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vaccination, programs

Mitra Saadatian-Elahi, Stanley Plotkin, Kingston H G Mills, Scott A Halperin, Peter B McIntyre, Valentina Picot, Jacques Louis, David R Johnson
Despite long-standing vaccination programs, substantial increases in reported cases of pertussis have been described in several countries during the last 5years. Cases among very young infants who are at greatest risk of pertussis-related hospitalizations and mortality are the most alarming. Multiple hypotheses including but not limited to the availability of more sensitive diagnostic tests, greater awareness, and waning vaccine-induced immunity over time have been posited for the current challenges with pertussis...
October 22, 2016: Vaccine
Kristin L Johnson, Meng-Yun Lin, Howard Cabral, Lewis E Kazis, Ingrid T Katz
HPV vaccination coverage is suboptimal. Previous research largely focused on vaccinating girls. This study aimed to identify factors associated with HPV vaccination among male and female adolescents. We conducted secondary analyses using the National Immunization Survey-Teen. We specified parallel logistic models to examine associations of adolescent, caregiver, and provider characteristics with vaccination status among boys and girls. The primary outcome was HPV vaccination status defined as unvaccinated, initiated, or completed...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Community Health
Kim J Brolin Ribacke, Dell D Saulnier, Anneli Eriksson, Johan von Schreeb
Significant efforts were invested in halting the recent Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa. Now, studies are emerging on the magnitude of the indirect health effects of the outbreak in the affected countries, and the aim of this study is to systematically assess the results of these publications. The methodology for this review adhered to the Prisma guidelines for systematic reviews. A total of 3354 articles were identified for screening, and while 117 articles were read in full, 22 studies were included in the final review...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Walid S Ayoub, Erica Cohen
Chronic hepatitis B is a worldwide disease, with significant burden on health care systems. While universal vaccination programs have led to an overall decrease in incidence of transmission of hepatitis B, unfortunately, there remain large areas in the world where vaccination against hepatitis B is not practiced. In addition, vertical transmission of hepatitis B persists as a major concern. Hepatitis B treatment of the pregnant patient requires a thorough assessment of disease activity and close monitoring for flares, regardless of initiation of antiviral therapy...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Jennifer E Isenor, Jessica L Killen, Beverly A Billard, Shelly A McNeil, Donna MacDougall, Beth A Halperin, Kathryn L Slayter, Susan K Bowles
BACKGROUND: Annual immunization is the most effective way to prevent influenza and its associated complications. However, optimal immunization rates are not being met in Nova Scotia, Canada. Additional providers, such as pharmacists, may improve access and convenience to receive vaccines. Pharmacists began immunizing patients 5 years of age and older within the publicly funded universal influenza vaccination program during the 2013-2014 influenza season. The objective of this study was to evaluate influenza immunization coverage rates before and after pharmacists in Nova Scotia gained authority to immunize as part of the publicly funded universal influenza vaccination program...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Z Koné, G Coulibaly, A T J Daix, A S Bakayoko, K Samaké, D P Kouassi, K M S Domoua
INTRODUCTION: The National tuberculosis program (NTP) in Ivory Coast recommends that children under 5 years living in a family environment with contagious tuberculosis patients, should receive Prophylactic treatment with INH (PTI), whatever the result of the tuberculin skin test (positive or negative) and their BCG status (vaccinated or not), at a dose of 5mg/kg/day for 6 months. We conducted this study to check the implementation of this recommendation in three support services of tuberculosis in Abidjan, the economic capital...
October 21, 2016: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
Kelly D Moynihan, Cary F Opel, Gregory L Szeto, Alice Tzeng, Eric F Zhu, Jesse M Engreitz, Robert T Williams, Kavya Rakhra, Michael H Zhang, Adrienne M Rothschilds, Sudha Kumari, Ryan L Kelly, Byron H Kwan, Wuhbet Abraham, Kevin Hu, Naveen K Mehta, Monique J Kauke, Heikyung Suh, Jennifer R Cochran, Douglas A Lauffenburger, K Dane Wittrup, Darrell J Irvine
Checkpoint blockade with antibodies specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4 or programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1; also known as PD-1) elicits durable tumor regression in metastatic cancer, but these dramatic responses are confined to a minority of patients. This suboptimal outcome is probably due in part to the complex network of immunosuppressive pathways present in advanced tumors, which are unlikely to be overcome by intervention at a single signaling checkpoint. Here we describe a combination immunotherapy that recruits a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells to eliminate large tumor burdens in syngeneic tumor models and a genetically engineered mouse model of melanoma; to our knowledge tumors of this size have not previously been curable by treatments relying on endogenous immunity...
