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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545502/improving-care-for-people-with-heart-failure-in-uganda-serial-in-depth-interviews-with-patients-and-their-health-care-professionals
#1
Elizabeth Namukwaya, Liz Grant, Julia Downing, Mhoira Leng, Scott A Murray
BACKGROUND: The short prognosis of patients with advanced heart failure (HF) and the associated multidimensional distress as illustrated in literature from high income countries necessitates the integration of palliative care into the care of advanced HF patients to address these needs and improve their quality of life. These needs, which are subjective, have not been described from the patients' and health care professionals'(HPs) view point in the Ugandan setting, a low income country with a different socio-cultural context...
May 25, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545204/ecomorphological-divergence-drives-differential-mercury-bioaccumulation-in-polymorphic-european-whitefish-coregonus-lavaretus-populations-of-subarctic-lakes
#2
Kimmo K Kahilainen, Stephen M Thomas, Elina K M Nystedt, Ossi Keva, Tommi Malinen, Brian Hayden
Resource polymorphism, whereby ancestral trophic generalists undergo divergence into multiple specialist morphs, is common in salmonid fish populations inhabiting subarctic lakes. However, the extent to which such resource specialization into the three principal lake habitats (littoral, profundal, and pelagic) affects patterns of contaminant bioaccumulation remains largely unexplored. We assessed total mercury concentrations (THg) of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L.)) and their invertebrate prey in relation to potential explanatory variables across 6 subarctic lakes, of which three are inhabited by polymorphic (comprised of four morphs) and three by monomorphic populations...
May 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544284/the-national-healthcare-system-claims-databases-in-france-sniiram-and-egb-powerful-tools-for-pharmacoepidemiology
#3
Julien Bezin, Mai Duong, Régis Lassalle, Cécile Droz, Antoine Pariente, Patrick Blin, Nicholas Moore
The French health care system is based on universal coverage by one of several health care insurance plans. The SNIIRAM database merges anonymous information of reimbursed claims from all these plans, linked to the national hospital-discharge summaries database system (PMSI) and the national death registry. It now covers 98.8% of the French population, over 66 million persons, from birth (or immigration) to death (or emigration), making it possibly the world's largest continuous homogeneous claims database...
May 24, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543871/tropical-specialist-versus-climate-generalist-diversification-and-demographic-history-of-sister-species-of-carlia%C3%A2-skinks-from-northwestern-australia
#4
Ana C Afonso Silva, Jason G Bragg, Sally Potter, Carlos Fernandes, Maria Manuela Coelho, Craig Moritz
Species endemic to the tropical regions are expected to be vulnerable to future climate change due in part to their relatively narrow climatic niches. In addition, these species are more likely to have responded strongly to past climatic change, and this can be explored through phylogeographic analyses. To test the hypothesis that tropical specialists are more sensitive to climate change than climate generalists, we generated and analyze sequence data from mtDNA and ~2500 exons to compare scales of historical persistence and population fluctuation in two sister species of Australian rainbow skinks: the tropical specialist Carlia johnstonei and the climate generalist C...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539508/what-makes-specialized-food-caching-mountain-chickadees-successful-city-slickers
#5
Dovid Y Kozlovsky, Emily A Weissgerber, Vladimir V Pravosudov
Anthropogenic environments are a dominant feature of the modern world; therefore, understanding which traits allow animals to succeed in these urban environments is especially important. Overall, generalist species are thought to be most successful in urban environments, with better general cognition and less neophobia as suggested critical traits. It is less clear, however, which traits would be favoured in urban environments in highly specialized species. Here, we compared highly specialized food-caching mountain chickadees living in an urban environment (Reno, NV, USA) with those living in their natural environment to investigate what makes this species successful in the city...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533950/are-invasive-populations-characterized-by-a-broader-diet-than-native-populations
#6
Julien Courant, Solveig Vogt, Raquel Marques, John Measey, Jean Secondi, Rui Rebelo, André De Villiers, Flora Ihlow, Charlotte De Busschere, Thierry Backeljau, Dennis Rödder, Anthony Herrel
BACKGROUND: Invasive species are among the most significant threats to biodiversity. The diet of invasive animal populations is a crucial factor that must be considered in the context of biological invasions. A broad dietary spectrum is a frequently cited characteristic of invasive species, allowing them to thrive in a wide range of environments. Therefore, empirical studies comparing diet in invasive and native populations are necessary to understand dietary requirements, dietary flexibility, and the associated impacts of invasive species...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527614/n-o-344-salpingectomie-opportuniste-et-autres-m%C3%A3-thodes-pour-r%C3%A3-duire-le-risque-de-cancer-de-l-ovaire-de-la-trompe-de-fallope-et-du-p%C3%A3-ritoine-dans-la-population-g%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-rale
#7
Shannon Salvador, Stephanie Scott, Julie Ann Francis, Anita Agrawal, Christopher Giede
OBJECTIF: La présente directive clinique examine les avantages potentiels de la salpingectomie opportuniste pour prévenir le développement du cancer séreux de grade élevé de l'ovaire, de la trompe de Fallope et du péritoine à la lumière de données probantes actuelles selon lesquelles ce type de cancer prendrait naissance dans la trompe de Fallope. UTILISATEURS CIBLES: Gynécologues, obstétriciens, médecins de famille, infirmières autorisées, infirmières praticiennes, résidents et fournisseurs de soins de santé...
