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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316891/urban-forests-sustain-diverse-carrion-beetle-assemblages-in-the-new-york-city-metropolitan-area
#1
Nicole A Fusco, Anthony Zhao, Jason Munshi-South
Urbanization is an increasingly pervasive form of land transformation that reduces biodiversity of many taxonomic groups. Beetles exhibit a broad range of responses to urbanization, likely due to the high functional diversity in this order. Carrion beetles (Order: Coleoptera, Family: Silphidae) provide an important ecosystem service by promoting decomposition of small-bodied carcasses, and have previously been found to decline due to forest fragmentation caused by urbanization. However, New York City (NYC) and many other cities have fairly large continuous forest patches that support dense populations of small mammals, and thus may harbor relatively robust carrion beetle communities in city parks...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316136/is-floral-morphology-a-good-predictor-of-floral-visitors-to-antirrhineae-snapdragons-and-relatives
#2
Beatriz Guzmán, José María Gómez, Pablo Vargas
The association between plants and flower visitors has been historically proposed as a main factor driving the evolutionary change of both flower and pollinator phenotypes. The considerable diversity in floral morphology within the tribe Antirrhineae has been traditionally related to pollinator types. We used empirical data on the flower visitors from 59 Antirrhineae taxa from the literature and our own field surveys, which provide an opportunity to test whether flower phenotypes are reliable predictors of visitors and pollinator niches (i...
March 17, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315665/physician-scientists-in-obstetrics-and-gynecology-predictors-of-success-in-obtaining-independent-research-funding
#3
Ijeoma Okeigwe, Cynthia Wang, Joseph A Politch, Linda J Heffner, Wendy Kuohung
BACKGROUND: Obstetrics and gynecology departments receive the smallest amount of National Institutes of Health (NIH) research funding and have significantly lower application success rates compared to pediatric, internal medicine, and surgery departments. The development of mentored early career development training grants (K awards) has been one strategy implemented by the NIH to help aspiring physician-scientists establish independent research careers. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to describe the cohort of ob/gyn physician-scientists who were K08, K12, and K23 recipients from 1988-2015 and to identify predictors of success in obtaining independent federal funding, as defined by acquisition of an R01, R21, R34, U01, U54, P01, or P50...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306227/the-international-consortium-on-the-ehlers-danlos-syndromes
#4
Lara Bloom, Peter Byers, Clair Francomano, Brad Tinkle, Fransiska Malfait
Since 1998, two developments have led to concerns that the EDS nosology needs to be substantially revised. The first development was the clinical and molecular characterization of several new EDS variants, which substantially broadened the molecular basis underlying EDS. The second was the growing concern, in the absence of genetic diagnosis, that the hypermobile type of EDS had an expanded phenotype, may be genetically heterogeneous, and that the diagnostic criteria currently in use were inadequate. Furthermore, there is a dire need for the development of guidelines for management for each type of EDS to allow both the specialist and the generalist to care for affected individuals and their families...
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306172/genetic-divergence-with-ongoing-gene-flow-is-maintained-by-the-use-of-different-hosts-in-phytophagous-ladybird-beetles-genus-henosepilachna
#5
Kei W Matsubayashi, Tetsuo I Kohyama, Norio Kobayashi, Satoko Yamasaki, Masakazu Kuwajima, Haruo Katakura
Adaptation to different environments can promote population divergence via natural selection even in the presence of gene flow-a phenomenon that typically occurs during ecological speciation. To elucidate how natural selection promotes and maintains population divergence during speciation, we investigated the population genetic structure, degree of gene flow and heterogeneous genomic divergence in three closely related Japanese phytophagous ladybird beetles: Henosepilachna pustulosa, H. niponica and H. yasutomii...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302998/distribution-and-diversity-of-enzymes-for-polysaccharide-degradation-in-fungi
#6
Renaud Berlemont
Fungi are important polysaccharide degraders in the environment and for biotechnology. Here, the increasing number of sequenced fungal genomes allowed for systematic identification of genes and proteins involved in polysaccharide degradation in 218 fungi. Globally, 9,003 sequences for glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases targeting cellulose, xylan, and chitin, were identified. Although abundant in most lineages, the distribution of these enzymes is variable even between organisms from the same genus...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301609/community-health-worker-perspectives-on-a-new-primary-health-care-initiative-in-the-eastern-cape-of-south-africa
#7
Katherine Austin-Evelyn, Miriam Rabkin, Tonderayi Macheka, Anthony Mutiti, Judith Mwansa-Kambafwile, Thomas Dlamini, Wafaa M El-Sadr
BACKGROUND: In 2010, South Africa's National Department of Health launched a national primary health care (PHC) initiative to strengthen health promotion, disease prevention, and early disease detection. The strategy, called Re-engineering Primary Health Care (rPHC), aims to provide a preventive and health-promoting community-based PHC model. A key component of rPHC is the use of community-based outreach teams staffed by generalist community health workers (CHWs). METHODS: We conducted focus group discussions and surveys on the knowledge and attitudes of 91 CHWs working on community-based rPHC teams in the King Sabata Dalindyebo (KSD) sub-district of Eastern Cape Province...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299894/insights-on-food-webs-associated-with-the-south-american-tomato-pinworm
#8
Mario Naselli, Antonio Biondi, Giovanna Tropea Garzia, Nicolas Desneux, Agatino Russo, Gaetano Siscaro, Lucia Zappalà
BACKGROUND: Complexity of both natural and managed ecosystems involves various forms of interaction among organisms. Two or more species that exploit the same resource can engage in competitive behaviors, usually referred to as intra-guild interactions. These can be direct, i.e. one species feeds directly upon the competitor (intra-guild predation) or indirect, e.g. when the dominant organism competes for a food source which another organism is feeding on (kleptoparasitism). We investigated the potential for such interactions in a biological model composed by the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta, and three of its newly associated natural enemies: the zoophytophagous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis, and two idiobiont ectoparasitoids Bracon nigricans, and Necremnus tutae...
