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Krill oil

Amaya Albalat, Lauren E Nadler, Nicholas Foo, James R Dick, Andrew J R Watts, Heather Philp, Douglas M Neil, Oscar Monroig
In the UK, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) supports its most important shellfish fishery. Nephrops are sold either whole, or as "tails-only" for the scampi trade. In the "tailing" process, the "head" (cephalothorax) is discarded as waste. A smaller crustacean species, the Antarctic krill Euphasia superba, represents an economically valuable industry, as its extractable oil is sold as a human dietary supplement. The aim of this study was to determine the amount and composition of the oil contained in discarded Nephrops heads and to compare its composition to the oil extracted from krill...
December 1, 2016: Marine Drugs
Michael D Rush, Richard B van Breemen
RATIONALE: Electrospray mass spectrometry methods for the analysis of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) routinely include ammonium acetate or ammonium formate in the mobile phase. In an effort to justify and optimize the use of these additives, we investigated possible functions of ammonium compounds in the ionization of PCs. METHODS: Because PCs contain a quaternary amine, the role of ammonium in neutralizing the negatively charged phosphate group was investigated by using deuterated ammonium acetate, adjusting the pH, varying the organic solvent composition, and by comparing the additives ammonium acetate, ammonium formate and ammonium bicarbonate...
November 11, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Laura A Deinema, Algis J Vingrys, Chinn Yi Wong, David C Jackson, Holly R Chinnery, Laura E Downie
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of 2 forms of oral long-chain omega-3 (ω-3) essential fatty acid (EFA) supplements, phospholipid (krill oil) and triacylglyceride (fish oil), for treating dry eye disease (DED). DESIGN: Randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: This study was conducted at a single site and involved 60 participants with mild to moderate DED who were randomized (1:1:1) to 1 of 3 groups: placebo (olive oil), krill oil, or fish oil supplements...
November 3, 2016: Ophthalmology
Bing-Zheng Li, Tuyen Truong, Bhesh Bhandari
Solid milk fat stearin (S25) can be a promising oxidation retarder due to its capacity to entrap liquid oils, especially for incorporating omega-3 (ω-3) rich oils into dairy products. Thermal properties of S25/ω-3 rich oil mixtures are necessary for such application. The effects of S25 on the crystallization and melting behaviours of ω-3 rich oils, namely fish oil (FO), linseed oil (LO) and krill oil (KO), were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermograms showed that with S25 concentration increasing, transitions of FO and LO shifted to lower and largely to higher temperatures, respectively, while crystallization temperature of KO slightly decreased...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Yoshio Suzuki, Minoru Fukushima, Keishoku Sakuraba, Keisuke Sawaki, Kazuaki Sekigawa
BACKGROUND: Krill oil is an edible oil extracted from krill, a small red-colored crustacean found in the Antarctic Ocean. The administration of krill oil is reported to mitigate inflammation in patients with cardiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, or osteoarthritis. However, the effect of krill oil on mild knee pain has not yet been determined. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of krill oil on mild knee pain. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of fifty adults (38-85 years old) with mild knee pain attending the Fukushima Orthopedic Clinic (Tochigi, Japan) between September 2014 and March 2015...
2016: PloS One
Glen S Patten, Luz Sanguansri, Mary Ann Augustin, Mahinda Y Abeywardena, Anthony R Bird, Craig S Patch, Damien P Belobrajdic
Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) may be more bioavailable from krill oil compared to fish oil due to their phospholipid structure. We tested whether a microencapsulated krill and tuna oil blend (ME-TOKO) provided greater LC n-3 PUFA bioavailability, improved blood lipid profiles and increased intestinal contractility compared to microencapsulated tuna oil (ME-TO). Rats were divided into three groups to receive isocaloric diets containing ME-TO, ME-TOKO and microencapsulated olive oil (ME-OO) at 0...
