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Fat transplantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144272/body-composition-in-children-with-chronic-illness-accuracy-of-bedside-assessment-techniques
#1
Enid E Martinez, Craig D Smallwood, Nicolle L Quinn, Katelyn Ariagno, Lori J Bechard, Christopher P Duggan, Nilesh M Mehta
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of estimated fat mass and fat-free mass from bedside methods compared with reference methods in children with chronic illnesses. STUDY DESIGN: Fat mass and fat-free mass values were obtained by skinfold, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and deuterium dilution method in children with spinal muscular atrophy, intestinal failure, and post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143185/osteogenic-prospective-of-deriving-human-dental-stem-cells-in-collagen-matrix-boost
#2
Tong-Jing Fang, Ding-Han Wang, Chia-Yu Wang, Raju Poongodi, Nien-Hsien Liou, Jiang-Chuan Liu, Ming-Lun Hsu, Po-Da Hong, Shih-Fang Yang, Meng-Lun Liu
Stem cells derived from oral tissue represent a highly attractive alternative source for clinical bone regeneration because they can be collected by non-invasive or minimally invasive procedures. Herein, we describe the human dental stem cells (DSCs) deriving from buccal fat pads (BFP), dental pulp (DP) of impacted teeth, and periodontal ligaments (PDL) to obtain BFPSCs, DPSCs, and PDLSCs, respectively. Cells were purified with selected medium and expanded through passages in stem cell culture medium. Purified cells were characterized for stemness by their growth rate, immunostaining, and multilineage differentiation ability...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137914/orthogonal-potency-analysis-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-function-during-ex-vivo-expansion
#3
Danika Khong, Matthew Li, Amy Singleton, Ling-Yee Chin, Shilpaa Munkundan, Biju Parekkadan
Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have cross-functional, intrinsic potency that is of therapeutic interest. Their ability to regenerate bone, fat, and cartilage, modulate the immune system, and nurture the growth and function of other bone marrow hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells have all been evaluated by transplant applications of MSCs. These applications require the isolation and expansion scaled cell production. To investigate biophysical properties of MSCs that can be feasibly utilized as predictors of bioactivity during biomanufacturing, we used a low-density seeding model to drive MSCs into proliferative stress and exhibit the hallmark characteristics of in vitro aging...
November 11, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122499/micro-autologous-fat-transplantation-for-rejuvenation-of-the-dorsal-surface-of-the-aging-hand
#4
Lin Yun-Nan, Huang Shu-Hung, Lin Tsung-Ying, Chou Chih-Kang, Huang Yu-Hao, Takahashi Hidenobu, Lai Chung-Sheng, Lin Sin-Daw, Lin Tsai-Ming
BACKGROUND: Rejuvenation of the dorsal surface of the hand for various conditions, such as cutaneous dyschromia, fine wrinkling, skin laxity, visible extensor tendons, and varicosities appear vital to prevent wrist and digit flexion resulting from hiding of the aged appearance of the hand. Numerous fillers have been applied to re-contour the aging dorsal surface of the hand and the results were variable. The micro-autologous fat transplantation (MAFT) technique, proposed by Lin et al...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121675/astaxanthin-prevents-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-of-the-steatotic-liver-in-mice
#5
Shaowei Li, Terumi Takahara, Masayuki Fujino, Yasuyuki Fukuhara, Toshiro Sugiyama, Xiao-Kang Li, Shiro Takahara
Steatosis has a low tolerance against ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). To prevent IRI in the steatotic liver, we attempted to elucidate the protective effect of astaxanthin (ASTX) in the steatotic liver model by giving mice a methionine and choline-deficient high fat (MCDHF) diet. Levels of lipid peroxidation and apoptosis, the expression of inflammatory cytokines and heme oxygenase (HO)-1, in the liver were assessed. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis-related proteins and members of the signaling pathway were also examined in isolated Kupffer cells and/or hepatocytes from the steatotic liver...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118755/apoptotic-cells-induced-signaling-for-immune-homeostasis-in-macrophages-and-dendritic-cells
