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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150163/the-management-of-diagnosed-heart-failure-in-older-people-in-primary-care
#1
REVIEW
Nicholas R Jones, F D Richard Hobbs, Clare J Taylor
Heart failure (HF) is a common condition affecting predominantly older people. Symptoms include breathlessness and fatigue, and can significantly reduce quality of life. HF rarely occurs in isolation, with most patients having several co-existing diseases requiring multiple medications. There is a large evidence base for treatment of HF with reduced ejection fraction, or HFrEF; however, many of the trials did not include older people with multimorbidity so their findings should be applied to this group with some caution...
December 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149129/oncology-nurse-generalist-competencies-oncology-nursing-society-s-initiative-to-establish-best-practice
#2
Michele E Gaguski, Kim George, Susan D Bruce, Edie Brucker, Carol Leija, Kristine LeFebvre, Heather Mackey
BACKGROUND: A project team was formulated to create evidence-based oncology nurse generalist competencies (ONGCs) to establish best practices in competency development, including high-risk tasks, critical thinking criteria, and measurement of key areas for oncology nurses.
. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to describe the process and the development of ONGCs. 
. METHODS: This article explains how the ONGCs were accomplished, and includes outcomes and suggestions for use in clinical practice...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146986/cascading-predator-effects-in-a-fijian-coral-reef-ecosystem
#3
Douglas B Rasher, Andrew S Hoey, Mark E Hay
Coral reefs are among Earth's best-studied ecosystems, yet the degree to which large predators influence the ecology of coral reefs remains an open and contentious question. Recent studies indicate the consumptive effects of large reef predators are too diffuse to elicit trophic cascades. Here, we provide evidence that such predators can produce non-consumptive (fear) effects that flow through herbivores to shape the distribution of seaweed on a coral reef. This trophic cascade emerged because reef topography, tidal oscillations, and shark hunting behaviour interact to create predictable "hot spots" of fear on the reef where herbivores withhold feeding and seaweeds gain a spatial refuge...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146266/endophytism-or-saprophytism-decoding-the-lifestyle-transition-of-the-generalist-fungus-phomopsis-liquidambari
#4
Jun Zhou, Xin Li, Peng-Wei Huang, Chuan-Chao Dai
Filamentous ascomycete Phomopsis sp. are common inhabitants of natural ecosystems and, as saprophytes, are largely responsible for the destructive decay of litterfall, promoting the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Phomopsis liquidambari B3 can establish mutualistic symbiosis with a broad spectrum of crop plants. Colonizing dynamics observations and a growth promotion assay of rice and Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that the B3 colonization strategy is host-adapted and resulted in different growth promotions influenced by N availability...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145728/understanding-how-emergency-medicine-physicians-survive-and-thrive-in-rural-practice-a-theoretical-model
#5
Ashra Kolhatkar, Andrea Keesey, Bob Bluman, Brenna Lynn, Tandi Wilkinson
INTRODUCTION: The challenges facing emergency medicine (EM) services in Canada reflect the limitations of the entire healthcare system. The emergency department (ED) is uniquely situated in the healthcare system such that shortcomings in hospital- and community-based services are often first revealed there. This is especially true in rural settings, where there are additional site-specific barriers to the provision of EM care. Existing studies look at the factors that influence rural EM physicians in isolation...
November 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142017/modelling-the-effects-of-phylogeny-and-body-size-on-within-host-pathogen-replication-and-immune-response
#6
Soumya Banerjee, Alan S Perelson, Melanie Moses
Understanding how quickly pathogens replicate and how quickly the immune system responds is important for predicting the epidemic spread of emerging pathogens. Host body size, through its correlation with metabolic rates, is theoretically predicted to impact pathogen replication rates and immune system response rates. Here, we use mathematical models of viral time courses from multiple species of birds infected by a generalist pathogen (West Nile Virus; WNV) to test more thoroughly how disease progression and immune response depend on mass and host phylogeny...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131897/comparison-of-hospital-resource-use-and-outcomes-among-hospitalists-primary-care-physicians-and-other-generalists
#7
Jennifer P Stevens, David J Nyweide, Sha Maresh, Laura A Hatfield, Michael D Howell, Bruce E Landon
Importance: A physician's prior experience caring for a patient may be associated with patient outcomes and care patterns during and after hospitalization. Objective: To examine differences in the use of health care resources and outcomes among hospitalized patients cared for by hospitalists, their own primary care physicians (PCPs), or other generalists. Design, Setting, and participants: This retrospective study analyzed admissions for the 20 most common medical diagnoses among elderly fee-for-service Medicare patients from January 1 through December 31, 2013...