September 18, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Abilasha Gayani Jayathilake, Paul Vincent Senior, Xiao Qun Su
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world. The current available treatments for CRC include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, surgery is only useful when the disease is diagnosed at the earlier stage. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are associated with numerous side effects that decrease the patients' quality of life. Safer, effective alternatives, such as natural compounds, to chemotherapy are desirable. This study assessed the efficacy of free fatty acid (FFA) extract of krill oil on three human CRC cells lines...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Christopher M DeGiorgio, Ameer Y Taha
INTRODUCTION: There is growing interest in alternative and nutritional therapies for drug resistant epilepsy. ῳ-3 fatty acids such as fish or krill oil are widely available supplements used to lower triglycerides and enhance cardiovascular health. ῳ-3 fatty acids have been studied extensively in animal models of epilepsy. Yet, evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials in epilepsy is at an early stage. AREAS COVERED: This report focuses on the key ῳ-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA, their incorporation into the lipid bilayer, modulation of ion channels, and mechanisms of action in reducing excitability within the central nervous system...
October 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Qian Wu, Sibel Uluata, Leqi Cui, Chao Wang, Dongsheng Li, Julian Mcclements, Eric A Decker
Krill oil is a unique source of omega-3 fatty acids since it is a mixture of phospholipids and triacylglycerols. Due to the presence of phospholipids, it can form oil-in-water emulsions without additional food additives. In this work, the physical stability of krill oil-in-water emulsions was determined at various pH values (3-7) and NaCl concentrations (50-1000 mM). The initial particle size ranged from 150 to 165 nm. The emulsions were the most stable at pH ≥ 5.0 and salt concentrations below 100 mM. Lipid oxidation was accelerated by iron and inhibited by Trolox and α-tocopherol...
August 10, 2016: Food & Function
I S M van der Wurff, C von Schacky, K Berge, P A Kirschner, R H M de Groot
INTRODUCTION: The influence of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) supplementation on brain functioning is debated. Some studies have found positive effects on cognition in children with learning difficulties, elderly people with cognitive impairment and depression scores in depressed individuals. Other studies have found null or negative effects. Observational studies in adolescents have found positive associations between fish consumption (containing n-3 LCPUFAs) and academic achievement...
July 8, 2016: BMJ Open
Da-Yong Zhou, Yu-Xin Liu, Zhi-Li Xu, Fa-Wen Yin, Liang Song, Xiu-Lin Wan, Yu-Kun Song, Bei-Wei Zhu
BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been a noticeable increase in research of krill oil (KO) for its health benefits. However, the action of KO on lowering blood pressure (BP) has not been studied yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the ability of long-term KO supplementation to lower systolic BP (SBP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. RESULTS: When compared to the blank control (BC) SHR administered with edible soybean oil, the high-dose (500 mg kg(-) (1) BW) KO-supplemented SHR on the 2(nd) , 3(rd) , 4(th) and 5(th) week following oral administration, the mid-dose (100 mg kg(-) (1) BW) KO-supplemented SHR on the 4(th) and 5(th) week following oral administration, and the low-dose (20 mg kg(-) (1) BW) KO-supplemented SHR on the 5(th) week following oral administration showed significantly lower SBP (P < 0...
June 13, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Arrigo F G Cicero, Martina Rosticci, Martino Morbini, Marcella Cagnati, Elisa Grandi, Angelo Parini, Claudio Borghi
INTRODUCTION: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) derived from different sources could have different lipid-lowering effects in humans. The main aim of our study was to compare the short-term triglyceride-lowering efficacy of krill oil and purified omega 3 ethyl ester PUFAs in mildly overweight hypertriglyceridemic subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This double-blind, randomized clinical trial was carried out in 25 moderately hypertriglyceridemic subjects (TG = 150-500 mg/dl)...
June 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Z Mellouk, M Agustina, M Ramirez, K Pena, J Arivalo
AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of dietary krill oil supplementation in modulation of oxidative stress components and DNA oxidative damages marker in cafeteria diet-overfed-rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen aging male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of six each and were exposed for the ensuing 8 weeks to one of the diets: control group (TS) which was submitted to standard chow (330kcal/100g), containing 24% of proteins, 5% of lipids and 70% of carbohydrates...