#6
REVIEW
Uriel Trahtemberg, Dror Mevorach
Inefficient and abnormal clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) contributes to systemic autoimmune disease in humans and mice, and inefficient chromosomal DNA degradation by DNAse II leads to systemic polyarthritis and a cytokine storm. By contrast, efficient clearance allows immune homeostasis, generally leads to a non-inflammatory state for both macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), and contributes to maintenance of peripheral tolerance. As many as 3 × 10(8) cells undergo apoptosis every hour in our bodies, and one of the primary "eat me" signals expressed by apoptotic cells is phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113028/restoration-of-a-healthy-intestinal-microbiota-normalizes-portal-hypertension-in-a-rat-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#7
Teresa García-Lezana, Imma Raurell, Miren Bravo, Manuel Torres-Arauz, María Teresa Salcedo, Alba Santiago, Andreu Schoenenberger, Chaysavanh Manichanh, Joan Genescà, María Martell, Salvador Augustin
Portal hypertension (PH) drives most of the clinical complications in chronic liver diseases. However, its progression in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and its association with the intestinal microbiota (IM) has been scarcely studied. Our aim was to investigate the role of IM in the mechanisms leading to PH in early NASH. The experimental design was divided in two stages: Stage 1: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 8 weeks with high-fat diet and high-glucose/fructose syrup (HFGFD) or control diet/water (CD)...
November 7, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107964/obesogenic-diet-induced-gut-barrier-dysfunction-and-pathobiont-expansion-aggravate-experimental-colitis
#8
June-Chul Lee, Hae-Youn Lee, Tae Kang Kim, Min-Soo Kim, Young Mi Park, Jinyoung Kim, Kihyoun Park, Mi-Na Kweon, Seok-Hyung Kim, Jin-Woo Bae, Kyu Yeon Hur, Myung-Shik Lee
Consumption of a typical Western diet is a risk factor for several disorders. Metabolic syndrome is the most common disease associated with intake of excess fat. However, the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is also greater in subjects consuming a Western diet, although the mechanism of this phenomenon is not clearly understood. We examined the morphological and functional changes of the intestine, the first site contacting dietary fat, in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) inducing obesity. Paneth cell area and production of antimicrobial peptides by Paneth cells were decreased in HFD-fed mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093404/nationwide-survey-of-741-patients-with-systemic-amyloid-light-chain-amyloidosis-in-japan
#9
Chihiro Shimazaki, Hiroyuki Hata, Sinsuke Iida, Mitsuharu Ueda, Nagaaki Katoh, Yoshiki Sekishima, Shuichi Ikeda, Masahide Yazaki, Wakaba Fukushima, Yukio Ando
Objective To retrospectively investigate the clinical manifestations of systemic amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis in Japanese patients and the treatment strategy for the condition. Methods We conducted a survey of Japanese AL patients, who were treated between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2014. Results A total of 741 AL amyloidosis patients were included in this study (436 men and 305 women; median age: 65 years old, range: 31-93). The most frequently affected organ was the kidneys (n=542), followed by the heart (n=252), gastrointestinal (GI) tract (n=164), autonomic nervous system (n=131), liver (n=71), and peripheral nervous system (n=71)...
November 1, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075815/recent-advances-on-the-application-of-negative-pressure-external-volume-expansion-in-breast-plastic-surgery
#10
REVIEW
Wenyue Liu, Jie Luan
BACKGROUND: External volume expansion (EVE) has been effectively applied as an assistance to fat transplantation on breast plastic surgery. Many indicators and refinements have been made in clinical practice; meanwhile, the related mechanism and more optimized preclinical model also have been explored in experimental studies. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using PubMed with the keywords: EVE, negative pressure, breast enlargement, breast augmentation, breast reconstruction, breast plastic surgery and breast aesthetic surgery...