November 13, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130376/the-cuticle-mutant-eca2-modifies-the-plant-defense-responses-to-biotrophic-and-necrotrophic-pathogens-and-herbivory-insects
#8
Catherine Blanc, Fania Coluccia, Floriane L'Haridon, Martha Torres, Marlene Ortiz-Berrocal, Elia Stahl, Philippe Reymond, Lukas Schreiber, Christiane Nawrath, Jean-Pierre Metraux, Mario Serrano
We isolated previously several Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with constitutive expression of the early MAMP-induced gene ATL2, named eca (expresión constitutiva de ATL2). Here we further explored the interaction of eca mutants with pest and pathogens. Of all eca mutants, eca2 was more resistant to a fungal (Botrytis cinerea) and a bacterial (Pseudomonas syringae) pathogen, as well as to a generalist herbivorous insect (Spodoptera littoralis). Permeability of the cuticle is increased in eca2; chemical characterization shows that eca2 has a significant reduction of both cuticular wax and cutin...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126157/a-survey-of-the-species-of-squash-bug-hemiptera-coreidae-egg-parasitoids-in-virginia-and-their-distribution
#9
James M Wilson, Thomas P Kuhar
Squash bug, Anasa tristis DeGeer (Hemiptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of squash and pumpkins in the United States. In order to better understand the importance of natural egg parasitism of this species in Virginia, we conducted a 2-yr statewide survey. In total, 1,127 squash bug egg masses (~20,000 total eggs) were sampled from squash and pumpkins from 43 counties in Virginia from 2014 to 2015. Egg masses were brought back to the lab to record levels of squash bug nymphal emergence or adult parasitoid eclosion and identification...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122244/bloom-dynamics-and-chemical-defenses-of-benthic-cyanobacteria-in-the-indian-river-lagoon-florida
#10
Jennifer M Sneed, Theresa Meickle, Niclas Engene, Sherry Reed, Sarath Gunasekera, Valerie J Paul
Cyanobacterial blooms are predicted to become more prominent in the future as a result of increasing seawater temperatures and the continued addition of nutrients to coastal waters. Many benthic marine cyanobacteria have potent chemical defenses that protect them from top down pressures and contribute to the persistence of blooms. Blooms of benthic cyanobacteria have been observed along the coast of Florida and within the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), a biodiverse estuary system that spans 250km along Florida's east coast...
November 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119469/learning-to-prescribe-intravenous-fluids-a%C3%A2-scoping-review
#11
REVIEW
Richard F R McCrory, Gerard Joseph Gormley, Alexander Peter Maxwell, Tim Dornan
INTRODUCTION: Prescribing intravenous (IV) fluid therapy is a core skill expected of qualified doctors at the point of graduation, but medical graduates often feel ill-equipped to perform this task. This lack of preparedness contributes to treatment-related patient harm. This scoping review maps the current state of published evidence about how junior doctors prescribe IV fluid therapy and learn how to do it. METHODS: We searched five electronic databases and grey literature from 1994 until June 2016 for articles describing any aspect of IV fluid prescribing practice or its education...
November 8, 2017: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119142/what-constitutes-successful-commissioning-of-transition-from-children-s-to-adults-services-for-young-people-with-long-term-conditions-and-what-are-the-challenges-an-interview-study
#12
Niina Kolehmainen, Sara McCafferty, Gregory Maniatopoulos, Luke Vale, Ann S Le-Couteur, Allan Colver
Objective: We explored what constitutes successful commissioning for transition and what challenges are associated with this. We aimed: (1) to identify explicit and implicit organisational structures, processes and relationships that drive commissioning around transition; (2) to identify challenges faced by commissioners; and (3) to develop a conceptual model. Design: A qualitative interview study. Setting: Commissioning and provider organisations across primary and secondary care and third sector in England, UK...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Paediatr Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117242/the-keybox-shape-frame-fitting-during-tool-use-in-goffin-s-cockatoos-cacatua-goffiniana
#13
Cornelia Habl, Alice Marie Isabel Auersperg
The ability to move an object in alignment to a surface develops early in human ontogeny. However, aligning not just your own body but also the object itself in relation to a surface with a specific shape requires using landmarks rather than the own body as a frame of reference for orientation. The ability to do so is considered important in the development of tool use behaviour in human and non-human animals. Aside from humans, with the exception of a single study on habitually tool using primates, shape-frame matching abilities remain largely unstudied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116628/the-biology-and-epidemiology-of-mycobacterium-canettii
#14
Philip Supply, Roland Brosch
Genome-based insights into the evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria are constantly increasing. In particular, the recent genomic and functional characterization of several Myocbacterium canettii strains, which are thought to resemble in many aspects the putative common ancestor of the members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC), has consolidated a plausible scenario of the early evolution of tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria, in which the clonal MTBC, comprising numerous key pathogens of mammalian hosts, has evolved from a generalist mycobacterium living in the environment...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115700/the-challenge-of-generalist-care-in-remote-australia-beyond-aeromedical-retrieval
#15
Zachary Pancer, Malcolm Moore, John T Wenham, Maelynn Burridge
OBJECTIVE: To examine clinical service activity amongst patients of the Royal Flying Doctor Service South Eastern Section in Far West New South Wales and to evaluate the management of chronic disease among frequent users of evacuation services. DESIGN: A retrospective audit of the Royal Flying Doctor Service South Eastern Section patient database inclusive of patients within the geographical study area who accessed a clinical or remote consultation, or evacuation service at least once between 1 July 2008 and 30 June 2013...
