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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538501/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#1
Pournima Navalkele, Bülent Özgönenel, Eric McGrath, Paul Lephart, Sharada Sarnaik
BACKGROUND: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk of fatal sepsis with encapsulated bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, because of the inherent autosplenectomy that occurs in SCD. This risk is thwarted with oral penicillin prophylaxis during the first 5 years of life, and with stringent vaccination against S. pneumoniae alongside routine childhood immunization. But compared with the general African American pediatric population, the rate of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in patients with SCD still remains high, resulting in hospitalization and fatality...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532182/tackling-a-novel-lethal-virus-a-focus-on-h7n9-vaccine-development
#2
Irina Isakova-Sivak, Larisa Rudenko
Avian-origin H7N9 influenza viruses first detected in humans in China in 2013 continue to cause severe human infections with a mortality rate close to 40%. These viruses are acknowledged as the subtype most likely to cause the next influenza pandemic. Areas covered: Here we review published data on the development of H7N9 influenza vaccine candidates and their evaluation in preclinical and clinical trials identified on PubMed database with the term "H7N9 influenza vaccine". In addition, a search with the same term was done on ClinicalTrials...
May 22, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530308/-influenza-vaccination-among-healthcare-workers-the-data-and-the-duty
#3
Sonia Habib, Shmuel Rishpon, Itamar Grotto, Arnon Afek
Seasonal influenza is a significant disease affecting public health due to substantial morbidity and mortality and a high economic burden. in view of its high propensity for genetic mutations, the virus can easily evade preexisting immunity acquired from prior exposure to it, thereby causing severe seasonal epidemics. Influenza vaccination has been shown to be safe and effective. In many countries, including Israel, it is recommended to all members of the population aged 6 months and older, especially those with a higher risk of developing severe complications...
January 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529902/current-state-of-immunotherapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Jyoti Malhotra, Salma K Jabbour, Joseph Aisner
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for more than 85% of all lung cancers. Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy is the standard first-line treatment for metastatic NSCLC when genomic testing reveals no targetable alteration such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) or ROS1 translocation/re-arrangements. But, chemotherapy produces response rates ranging only between 15-30%. For patients whose disease progresses on first-line chemotherapy, second-line therapy historically consists of taxane-based salvage chemotherapy with a response rate of less than 25%...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528765/impact-and-effectiveness-of-childhood-varicella-vaccine-program-in-queensland-australia
#5
Sarah L Sheridan, Helen E Quinn, Brynley P Hull, Robert S Ware, Keith Grimwood, Stephen B Lambert
BACKGROUND: In November 2005, Australia introduced a publicly funded single dose of varicella vaccine for children aged 18-months. We describe the impact of this program on varicella hospitalisations in Queensland and provide the first assessment of single-dose varicella vaccine effectiveness in Australia since the program commenced. METHODS: Age-standardised varicella hospitalisation rates were calculated for 2000-2014 and pre- and post-public funding period rates compared...
May 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528510/immunogenomics-using-genomics-to-personalize-cancer-immunotherapy
#6
Rance C Siniard, Shuko Harada
While the use of genomic data has the potential to revolutionize patient care, there is still much work to be done with regard to the transformation of host-tumor interactions into favorable clinical outcomes for our patients. High-throughput technologies, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), have rapidly advanced our understanding of oncology, and we are learning that most tumors do not simply possess consistently mutated genes that are responsible for tumorigenesis, facilitating the need for personalized cancer therapy...
May 20, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527973/molecular-analysis-of-group-a-rotaviruses-detected-in-hospitalized-children-from-rawalpindi-pakistan-during-2014
#7
Massab Umair, Bilal Haider Abbasi, Nadia Nisar, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Salmaan Sharif, Shahzad Shaukat, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Adnan Khurshid, Ghulam Mujtaba, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
As part of strategy to control diarrheal diseases, World Health Organization (WHO) recommends to include rotavirus vaccines in national immunization programs. Sentinel surveillance networks have been established to monitor rotavirus disease burden and genotype distribution in both pre and post vaccine era in many countries. Unfortunately due to lack of proper surveillance programs, data on rotavirus disease burden and genotype distribution from Pakistan is scarce. We investigated 502 stool samples from children (<5years) hospitalized due to gastroenteritis in Rawalpindi, Pakistan during 2014 for the presence of group A rotavirus (RVA) and its genotypic diversity...
