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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432150/specialist-generalist-model-of-body-temperature-regulation-can-be-applied-on-the-intraspecific-level
#1
Anna S Przybylska, Jan S Boratyński, Michał S Wojciechowski, Małgorzata Jefimow
According to theoretical predictions endothermic homeotherms can be classified as either thermal specialists and thermal generalists. In high cost environments thermal specialists are supposed to be more prone to use facultative heterothermy than generalists. We tested this hypothesis on the intraspecific level using laboratory male mice (C57BL/cmdb) fasted under different thermal conditions (20 and 10°C), and for different time periods (12-48 h). We predicted that variability of body temperature (Tb) and time spent with Tb below normothermy increase with the increase of environmental demands (duration of fasting and cold)...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429758/intracellular-lipid-binding-protein-family-diversity-from-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-genomic-and-structural-features-of-invertebrate-lipid-transporters
#2
Guilherme de Toledo-Silva, Guilherme Razzera, Flavia Lucena Zacchi, Nestor Cubas Wendt, Jacó Joaquim Mattos, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy
Intracellular lipid binding proteins (iLBPs) play a role in the transport and cellular uptake of fatty acids and gene expression regulation. The aim of this work was to characterize the iLBP gene family of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, one of the most cultivated marine bivalves in the world, using bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. A total of 26 different iLBPs transcripts were identified in the Pacific oyster genome, including alternative splicing and gene duplication events. The oyster iLBP gene family seems to be more expanded than in other invertebrates...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429139/rates-of-parasitism-but-not-allocation-of-egg-resources-vary-among-and-within-hosts-of-a-generalist-avian-brood-parasite
#3
Loren Merrill, Scott J Chiavacci, Ryan T Paitz, Thomas J Benson
Brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) deposit their eggs into the nests of other birds, which then raise the cowbird chick. Female cowbirds thus have limited options for impacting their offspring's development via maternal effects compared to most other passerines. Cowbirds can impact their offspring's phenotype by choosing among potential host nests, and by adjusting egg resources based on host characteristics. To examine whether cowbirds exhibit either or both of these strategies, we investigated rates of cowbird parasitism and egg investment (egg size, yolk-to-albumen ratio, and yolk testosterone and androstenedione) among and within host species in a shrubland bird community...
April 20, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428866/capture-efficiency-and-trophic-adaptations-of-a-specialist-and-generalist-predator-a-comparison
#4
Ondřej Michálek, Lenka Petráková, Stano Pekár
Specialist true predators are expected to exhibit higher capture efficiencies for the capture of larger and dangerous prey than generalist predators due to their possession of specialized morphological and behavioral adaptations. We used an araneophagous spider (Lampona murina) and a generalist spider (Drassodes lapidosus) as phylogenetically related model species and investigated their realized and fundamental trophic niches and their efficacy with respect to prey capture and prey handling. The trophic niche of both species confirmed that Lampona had a narrow trophic niche with a predominance of spider prey (including conspecifics), while the niche of Drassodes was wide, without any preference...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424892/bayesian-characterization-of-uncertainty-in-species-interaction-strengths
#5
Christopher Wolf, Mark Novak, Alix I Gitelman
Considerable effort has been devoted to the estimation of species interaction strengths. This effort has focused primarily on statistical significance testing and obtaining point estimates of parameters that contribute to interaction strength magnitudes, leaving the characterization of uncertainty associated with those estimates unconsidered. We consider a means of characterizing the uncertainty of a generalist predator's interaction strengths by formulating an observational method for estimating a predator's prey-specific per capita attack rates as a Bayesian statistical model...
April 19, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420310/helminth-fauna-associated-with-three-neotropical-bat-species-chiroptera-mormoopidae-in-veracruz-mexico
#6
Emilio Clarke-Crespo, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León, Salvador Montiel-Ortega, Miguel Rubio-Godoy
Bats are recognized as potential hosts of pathogens exploiting the food chain to reach them as definitive hosts. However, very little is known about their endoparasites, especially for Neotropical bats. In this study, we assessed the helminth fauna associated with 3 insectivorous bat species roosting in the same single hot cave in central Veracruz, Mexico: the ghost-faced bat (Mormoops megalophylla), the naked-backed bat (Pteronotus davyi) and Wagner's mustached bat (Pteronotus personatus). During a period of 1 yr (April 2007-2008), a total of 135 mormoopid bats were collected and examined for helminths...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419782/natural-resource-landscapes-of-a-marine-bacterium-reveal-distinct-fitness-determining-genes-across-the-genome
#7
Alison F Takemura, Christopher H Corzett, Fatima Hussain, Philip Arevalo, Manoshi Datta, Xiaoqian Yu, Frederique Le Roux, Martin F Polz
Heterotrophic bacteria exploit diverse microhabitats in the ocean, from particles to transient gradients. Yet the degree to which genes and pathways can contribute to an organism's fitness on such complex and variable natural resource landscapes remains poorly understood. Here, we determine the gene-by-gene fitness of a generalist saprophytic marine bacterium (Vibrio sp. F13 9CS106) on complex resources derived from its natural habitats - copepods (Apocyclops royi) and brown algae (Fucus vesiculosus) - and as reference substrates, glucose and the polysaccharide alginate, derived from brown algal cell walls...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419289/parkinson-s-disease-patient-and-general-practitioner-perspectives-on-the-role-of-primary-care
#8
Annette O A Plouvier, Tim C Olde Hartman, Clementine E M Verhulst, Bastiaan R Bloem, Chris van Weel, Antoine L M Lagro-Janssen
Background.: Specialized Parkinson's disease (PD) care offers advantages to patients. However, specialized health care providers may be unaware of patients' personal context and comorbidity, leading to conflicting treatment regimens. Patients may benefit from a more holistic approach. Objective.: To clarify the role community-dwelling PD patients see for general practitioners (GPs) in PD care and to clarify the role GPs see for themselves. Methods...