March 16, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293743/average-niche-breadths-of-species-in-lake-macrophyte-communities-respond-to-ecological-gradients-variably-in-four-regions-on-two-continents
#9
Janne Alahuhta, Antti Virtala, Jan Hjort, Frauke Ecke, Lucinda B Johnson, Laura Sass, Jani Heino
Different species' niche breadths in relation to ecological gradients are infrequently examined within the same study and, moreover, species niche breadths have rarely been averaged to account for variation in entire ecological communities. We investigated how average environmental niche breadths (climate, water quality and climate-water quality niches) in aquatic macrophyte communities are related to ecological gradients (latitude, longitude, altitude, species richness and lake area) among four distinct regions (Finland, Sweden and US states of Minnesota and Wisconsin) on two continents...
March 14, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289565/a-novel-application-of-mark-recapture-to-examine-behaviour-associated-with-the-online-trade-in-elephant-ivory
#10
Lydia M Yeo, Rachel S McCrea, David L Roberts
The illegal trade in elephant ivory is driving the unlawful killing of elephants such that populations are now suffering unsustainable reductions. The internet is increasingly being used as a platform to conduct illegal wildlife trade, including elephant ivory. As a globally accessible medium the internet is as highly attractive to those involved in the illegal trade as it is challenging to regulate. Characterising the online illegal wildlife (ivory) trade is complex, yet key to informing enforcement activities...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289257/host-allometry-influences-the-evolution-of-parasite-host-generalism-theory-and-meta-analysis
#11
Josephine G Walker, Amy Hurford, Jo Cable, Amy R Ellison, Stephen J Price, Clayton E Cressler
Parasites vary widely in the diversity of hosts they infect: some parasite species are specialists-infecting just a single host species, while others are generalists, capable of infecting many. Understanding the factors that drive parasite host-generalism is of basic biological interest, but also directly relevant to predicting disease emergence in new host species, identifying parasites that are likely to have unidentified additional hosts, and assessing transmission risk. Here, we use mathematical models to investigate how variation in host body size and environmental temperature affect the evolution of parasite host-generalism...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288561/coinfection-outcome-in-an-opportunistic-pathogen-depends-on-the-inter-strain-interactions
#12
Hanna Kinnula, Johanna Mappes, Lotta-Riina Sundberg
BACKGROUND: In nature, organisms are commonly coinfected by two or more parasite strains, which has been shown to influence disease virulence. Yet, the effects of coinfections of environmental opportunistic pathogens on disease outcome are still poorly known, although as host-generalists they are highly likely to participate in coinfections. We asked whether coinfection with conspecific opportunistic strains leads to changes in virulence, and if these changes are associated with bacterial growth or interference competition...
March 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284015/securing-for-academic-generalists-the-opportunities-and-the-recognition-that-they-deserve
#13
Martin F Shapiro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282888/which-specialized-metabolites-does-the-native-subantarctic-gastropod-notodiscus-hookeri-extract-from-the-consumption-of-the-lichens-usnea-taylorii-and-pseudocyphellaria-crocata
#14
Alice Gadea, Pierre Le Pogam, Grichka Biver, Joël Boustie, Anne-Cécile Le Lamer, Françoise Le Dévéhat, Maryvonne Charrier
Notodiscus hookeri is the only representative of terrestrial gastropods on Possession Island and exclusively feeds on lichens. The known toxicity of various lichen metabolites to plant-eating invertebrates led us to propose that N. hookeri evolved means to protect itself from their adverse effects. To validate this assumption, the current study focused on the consumption of two lichen species: Usnea taylorii and Pseudocyphellaria crocata. A controlled feeding experiment was designed to understand how the snail copes with the unpalatable and/or toxic compounds produced by these lichen species...