May 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527689/comparison-of-inflation-of-third-dose-diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-dtp3-administrative-coverage-to-other-vaccine-antigens
#8
Samantha B Dolan, Adam MacNeil
Third dose diphtheria tetanus pertussis (DTP3) administrative coverage is a commonly used indicator for immunization program performance, although studies have demonstrated data quality issues with administrative DTP3 coverage. It is possible that administrative coverage for DTP3 may be inflated more than for other antigens. To examine this, theory, we compiled immunization coverage estimates from recent country surveys (n=71) and paired these with corresponding administrative coverage estimates, by country and cohort year, for DTP3 and 4 other antigens...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523921/combination-of-h120-and-1-96-avian-infectious-bronchitis-virus-vaccine-strains-protect-chickens-against-challenge-with-is-1494-06-variant-2-like-infectious-bronchitis-virus
#9
M Habibi, V Karimi, A G Langeroudi, S A Ghafouri, M Hashemzadeh, R K Farahani, H Maghsoudloo, H Abdollahi, P Seifouri
Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is a worldwide chicken disease, caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) which infects all commercial poultry lines. The present study was done to evaluate protection caused by two different serotype vaccines (Massachusetts and 793/B) in order to evaluate protection against challenge with IS/1494/06-like virus (variant 2-like virus), which is prevalent in the Middle East. SPF chickens were divided into four groups (n = 20). First and second group as negative control group and non-vaccinated-challenged group received no vaccine...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523054/acute-bacterial-meningitis-in-children-presenting-to-the-children-s-hospital-lahore-before-and-after-pneumococcal-vaccine-in-pakistan-national-immunization-program-a-comparison
#10
Attia Bari, Fatima Zeeshan, Aizza Zafar, Hasan Ejaz, Uzma Jabeen, Ahsan Waheed Rathore
OBJECTIVE: To describe bacteriological profile, morbidity and mortality of acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) in children and to compare these parameters before and after the introduction of Pneumococcal vaccine in Pakistan National Immunization Program. METHODS: The present descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Paediatric Medicine of The Children's Hospital Lahore from January 2012 to December 2015. A total of 503 children one month to five years of age admitted with diagnosis of meningitis were included...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515627/frequently-asked-questions-on-seven-rare-adverse-events-following-immunization
#11
REVIEW
G L D'alò, E Zorzoli, A Capanna, G Gervasi, E Terracciano, L Zaratti, E Franco
Routine mass immunization programs have contributed greatly to the control of infectious diseases and to the improvement of the health of populations. Over the last decades, the rise of antivaccination movements has threatened the advances made in this field to the point that vaccination coverage rates have decreased and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases have resurfaced. One of the critical points of the immunization debate revolves around the level of risk attributable to vaccination, namely the possibility of experiencing serious and possibly irreversible adverse events...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513340/questions-about-cervical-and-breast-cancer-screening-knowledge-practice-and-outcomes-a-review-of-demographic-and-health-surveys
#12
Laura Viens, Doug Perin, Virginia Senkomago, Antonio Neri, Mona Saraiya
United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals and the World Health Organization's Global Monitoring Framework support a strong global commitment to reducing the high burden of cervical and breast cancers among low- and middle-income countries. Strategies include vaccination, screening, and early diagnosis. Population-based surveys, such as those conducted by the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program, can collect the information needed to guide cancer control efforts in a standardized comparable manner...
May 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511853/immunologic-evaluation-of-10-different-adjuvants-for-use-in-vaccines-for-chickens-against-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus
#13
Nazir Ahmed Lone, Erica Spackman, Darrell Kapczynski
Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are a threat to poultry production worldwide. Vaccination is utilized as a component of control programs for both high pathogenicity (HP) and low pathogenicity (LP) AIV. Over 95% of all AIV vaccine used in poultry are inactivated, adjuvanted products. To identify the best formulations for chickens, vaccines were prepared with beta-propiolactone (BPL) inactivated A/British Columbia/314514-1/2004 H7N3 LP AIV using ten commercially available or experimental adjuvants. Each vaccine formulation was evaluated for immunogenicity in chickens...