October 26, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068969/positive-effect-of-incubated-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-microfat-graft-survival
#11
Jong Woo Choi, Sung-Chan Kim, Eun-Jung Park, Ju-A Lee, Woo Shik Jeong
Autologous fat grafting is commonly used for soft tissue augmentation, but its unpredictably high resorption rate remains a major limitation. Although adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are an attractive candidate for enhancing graft retention, their poor posttransplantation viability limits their application. The authors aimed to evaluate the effect of incubated ASCs on microfat graft survival in an immunocompromised mouse model. Lipoaspirates for microfat injection were collected from the wasted lower abdominal adipose tissues of 5 patients who had undergone breast reconstructive surgery with an abdominal flap...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068143/immunoisolation-of-murine-islet-allografts-in-vascularized-sites-through-conformal-coating-with-polyethylene-glycol
#12
Vita Manzoli, Chiara Villa, Allison L Bayer, Laura Morales, R Damaris Molano, Yvan Torrente, Camillo Ricordi, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Alice A Tomei
Islet encapsulation may allow transplantation without immunosuppression but thus far islets in large microcapsules transplanted in the peritoneal cavity failed to reverse diabetes in humans. We showed that islet transplantation in confined well-vascularized sites like the epididymal fat pad (EFP) improved graft outcomes, but only conformal coated (CC) islets can be implanted in these sites in curative doses. Here, we showed that CC using polyethylene glycol (PEG) and alginate (ALG) was not immunoisolating because of its high permselectivity and strong allogeneic T cell responses...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065258/characterization-of-body-composition-and-definition-of-sarcopenia-in-patients-with-alcoholic-cirrhosis-a-computed-tomography-based-study
#13
Jaya Benjamin, Varsha Shasthry, Chetan Ramesh Kaal, Lovkesh Anand, Ankit Bhardwaj, Vanshja Pandit, Ankur Arora, Sasidharan Rajesh, Viniyendra Pamecha, Vikas Jain, Guresh Kumar, Anthony Loria, Puneet Puri, Yogendra Kumar Joshi, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND: Alterations in body composition (BC) as loss of fat and muscle mass (sarcopenia) are associated with poor outcome in alcoholic cirrhosis (ALC). Prevalence of sarcopenia depends upon the method of assessment. Computed Tomography (CT) is a gold standard tool for assessing BC. AIM: To characterize BC and define sarcopenia in ALC patients using CT. METHODS: Single slice CT images at L3 vertebrae of healthy controls (HC) - organ transplant donors and ALC patients were analysed to give cross-sectional area of five skeletal muscles normalized for height -skeletal muscle index (SMI; cm(2) /m(2) ), area of subcutaneous (SAT;cm(2) ) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT;cm(2) )...
November 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056513/metformin-alters-upper-small-intestinal-microbiota-that-impact-a-glucose-sglt1-sensing-glucoregulatory-pathway
#14
Paige V Bauer, Frank A Duca, T M Zaved Waise, Brittany A Rasmussen, Mona A Abraham, Helen J Dranse, Akshita Puri, Catherine A O'Brien, Tony K T Lam
The gut microbiota alters energy homeostasis. In parallel, metformin regulates upper small intestinal sodium glucose cotransporter-1 (SGLT1), but whether changes of the microbiota or SGLT1-dependent pathways in the upper small intestine mediate metformin action is unknown. Here we report that upper small intestinal glucose sensing triggers an SGLT1-dependent pathway to lower glucose production in rodents. High-fat diet (HFD) feeding reduces glucose sensing and SGLT1 expression in the upper small intestine. Upper small intestinal metformin treatment restores SGLT1 expression and glucose sensing while shifting the upper small intestinal microbiota partly by increasing the abundance of Lactobacillus...
October 17, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053516/fat-graft-survival-after-recipient-site-pretreatment-with-fractional-carbon-dioxide-laser
#15
Sung-Eun Kim, Jun Ho Lee, Tae Gon Kim, Yong-Ha Kim, Kyu Jin Chung
BACKGROUND: Fat grafting is a commonly performed procedure not only for augmenting the soft tissue but also for regeneration in esthetic and reconstructive plastic surgery.However, unpredictable fat survival rate because of high resorption rate is remained as the main problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pretreatment of the recipient site to the fat survival using fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. METHODS: The rats were divided to 2 groups...