November 8, 2017: Australian Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107575/historic-physician-quality-and-reporting-system-reporting-by-radiologists-a-wake-up-call-to-avoid-penalties-under-the-medicare-access-and-chip-reauthorization-act-macra
#16
Luke Ginocchio, Richard Duszak, Gregory N Nicola, Andrew B Rosenkrantz
PURPOSE: The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA) Quality performance category is the successor to the Physician Quality and Reporting System (PQRS) program and now contributes to physicians' income adjustments based upon performance rates calculated for a minimum of six measures. We assess radiologists' frequency of reporting PQRS measures as a marker of preparedness for MACRA. METHODS: Medicare-participating radiologists were randomly searched through the Physician Compare website until identifying 1,000 radiologists who reported at least one PQRS measure...
October 26, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106048/changes-in-floral-biology-and-inbreeding-depression-in-native-and-invaded-regions-of-datura-stramonium
#17
Vania Jiménez-Lobato, Estefanía Martínez-Borda, Juan Núñez-Farfán, Pedro L Valverde, Laura L Cruz, Armando López-Velázquez, Rocío Santos-Gally, Juan Arroyo
Plant populations invading new environments might compromise their fitness contribution to the next generation, owing to the lack of native specialist pollinators and/or potential mates. Thus, changes in plant mating system and traits linked to it are expected in populations colonising new environments where selection would favour selfing and floral traits that maximise reproductive output. To test this, we studied native (Mexico) and non-native (Spain) populations of the obligate sex reproducing annual weed Datura stramonium...
November 4, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105759/freshwater-eutrophication-drives-sharp-reductions-in-temporal-beta-diversity
#18
Stephen C Cook, Lauren Housley, Jeffrey A Back, Ryan S King
Eutrophication has become one of the most widespread anthropogenic forces impacting freshwater biological diversity. One potentially important mechanism driving biodiversity changes in response to eutrophication is the alteration of seasonal patterns of succession, particularly among species with short, synchronous life cycles. We tested the hypothesis that eutrophication reduces seasonally driven variation in species assemblages by focusing on an understudied aspect of biodiversity: temporal beta diversity (βt )...
November 5, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105758/why-are-tropical-mountain-passes-low-for-some-species-genetic-and-stable-isotope-tests-for-differentiation-migration-and-expansion-in-elevational-generalist-songbirds
#19
Chauncey R Gadek, Seth D Newsome, Elizabeth J Beckman, Andrea N Chavez, Spencer C Galen, Emil Bautista, Christopher C Witt
1.Most tropical bird species have narrow elevational ranges, likely reflecting climatic specialization. This is consistent with Janzen's Rule, the tendency for mountain passes to be effectively 'higher' in the tropics. Hence, those few tropical species that occur across broad elevational gradients (elevational generalists) represent a contradiction to Janzen's Rule. 2.Here we aim to address the following questions. Are elevational generalists being sundered by diversifying selection along the gradient? Does elevational movement cause these species to resist diversification or specialization? Have they recently expanded, suggesting that elevational generalism is short-lived in geological time? 3...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104347/insularity-effects-on-the-assemblage-of-the-blood-parasite-community-of-the-birds-from-the-gulf-of-guinea
#20
Claire Loiseau, Martim Melo, Elisa Lobato, Jon S Beadell, Robert C Fleischer, Sandra Reis, Claire Doutrelant, Rita Covas
Aim: Lower species diversity, increased population densities and ecological niche enlargement are common characteristics of island faunas. However it remains to be determined if they extend to the parasite community. We tested if Haemosporidia parasite pressure varies between islands and the mainland with two different levels of analysis: i) at the host community level, and ii) with paired-species comparisons between islands and the mainland. Location: Gulf of Guinea, West Africa...
November 2017: Journal of Biogeography
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