May 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511437/children-s-physical-activity-awareness-among-mothers-in-a-saudi-arabian-health-center
#14
Maysah Amer, Ghada Al Arfaj, Abdulaziz A Alodhayani
INTRODUCTION: Physical inactivity is a major contributor to the increasing levels of obesity and other serious medical conditions among children and adolescents worldwide. A major factor in this increase is lack of awareness of mothers' regarding the Physical Activity (PA) of their children. AIM: The current study aimed to identify the degree of knowledge and awareness of Saudi mothers' regarding their children's physical activities, which will be useful for improving physical education, health programs, and eventually children's health care...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508620/-prevalence-of-human-papillomavirus-in-spanish-women-from-a-population-screening-program
#15
S García, M Dominguez-Gil, J Gayete, S Rojo, J L Muñoz, J S Salas, C Echevarria, M Blanco, C Ramos, M De Frutos, L López-Urrutia, L Viñuela, S Tamames, P Redondo, J M Jiménez, J M Eiros, R Ortiz de Lejarazu
OBJECTIVE: The human papillomavirus (HPV), is necessary to cause a woman developing cervical cancer. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of women with HPV infection, covered by the program of prevention and early detection of cervical cancer of Castile and León (Spain). METHODS: Samples of women included in the screening program were analyzed. Including a total of 120,326 cervical swab samples, collected in the period from January 2012 to December 2014...
May 10, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507625/surveillance-of-the-most-prevalent-medical-diseases-among-pediatric-age-groups-and-evaluation-of-the-control-measures-used-at-tabuk-hospitals-saudi-arabia
#16
Ameinah Omar Al Tabbal, Seham Sulaiman Al Humedi
BACKGROUND: During the last decades, medical recordings has increased dramatically leading to more awareness of the diseases commonly affecting paediatric age groups opening a wide entrance to the prevention of possible complications and decrease its incidence. AIM: This article aims to assess the prevalence of the commonly encountered paediatric medical diseases by affected system among admitted paediatric patients of different age groups in Tabuk and to identify their burden...
April 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505244/the-influence-of-maternally-derived-antibody-and-infant-age-at-vaccination-on-infant-vaccine-responses-an-individual-participant-meta-analysis
#17
Merryn Voysey, Dominic F Kelly, Thomas R Fanshawe, Manish Sadarangani, Katherine L O'Brien, Rafael Perera, Andrew J Pollard
Importance: The design of infant immunization schedules requires an understanding of the factors that determine the immune response to each vaccine antigen. Data Sources: Deidentified individual participant data from GlaxoSmithKline clinical trials were obtained through Clinical Study Data Request. The data were requested on January 2, 2015, and final data were received on April 11, 2016. Study Selection: Immunogenicity trials of licensed or unlicensed vaccines administered to infants were included if antibody concentrations in infants were measured prior to the first dose of vaccine...
May 15, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504837/immunotherapy-for-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#18
REVIEW
Susanne Unverzagt, Ines Moldenhauer, Monika Nothacker, Dorothea Roßmeißl, Andreas V Hadjinicolaou, Frank Peinemann, Francesco Greco, Barbara Seliger
BACKGROUND: Since the mid-2000s, the field of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has experienced a paradigm shift from non-specific therapy with broad-acting cytokines to specific regimens, which directly target the cancer, the tumour microenvironment, or both.Current guidelines recommend targeted therapies with agents such as sunitinib, pazopanib or temsirolimus (for people with poor prognosis) as the standard of care for first-line treatment of people with mRCC and mention non-specific cytokines as an alternative option for selected patients...
May 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504193/global-economic-evaluations-of-rotavirus-vaccines-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Surachai Kotirum, Naaon Vutipongsatorn, Khachen Kongpakwattana, Raymond Hutubessy, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
INTRODUCTION: World Health Organization (WHO) recommends Rotavirus vaccines to prevent and control rotavirus infections. Economic evaluations (EE) have been considered to support decision making of national policy. Summarizing global experience of the economic value of rotavirus vaccines is crucial in order to encourage global WHO recommendations for vaccine uptake. Therefore, a systematic review of economic evaluations of rotavirus vaccine was conducted. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, NHS EED, EconLit, CEA Registry, SciELO, LILACS, CABI-Global Health Database, Popline, World Bank - e-Library, and WHOLIS...
May 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501455/exploring-the-acceptability-of-the-available-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-in-canadian-health-care-professionals-and-immunization-experts
#20
Melissa Berman, Eve Dubé, Caroline Quach
BACKGROUND: In children, the 13 and 10-valent pneumoccocal conjugate vaccines (PCV13/10) are currently approved for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Acceptability is a key consideration in the implementation of a vaccine program and it is recognized that health professional's attitudes and opinions towards vaccines are independent predictors of the success of an immunization program. We aimed to survey the beliefs and attitudes for the two available PCVs in health care professionals and immunization experts...
June 5, 2017: Vaccine
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