March 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281776/parasites-of-domestic-and-wild-animals-in-south-africa-li-ticks-infesting-leopard-tortoises-i-stigmochelys-pardalis-i-hingeback-tortoises-i-kinixys-zombensis-i-and-angulate-tortoises-i-chersina-angulata-i
#15
Ivan G Horak, Ashley Pearcy, Kyle J Lloyd
The objective of the study was to record the tick species collected from three species of tortoise, each in a different province of South Africa. Ticks were collected from leopard tortoises, Stigmochyles pardalis, in the southern region of the Kruger National Park, Mpumalanga province; from hingeback tortoises, Kinixys zombensis, in the Enseleni Nature Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal province and from angulate tortoises, Chersina angulata, in the West Coast National Park, Western Cape province. Of the 63 leopard tortoises examined, 58 were infested with Amblyomma marmoreum and 49 with Amblyomma hebraeum, and all stages of development of both species were recovered...
February 28, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275258/understanding-perceptions-is-critical-for-all-vaccination-efforts-not-only-polio-eradication
#16
Roy Widdus
Because Pakistan is the country with the most daunting challenges for ending transmission of endemic poliovirus, the work of Habib et al in this issue is critical for achieving polio eradication globally. Understanding why immunization programs are not reaching all children is important for success in reducing spread of all vaccine preventable diseases. The methods and insights are important for public health generalists, not only those employed in the pursuit of polio eradication.
February 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274125/training-generalist-doctors-for-rural-practice-in-new-zealand
#17
Garry Nixon, Katharina Blattner, Martyn Williamson, Patrick McHugh, James Reid
Targeted postgraduate training increases the likelihood young doctors will take up careers in rural generalist medicine. This article describes the postgraduate pathways that have evolved for these doctors in New Zealand. The Cairns consensus statement 2014 defined rural medical generalism as a scope of practice that encompasses primary care, hospital or secondary care, emergency care, advanced skill sets and a population-based approach to the health needs of rural communities. Even as work goes on to define this role different jurisdictions have developed their own training pathways for these important members of the rural healthcare workforce...
January 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273405/heart-rhythm-society-expert-consensus-statements-part-2
#18
REVIEW
Susie Sennhauser, Rishi Anand, Fred Kusumoto, Nora Goldschlager
One of the most important roles for professional societies in medicine is assembling multiple stakeholders and experts to develop documents that can help guide and define policies and strategies for best medical care. Each year the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) develops several consensus documents that address critical clinical subjects that have been identified by input from HRS members and HRS committees. Over the past 5 years, HRS has produced documents with multiple professional societies from around the world, and although the topics chosen for exploration center around arrhythmia management, the reviews and recommendations made in the documents are important for clinical cardiologists and generalists who are not arrhythmia specialists...
March 8, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273360/heart-rhythm-society-expert-consensus-statements-part-1
#19
REVIEW
Susie Sennhauser, Rishi Anand, Fred Kusumoto, Nora Goldschlager
One of the most important roles for professional societies in medicine is assembling multiple stakeholders and experts to develop documents that can help guide and define policies and strategies for best medical care. Each year the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) develops several consensus documents that address critical clinical subjects that have been identified by input from HRS members and HRS committees. Over the past 5 years, HRS has produced documents with multiple professional societies from around the world, and although the topics chosen for exploration center around arrhythmia management, the reviews and recommendations made in the documents are important for clinical cardiologists and generalists who are not arrhythmia specialists...
March 8, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272535/european-registration-process-for-clinical-laboratory-geneticists-in-genetic-healthcare
#20
Thomas Liehr, Isabel M Carreira, Dilek Aktas, Egbert Bakker, Marta Rodríguez de Alba, Domenico A Coviello, Lina Florentin, Hans Scheffer, Martina Rincic
Tremendous progress in genetics and genomics led to a wide range of healthcare providers, genetic tests, and more patients who can benefit from these developments. To guarantee and improve the quality of genetic testing, a unified European-based registration for individuals qualified in biomedicine was realized. Therefore a Europe-wide recognition of the profession 'European registered Clinical Laboratory Geneticist (ErCLG)' based on a syllabus of core competences was established which allows for harmonization in professional education...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
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