June 2016: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Papasani V Subbaiah, Karigowda J Dammanahalli, Peng Yang, Jian Bi, J Michael O'Donnell
Several previous studies indicated that for optimal uptake by the brain, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) should be present as phospholipid in the plasma. However most of dietary DHA is absorbed as triacylglycerol (TAG) because it is released as free fatty acid during digestion of either TAG-DHA (fish oil) or sn-2-DHA phospholipid (krill oil), and subsequently incorporated into TAG of chylomicrons. We tested the hypothesis that the absorption of DHA as phospholipid can be increased if it is present in the sn-1 position of dietary phospholipid or in lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), because it would escape the hydrolysis by pancreatic phospholipase A2...
August 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ø Langangen, J Ohlberger, L C Stige, J M Durant, E Ravagnan, N C Stenseth, D Ø Hjermann
Mass mortality events caused by pulse anthropogenic or environmental perturbations (e.g. extreme weather, toxic spills or epizootics) severely reduce the abundance of a population in a short time. The frequency and impact of these events are likely to increase across the globe. Studies on how such events may affect ecological communities of interacting species are scarce. By combining a multi-species Gompertz model with a Bayesian state-space framework, we quantify community level effects of a mass mortality event in a single species...
May 6, 2016: Global Change Biology
Liang Yang, Yating Shao, Hyo-Kyung Han
This study aimed to prepare the aminoclay-lipid hybrid composite to enhance the drug release and improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. Antisolvent precipitation coupled with an immediate freeze-drying method was adopted to incorporate fenofibrate into aminoclay-lipid hybrid composite (ALC). The optimal composition of the ALC formulation was determined as the ratios of aminoclay to krill oil of 3:1 (w/w), krill oil to fenofibrate of 2:1 (w/w), and antisolvent to solvent of 6:4 (v/v)...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Z Mellouk, M Ramirez, K Pena, J Arivalo, M Agustina
BACKGROUND: Obesity has emerged as the biggest pandemic of our times growing parallel to type 2 diabetes. Its managment by several therapeutic approaches has been unable to completely inhibit different pathways involved the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation and PKC activation. Coupled with recent evidences that highlight the role of ROS in the onset and progression of type 2 diabetes, the antioxidants have taken prime focus as potential pharmacological approach...
December 2015: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Z Mellouk, M Agustina, K Pena, J Arivalo
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent decades, so have the risks of associated medical conditions, such as type 2 diabete and cardiovascular disease, raising serious concerns for public health. Obesity is encouraged by current obesogenic environmental conditions that promote the intake of high-energy-dense foods and increased portion sizes. Cafeteria animal models provide a useful tool to study the metabolic syndrome in humans. Several animal studies and clinical trials suggest that marine bioactive oils supply may have potential effects on obesity and its associated features...
December 2015: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Stefan A Jackowski, Azhar Z Alvi, Abdur Mirajkar, Zahabia Imani, Yuliya Gamalevych, Nisar A Shaikh, George Jackowski
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oxidation status of North American n-3 (omega-3) PUFA nutritional supplements commercially available in Canada and evaluate the influence of product formulation and delivery form on oxidative safety. A total of 171 North American over-the-counter n-3 PUFA nutritional supplements were analysed for oxidation safety. Primary and secondary oxidation and total oxidation (TOTOX) were determined using the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) procedures. Comparisons between supplements' final forms, oil source and n-3 PUFA concentration quartiles, as measures of product formulations and delivery forms, were compared using ANOVA...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science
Pedro Araujo, Ephrem Tilahun, Joar Fjørtoft Breivik, Bashir M Abdulkader, Livar Frøyland, Yingxu Zeng
It is well-known that triacylglycerol (TAG) ions are suppressed by phospholipid (PL) ions in regiospecific analysis of TAG by mass spectrometry (MS). Hence, it is essential to remove the PL during sample preparation prior to MS analysis. The present article proposes a cost-effective liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method to remove PL from TAG in different kinds of biological samples by using methanol, hexane and water. High performance thin layer chromatography confirmed the lack of PL in krill oil and salmon liver samples, submitted to the proposed LLE protocol, and liquid chromatography tandem MS confirmed that the identified TAG ions were highly enhanced after implementing the LLE procedure...
February 1, 2016: Talanta
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