October 24, 2016: Nature Medicine
Sarikapan Wilailak, Nuttapong Lertchaipattanakul
Between the years of 2010-2012, it was estimated there were a total of 112,392 new cases of cancers in Thailand, thus, the total age-standardized rate (ASR) per 100,000 is 137.6. In regards to the most prevalent types of cancer in female, breast cancer has the highest ASR, followed by cervical cancer (ASR=14.4); liver and bile duct cancer; colon and rectum cancer; trachea, bronchus and lung cancer; ovarian cancer (ASR=6.0); thyroid cancer; non-Hodgkin lymphoma and uterine cancer (ASR=4.3). The trend of cervical cancer in Thailand is decreasing, one key factor in making this possible was the employment of dual tract strategy (Pap smear and visual inspection with acetic acid [VIA]) by the government in 2005...
November 2016: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Biao Tang, Yanni Xiao, Jianhong Wu
Zika virus co-circulates with dengue in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Cases of co-infection by dengue and Zika have been reported, the implication of this co-infection for an integrated intervention program for controlling both dengue and Zika must be addressed urgently. Here, we formulate a mathematical model to describe the transmission dynamics of co-infection of dengue and Zika with particular focus on the effects of Zika outbreak by vaccination against dengue among human hosts. Our analysis determines specific conditions under which vaccination against dengue can significantly increase the Zika outbreak peak, and speed up the Zika outbreak peak timing...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Analía Rial, Florencia Ferrara, Norma Suárez, Paola Scavone, Juan Martín Marqués, José Alejandro Chabalgoity
Respiratory tract infections are among the most frequent infections in humans causing millions of deaths especially in children and the elderly. Antibiotics and vaccines are the main available tools of control, but resistant strains are continuously arising and available vaccines only account for few of many pathogens involved. Non-specific immunotherapies are an emerging alternative to induce protective immunity at the airways. Mucosally administered polyvalent bacterial lysates (PBLs) have been widely used for decades for prevention of respiratory diseases, but the bases of their proposed therapeutic effectiveness are still controversial...
October 20, 2016: Microbes and Infection
María Fernández-Prada, María Rodríguez-Martínez, Rebeca García-García, María Dolores García-Corte, Carmen Martínez-Ortega
INTRODUCTION: Children undergoing chemotherapy for cancer have special vaccination needs after completion of the treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adaptation of post-chemotherapy vaccination schedules. METHOD: An observational study was performed on a retrospective cohort that included all children aged from 0 to 14 years, who completed chemotherapy in a tertiary hospital between 2009 and 2015. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Immunisation was administered in accordance with the guidelines of the Vaccine Advisory Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics...
October 20, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Pradeep Haldar, Pankaj Agrawal
Global Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-18 calls for the ultimate withdrawal of oral polio vaccines (OPV) from all immunization programs across the world. The phased globally synchronized withdrawal would begin with type 2 serotype in 2016 through a switch from trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV) and is associated with small but real risk of Vaccine Derived Polio Virus (VDPV) outbreaks. To mitigate this risk, efforts across the world, including India, are underway that comprise of Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) introduction, containment of type 2 wild and vaccine strains, securing bOPV supplies, and surveillance and response protocols for any outbreaks after switch...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Arindam Nandi, Devra M Barter, Shankar Prinja, T Jacob John
OBJECTIVE: In March 2014, India, the country with historically the highest burden of polio, was declared polio free, with no reported cases since January 2011. We estimate the health and economic benefits of polio elimination in India with the oral polio vaccine (OPV) during 1982-2012. METHODS: Based on a pre-vaccine incidence rate, we estimate the counterfactual burden of polio in the hypothetical absence of the national polio elimination program in India. We attribute differences in outcomes between the actual (adjusted for under-reporting) and hypothetical counterfactual scenarios in our model to the national polio program...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Khitam Muhsen, Eias Kassem, Uri Rubenstein, Sophy Goren, Moshe Ephros, Dani Cohen, Lester M Shulman
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty exists about the sustainability of the reduction in rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) following the introduction of rotavirus vaccines into national immunization programs, and on its potential impact on circulating genotypes. RotaTeq was introduced into the Israeli national immunization program in December 2010, and vaccination coverage is around 80%. AIMS: To examine the change in incidence of RVGE hospitalization and rotavirus genotypes, during the five years after introduction of RotaTeq into the Israeli national immunization program...
