvant
#12
Yonghui Liu, Youzhi Wang, Fan Yu, Zhenqing Zhang, Zhimou Yang, Wenpeng Zhang, Peng George Wang, Wei Zhao
We utilize the supramolecular self-assembling peptide of Nap-G(D)F(D)F(D)Y(D)K to construct chemically programmed, self-assembling and self-adjuvant MUC1-based antitumor vaccines. The vaccines, with antigen and adjuvant conjugation through covalent bonds, elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses.
August 11, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797844/pd-1-pd-l1-blockade-enhances-the-efficacy-of-sa-gm-csf-surface-modified-tumor-vaccine-in-prostate-cancer
#13
Xiaojun Shi, Xinji Zhang, Jinlong Li, Hongfan Zhao, Lijun Mo, Xianghua Shi, Zhiming Hu, Jimin Gao, Wanlong Tan
Program death receptor-1 (PD-1)/program death ligand 1 (PD-L1) signaling plays an important role in tumor adaptive immune resistance. The streptavidin-granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (SA-GM-CSF) surface-modified tumor cells vaccine developed through our novel protein-anchor technology could significantly promote the activation of dendritic cells. Although GM-CSF vaccine could significantly increase the number of tumor-specific CD8(+)T-cells, the majority of these CD8(+)T-cells expressed PD-1...
August 8, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797112/a-novel-whole-bacterial-enzyme-linked-immunosorbant-assay-to-quantify-chlamydia-trachomatis-specific-antibodies-reveals-distinct-differences-between-systemic-and-genital-compartments
#14
Hannah L Albritton, Pamela A Kozlowski, Rebecca A Lillis, Chris L McGowin, Julia D Siren, Stephanie N Taylor, Joyce A Ibana, Lyndsey R Buckner, Li Shen, Alison J Quayle
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the leading sexually transmitted bacterial infection. The continued global burden of CT infection strongly predicates the need for a vaccine to supplement current chlamydial control programs. The correlates of protection against CT are currently unknown, but they must be carefully defined to guide vaccine design. The localized nature of chlamydial infection in columnar epithelial cells of the genital tract necessitates investigation of immunity at the site of infection. The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive whole bacterial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify and compare CT-specific IgG and IgA in sera and genital secretions from CT-infected women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797045/epidemiology-of-bovine-brucellosis-in-costa-rica-lessons-learned-from-failures-in-the-control-of-the-disease
#15
Gabriela Hernández-Mora, Nazareth Ruiz-Villalobos, Roberto Bonilla-Montoya, Juan-José Romero-Zúniga, Julio Jiménez-Arias, Rocío González-Barrientos, Elías Barquero-Calvo, Carlos Chacón-Díaz, Norman Rojas, Esteban Chaves-Olarte, Caterina Guzmán-Verri, Edgardo Moreno
Brucellosis, caused by Brucella abortus is a major disease of cattle and a zoonosis. In order to estimate the bovine brucellosis prevalence in Costa Rica (CR), a total 765 herds (13078 bovines) from six regions of CR were randomly sampled during 2012-2013. A non-random sample of 7907 herds (532199 bovines) of the six regions, arriving for diagnoses during 2014-2016 to the Costa Rican Animal Health Service was also studied. The prevalence estimated by Rose Bengal test (RBT) ranged from 10.5%-11.4%; alternatively, the prevalence estimated by testing the RBT positives in iELISA, ranged from 4...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795466/reduced-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-positivity-among-pregnant-women-born-after-the-national-implementation-of-immunoprophylaxis-for-babies-born-to-hepatitis-b-virus-carrier-mothers-in-japan
#16
Aya Sugiyama, Masayuki Ohisa, Shintaro Nagashima, Chikako Yamamoto, Chuon Channarena, Toshiko Fujii, Tomoyuki Akita, Keiko Katayama, Yoshiki Kudo, Junko Tanaka
AIM: We aimed to estimate hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity among birth year-stratified pregnant women in Hiroshima, Japan, and compare prevalence rates among women between born before and after implementation of a national immunoprophylactic vaccination program for babies born to hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier mothers in Japan. METHODS: Pregnant women who gave birth at all delivery hospitals/clinics in Hiroshima prefecture between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011 were eligible...
August 9, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793016/rotavirus-genotypes-as-etiological-agents-of-diarrhoea-in-general-populations-of-two-geographic-regions-of-brazil
#17
Marcel Leite, Rita de Cássia Compagnoli Carmona, Emerson Carraro, Aripuanã Sakurada Aranha Watanabe, Celso Francisco Hernandes Granato
Rotavirus is the main global cause of severe childhood diarrhoea among children. In 2006, Rotarix® (G1P[8]) was introduced into Brazil's National Immunization Program. The vaccine coverage rate was 84.4% in 2009. Evidences of increasing G2P[4] after 2006 opened up the discussion about the vaccine effectiveness to non-G1 strains. The aim of this study was to identify the circulating rotavirus genotypes in two Brazilian regions during 2009. A total of 223 positive samples by immunochromatography and latex agglutination assay from the Northeast (Bahia/Pernambuco States) and Southeast (São Paulo/Rio de Janeiro States) regions were included in the study...
2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789853/targeted-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-for-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-australia-yields-significant-population-benefits-and-is-cost-effective
#18
Lei Zhang, David G Regan, Jason J Ong, Manoj Gambhir, Eric P F Chow, Huachun Zou, Matthew Law, Jane Hocking, Christopher K Fairley
BACKGROUND: We investigated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a targeted human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program for young (15-26) men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: We developed a compartmental model to project HPV epidemic trajectories in MSM for three vaccination scenarios: a boys program, a targeted program for young MSM only and the combination of the two over 2017-2036. We assessed the gain in quality-adjusted-life-years (QALY) in 190,000 Australian MSM...
August 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783456/effect-of-booster-vaccination-with-inactivated-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-on-neutralizing-antibody-response-in-mammary-secretions
#19
Thomas Gillespie, Qinye Song, Megan Inskeep, Suzanne Stone, Michael P Murtaugh
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes acute diarrhea, dehydration in pigs, and high mortality rates in piglets <3 weeks of age. Maternal immunity protects piglets, but information on vaccination before or after natural infection in endemically exposed sow herds is limited. Currently, the recovery goal in sow units infected with PEDV is to become fully naive again or use natural virus infection to develop immune gilts through a feedback program before introduction into the sow herd. Since neutralizing antibodies in the gut are critical for protection against enteric viral infections such as PEDV, we evaluated the effect of a conditionally licensed, adjuvanted inactivated PEDV vaccine on neutralizing antibody levels in milk and colostrum in both naive and previously naturally exposed sow herds...
August 7, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783380/streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-worldwide-epidemiology
#20
Raul Isturiz, Heather L Sings, Betsy Hilton, Adriano Arguedas, Ralf-René Reinert, Luis Jodar
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes mucosal and invasive diseases with high morbidity and mortality. Introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into routine infant immunization programs worldwide resulted in serotype 19A becoming a leading cause of the remaining pneumococcal disease burden in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. This article reviews the impact of the latest generation PCVs (10-valent PCV, PCV10, and 13-valent PCV, PCV13) on serotype 19A. Areas covered: This article covers immune responses elicited by PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13 against serotype 19A and their impact on nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage and disease in vaccinated and unvaccinated populations using data from surveillance systems, randomized controlled trials, and observational studies...
August 7, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
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