April 1, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419173/sponge-symbioses-between-xestospongia-deweerdtae-and-plakortis-spp-are-not-motivated-by-shared-chemical-defense-against-predators
#9
Micah Jaarsma Marty, Jan Vicente, Benjamin L Oyler, Allen Place, Russell T Hill
The recently described epizoic sponge-sponge symbioses between Xestospongia deweerdtae and two species of Plakortis present an unusual series of sponge interactions. Sponges from the genus Plakortis are fierce allelopathic competitors, rich in cytotoxic secondary metabolites, and yet X. deweerdtae flourishes as an epizoic encrustation on Plakortis deweerdtaephila and Plakortis symbiotica. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that X. deweerdtae grows epizoic to these two species of Plakortis due to a shared chemical defense against predators...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418581/leaf-rust-infection-reduces-herbivore-induced-volatile-emission-in-black-poplar-and-attracts-a-generalist-herbivore
#10
Franziska Eberl, Almuth Hammerbacher, Jonathan Gershenzon, Sybille B Unsicker
Plants release complex volatile blends after separate attack by herbivores and pathogens, which play many roles in interactions with other organisms. Large perennials are often attacked by multiple enemies, but the effect of combined attacks on volatile emission is rarely studied, particularly in trees. We infested Populus nigra trees with a pathogen, the rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina, and Lymantria dispar caterpillars alone and in combination. We investigated poplar volatile emission and its regulation, as well as the behavior of the caterpillars towards volatiles from rust-infected and uninfected trees...
April 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417909/interactions-among-the-predatory-midge-aphidoletes-aphidimyza-diptera-cecidomyiidae-the-fungal-pathogen-metarhizium-brunneum-ascomycota-hypocreales-and-maize-infesting-aphids-in-greenhouse-mesocosms
#11
Ana Gorete Campos de Azevedo, Bernhardt Michael Steinwender, Jørgen Eilenberg, Lene Sigsgaard
The generalist entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum, has proved to have great potential as a versatile biological pest control agent. The gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza is a specialist predator that occurs naturally in Europe and has been successfully used for aphid suppression. However, the interaction between these two biological control organisms and how it may affect the biological control of aphids awaits further investigation. As part of the EU-supported project INBIOSOIL, this study was conducted in greenhouse conditions to assess the possible effects of combining both biological control agents...
April 12, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416687/structural-and-functional-innovations-in-the-real-time-evolution-of-new-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-8-barrel-enzymes
#12
Matilda S Newton, Xiaohu Guo, Annika Söderholm, Joakim Näsvall, Patrik Lundström, Dan I Andersson, Maria Selmer, Wayne M Patrick
New genes can arise by duplication and divergence, but there is a fundamental gap in our understanding of the relationship between these genes, the evolving proteins they encode, and the fitness of the organism. Here we used crystallography, NMR dynamics, kinetics, and mass spectrometry to explain the molecular innovations that arose during a previous real-time evolution experiment. In that experiment, the (βα)8 barrel enzyme HisA was under selection for two functions (HisA and TrpF), resulting in duplication and divergence of the hisA gene to encode TrpF specialists, HisA specialists, and bifunctional generalists...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414407/medical-student-teaching-and-recruiting-50-years-of-balancing-two-educational-aims
#13
Benjamin N Schneider, Alexander Chessman, William Toffler, Lara Handler, Beat Steiner, Frances Emily Biagioli
Family medicine (FM) undergraduate medical educators have had two distinct missions, to increase the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of all students while also striving to attract students to the field of family medicine. A five decade literature search was conducted gathering FM curricular innovations and the parallel trends in FM medical student interest. Student interest in FM had a rapid first-decade rise to 14%, a second 1990's surge, followed by a drop to the current plateau of 8-9%. This falls far short of the 30-50% generalist benchmark needed to fill the country's health care needs...