October 19, 2016: Vaccine
Chaevia Clendinen, Yapei Zhang, Rebecca N Warburton, Donald W Light
BACKGROUND: Nearly all of the 500,000 new cases of cervical cancer and 270,000 deaths occur in middle or lower income countries. Yet the two most prevalent HPV vaccines are unaffordable to most. Even prices to Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, are unaffordable to graduating countries, once they lose Gavi subsidies. Merck and Glaxosmithkline (GSK) claim their prices to Gavi equal their manufacturing costs; but these costs remain undisclosed. We undertook this investigation to estimate those costs...
October 19, 2016: Vaccine
Arend Voorman, Hil M Lyons
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is closer than ever to achieving a polio-free world. Immunization activities must still be carried out in non-endemic countries to maintain population immunity at levels which will stop poliovirus from spreading if it is re-introduced from still-infected areas. In areas where there is no active transmission of poliovirus, programs must rely on surrogate indicators of population immunity to determine the appropriate immunization activities, typically caregiver-reported vaccination history obtained from non-polio acute flaccid paralysis patients identified through polio surveillance...
October 19, 2016: Vaccine
Maria Serena Beato, Luca Tassoni, Adelaide Milani, Annalisa Salviato, Guido Di Martino, Monica Mion, Lebana Bonfanti, Isabella Monne, Simon James Watson, Alice Fusaro
In August 2012 repeated respiratory outbreaks caused by swine influenza A virus (swIAV) were registered for a whole year in a breeding farm in northeast Italy that supplied piglets for fattening. The virus, initially characterized in the farm, was a reassortant Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (H1avN1) genotype, containing a haemagglutinin segment derived from the pandemic H1N1 (A(H1N1)pdm09) lineage. To control infection, a vaccination program using vaccines against the A(H1N1)pdm09, human-like H1N2 (H1huN2), human-like H3N2 (H3N2), and H1avN1 viruses was implemented in sows in November 2013...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
M C Castro Copete, C Crespo Martínez, C Martínez García, J Calbo Maiques
In recent years, the use of vaccines has been standardized within vaccination programs. Adverse effects at the puncture site are usually mild and transient. Nevertheless, in some cases, persistence subcutaneous nodules can develop; these are often underdiagnosed because they are so rare and because of the long time that can transpire between the vaccination and their appearance. Histologically, they consist of a lymphoid follicular hyperplasia that occurs as a reaction to the aluminum particles usually used as an adjuvant in some vaccines...
October 19, 2016: Radiología
M Topuridze, D Baliashvili, T Komakhidze, M Shishniashvili, N Grdzelidze, M Butsashvili
Rotavirus (RV) is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. RV causes approximately half a million deaths each year among children aged <5 years. According to WHO estimates for 2008, there were approximately 10 to 50 deaths annually in young children due to rotavirus diarrhea in Georgia. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to rotavirus diarrhea and the rotavirus vaccine among health care workers (HCWs). The National Center for Disease Control and Public Health (NCDC) conducted a cross-sectional survey of HCWs involved in the expanded program of immunization (EPI)...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
María Isabel Fernández-Cano, Xavier Espada-Trespalacios, Azahara Reyes-Lacalle, Josep Maria Manresa Domínguez, Lluís Armadans-Gil, Magda Campins-Martí, Gemma Falguera-Puig, Pere Toran Monserrat
INTRODUCTION: The re-emergence of pertussis and the severity of its complications in infants younger than 3 months, were determining factors for starting a vaccination program for pregnant women in the third trimester of gestation in Catalonia in February 2014. This was the first autonomous community to introduce it in Spain. The aim of the study was to estimate the coverage of the program in its first year of implementation. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the data from the Primary Care Centre computerised medical records of pregnant women attending Sexual and Reproductive Health Care centres of the Metropolitan Nord area of the province of Barcelona, part of the Catalan Institute of Health...
October 18, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
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