December 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052508/assessment-of-the-clinical-efficacy-of-cell-assisted-lipotransfer-and-conventional-fat-graft-a-meta-analysis-based-on-case-control-studies
#16
Yu Wang, Yanfei Wu
BACKGROUND: Cell-assisted lipotransfer is a novel technique for fat grafting. This study aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of cell-assisted lipotransfer technology compared with conventional fat grafting. METHODS: According to PRISMA guidelines, related articles in PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library were systematically searched. Studies focusing on fat survival rate and/or patient satisfaction rate for fat grafting alone versus cell-assisted lipotransfer were retrieved...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051340/attenuation-of-myeloid-specific-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-induces-inflammatory-cerebrovascular-disease-and-stroke
#17
M C Hollander, Lawrence L Latour, Dan Yang, Hiroki Ishii, Zhiguang Xiao, Yongfen Min, Abhik Ray-Choudhury, Jeeva Munasinghe, Anand S Merchant, P C Lin, John Hallenbeck, Manfred Boehm, Li Yang
Rationale: Cryptogenic strokes, those of unknown cause, have been estimated as high as 30-40% of strokes. Inflammation has been suggested as a critical etiological factor. However, there is lack of experimental evidence. Objective: In this study, we investigated inflammation associated stroke etiology using a mouse model that developed spontaneous stroke due to myeloid deficiency of TGFβ signaling. Methods and Results: We report that mice with deletion of Tgfbr2 in myeloid cells (Tgfbr2(Myeko)) developed cerebrovascular inflammation in the absence of significant pathology in other tissues, culminating in stroke and severe neurological deficits with 100% penetrance...
October 19, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047330/deletion-of-the-nr4a-nuclear-receptor-nor1-in-hematopoietic-stem-cells-reduces-inflammation-but-not-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-formation
#18
Hua Qing, Karrie L Jones, Elizabeth B Heywood, Hong Lu, Alan Daugherty, Dennis Bruemmer
BACKGROUND: The NR4A3 orphan nuclear hormone receptor, NOR1, functions as a constitutively active transcription factor to regulate inflammation, proliferation, and cell survival during pathological vascular remodeling. Inflammatory processes represent key mechanisms leading to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation. However, a role of NOR1 in AAA formation has not been investigated previously. METHODS: Inflammatory gene expression was analyzed in bone marrow-derived macrophages isolated from NOR1-deficient mice...
October 18, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047209/effects-of-cryopreservation-on-adipose-tissue-derived-microvascular-fragments
#19
Matthias W Laschke, Philipp Karschnia, Claudia Scheuer, Alexander Heß, Wolfgang Metzger, Michael D Menger
Adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments (ad-MVF) are effective vascularization units for tissue engineering. They rapidly reassemble into new microvascular networks after seeding on scaffolds and subsequent in vivo implantation. Herein, we analyzed whether the vascularization capacity of ad-MVF is affected by cryopreservation. Ad-MVF were isolated from the epididymal fat pads of C57BL/6 mice and cryopreserved for 7 days to compare their morphology, viability, cellular composition and protein expression with freshly isolated control ad-MVF...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045546/characterization-of-adipose-tissue-product-quality-using-measurements-of-oxygen-consumption-rate
#20
Thomas M Suszynski, David A Sieber, Kathryn Mueller, Allen L Van Beek, Bruce L Cunningham, Jeffrey M Kenkel
Background: Fat grafting is a common procedure in plastic surgery but associated with unpredictable graft retention. Adipose tissue (AT) "product" quality is affected by the methods used for harvest, processing and transfer, which vary widely amongst surgeons. Currently, there is no method available to accurately assess the quality of AT. Objectives: In this study, we present a novel method for the assessment of AT product quality through direct measurements of oxygen consumption rate (OCR)...
October 13, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
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