April 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413232/the-freshwater-red-alga-batrachospermum-turfosum-florideophyceae-can-acclimate-to-a-wide-range-of-light-and-temperature-conditions
#14
Siegfried Aigner, Andreas Holzinger, Ulf Karsten, Ilse Kranner
Batrachospermum turfosum Bory is one of the generalists among the few red algae that have adapted to freshwater habitats, occurring in a variety of primarily shaded, nutrient-poor micro-habitats with lotic (running) or lentic (standing) waters. Seasonal variations in water level and canopy cover can expose this sessile alga to widely fluctuating temperatures, solar irradiation and nutrient availability. Here we report on the ecophysiology of B. turfosum collected from an ultra-oligotrophic bog pool in the Austrian Alps...
2017: Phycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412938/broad-and-flexible-stable-isotope-niches-in-invasive-non-native-rattus-spp-in-anthropogenic-and-natural-habitats-of-central-eastern-madagascar
#15
Melanie Dammhahn, Toky M Randriamoria, Steven M Goodman
BACKGROUND: Rodents of the genus Rattus are among the most pervasive and successful invasive species, causing major vicissitudes in native ecological communities. A broad and flexible generalist diet has been suggested as key to the invasion success of Rattus spp. Here, we use an indirect approach to better understand foraging niche width, plasticity, and overlap within and between introduced Rattus spp. in anthropogenic habitats and natural humid forests of Madagascar. RESULTS: Based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values measured in hair samples of 589 individual rodents, we found that Rattus rattus had an extremely wide foraging niche, encompassing the isotopic space covered by a complete endemic forest-dwelling Malagasy small mammal community...
April 17, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409227/evolutionary-responses-to-climate-change-in-a-range-expanding-plant
#16
Mirka Macel, Tomáš Dostálek, Sonja Esch, Anna Bucharová, Nicole M van Dam, Katja Tielbörger, Koen J F Verhoeven, Zuzana Münzbergová
To understand the biological effects of climate change, it is essential to take into account species' evolutionary responses to their changing environments. Ongoing climate change is resulting in species shifting their geographical distribution ranges poleward. We tested whether a successful range expanding plant has rapidly adapted to the regional conditions in its novel range, and whether adaptation could be driven by herbivores. Furthermore, we investigated if enemy release occurred in the newly colonized areas and whether plant origins differed in herbivore resistance...
April 13, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406849/current-management-practices-in-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease
#17
Joseph W Clyde, Benjamin S Oberman, Huseyin Isildak
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate current trends in managing Ménière's disease (MD) by both general otolaryngologists and otologists/neurotologists and discuss treatment modalities. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Survey of physicians. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An electronic questionnaire was disseminated to all members of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS). RESULTS: Eight hundred and sixty members replied for a response rate of 14...
April 11, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405833/interpathologist-concordance-in-the-histological-diagnosis-of-focal-prostatic-atrophy-lesions-acute-and-chronic-prostatitis-pin-and-prostate-cancer
#18
Francesca Giunchi, Kristina Jordahl, Enrico Bollito, Maurizio Colecchia, Carlo Patriarca, Antonietta D'Errico, Francesco Vasuri, Deborah Malvi, Alessandro Fornari, Luca Reggiani Bonetti, Barbara Corti, Mauro Papotti, Paolo DeGiuli, Massimo Loda, Rodolfo Montironi, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Jennifer R Rider
Epidemiological and biological evidence indicates a causal relationship between the presence of proliferative atrophic lesions and the development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostate cancer. The presence of inflammatory and atrophic lesions of the prostate is widely underestimated and they are not generally mentioned in pathology reports. We performed a histopathological concordance study among eight genitourinary specialists and seven generalist pathologists, using 116 histological slides of prostate lesions, including proliferative atrophic lesions, PIN, and cancer...
April 12, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405403/niche-partitioning-and-the-role-of-intraspecific-niche-variation-in-structuring-a-guild-of-generalist-anurans
#19
Carl S Cloyed, Perri K Eason
Intra-population niche differences in generalist foragers have captured the interest of ecologists, because such individuality can have important ecological and evolutionary implications. Few researchers have investigated how these differences affect the relationships among ecologically similar, sympatric species. Using stable isotopes, stomach contents, morphology and habitat preference, we examined niche partitioning within a group of five anurans and determined whether variation within species could facilitate resource partitioning...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405283/anolis-lizards-as-biocontrol-agents-in-mainland-and-island-agroecosystems
#20
Ivan V Monagan, Jonathan R Morris, Alison R Davis Rabosky, Ivette Perfecto, John Vandermeer
Our knowledge of ecological interactions that bolster ecosystem function and productivity has broad applications to the management of agricultural systems. Studies suggest that the presence of generalist predators in agricultural landscapes leads to a decrease in the abundance of herbivorous pests, but our understanding of how these interactions vary across taxa and along gradients of management intensity and eco-geographic space remains incomplete. In this study, we assessed the functional response and biocontrol potential of a highly ubiquitous insectivore (lizards in the genus Anolis) on the world's most important coffee pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypothalemus hampei)...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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