June 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525196/-burnout-syndrome-among-generalist-medical-doctors-of-douala-region-cameroon-can-physical-activities-be-a-protective-factor
#8
S H Mandengue, L J Owona Manga, M Y Lobè-Tanga, P B Assomo-Ndemba, S Nsongan-Bahebege, C Bika-Lélé, F Ngo Sack, A K Njamnshi, S L Etoundi-Ngoa
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate and document the importance of Burnout syndrome among generalist medical doctors (GMD) since no investigation have been carried in Cameroon. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 85 GMD using a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, socioprofessional conditions, Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) to evaluate burnout, and Ricci-Gagnon physical activities level metrics...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518216/queen-presence-mediates-the-relationship-between-collective-behavior-and-disease-susceptibility-in-ant-colonies
#9
Carl N Keiser, Svjetlana Vojvodic, Imani O Butler, Elizabeth Sartain, Volker H W Rudolf, Julia B Saltz
The success of social living can be explained, in part, by a group's ability to execute collective behaviors unachievable by solitary individuals. However, groups vary in their ability to execute these complex behaviors, often because they vary in their phenotypic composition. Group membership changes over time due to mortality or emigration, potentially leaving groups vulnerable to ecological challenges in times of flux. In some societies, the loss of important individuals (e.g., leaders, elites, queens) may have an especially detrimental effect on groups' ability to deal with these challenges...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516321/evaluating-local-adaptation-of-a-complex-phenotype-reciprocal-tests-of-pigmy-rattlesnake-venoms-on-treefrog-prey
#10
Sarah A Smiley-Walters, Terence M Farrell, H Lisle Gibbs
Theory predicts that predator-prey interactions can generate reciprocal selection pressures on species pairs, which can result in local adaptation, yet the presence and pattern of local adaptation is poorly studied in vertebrate predator-prey systems. Here, we used a reciprocal common garden (laboratory) experimental design involving comparisons between local and foreign populations to determine if local adaptation was present between a generalist predator-the pigmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius)-and a co-occurring prey-the squirrel treefrog (Hyla squirella)...
May 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515880/resistance-and-resilience-of-root-fungal-communities-to-water-limitation-in-a-temperate-agroecosystem
#11
Jessie R Furze, Adam R Martin, Joshua Nasielski, Naresh V Thevathasan, Andrew M Gordon, Marney E Isaac
Understanding crop resilience to environmental stress is critical in predicting the consequences of global climate change for agricultural systems worldwide, but to date studies addressing crop resiliency have focused primarily on plant physiological and molecular responses. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form mutualisms with many crop species, and these relationships are key in mitigating the effects of abiotic stress in many agricultural systems. However, to date there is little research examining whether (1) fungal community structure in agroecosystems is resistant to changing environmental conditions, specifically water limitation and (2) resilience of fungal community structure is moderated by agricultural management systems, namely the integration of trees into cropping systems...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512772/subspecialty-approach-for-the-management-of-acute-cholecystitis-an-alternative-to-acute-surgical-unit-model-of-care
#12
Sonia Tran, Vincent Choi, Kirsten Hepburn, Nathan Hewitt, Joel Zhou, Daniel L Chan, Michael L Talbot
BACKGROUND: Acute cholecystitis is a common condition. Recent studies have shown an association between creation of an acute surgical unit (ASU) and improved outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of a subspecialty based approach to the management of acute cholecystitis as an alternative to the traditional 'generalist' general surgery approach or the ASU model. METHOD: A 6-year retrospective analysis of outcomes in patients admitted under a dedicated upper gastrointestinal service for acute cholecystitis undergoing emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy...
May 16, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512014/expressional-divergence-of-insect-gox-genes-from-specialist-to-generalist-glucose-oxidase
#13
Lihong Yang, Xiongya Wang, Sufen Bai, Xin Li, Shaohua Gu, Chen-Zhu Wang, Xianchun Li
Insect herbivores often secrete glucose oxidase (GOX) onto plants to counteract plant defenses and potential pathogens. Whether generalist herbivores always have significantly higher GOX activities than their specialist counterparts at any comparable stage or conditions and how this is realized remain unknown. To address these two general questions, we subjected larvae of a pair of sister species differed mainly in host range, the generalist Helicoverpa armigera and its specialist counterpart Helicoverpa assulta, to the same sets of stage, protein to digestible carbohydrate (P:C) ratio, allelochemical or host plant treatments for simultaneous analyses of GOX transcripts and activities in their labial glands...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511676/physical-therapists-and-importance-of-work-participation-in-patients-with-musculoskeletal-disorders-a-focus-group-study
#14
Nathan Hutting, Wiebke Oswald, J Bart Staal, Josephine A Engels, Elvira Nouwens, Maria Wg Nijhuis van-der Sanden, Yvonne F Heerkens
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders are a major health problem resulting in negative effects on wellbeing and substantial costs to society. Work participation is associated with positive benefits for both mental and physical health. Potentially, generalist physical therapists (GPTs) can play an important role in reducing absenteeism, presenteeism and associated costs in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. However, work participation is often insufficiently addressed within generalist physical therapy practice (GPTP)...
May 16, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502399/user-roles-and-contributions-during-the-new-product-development-process-in-collaborative-innovation-communities
#15
Wei Guo, Qing Zheng, Weijin An, Wei Peng
Collaborative innovation (co-innovation) community emerges as a new product design platform where companies involve users in the new product development (NPD) process. Large numbers of users participate and contribute to the process voluntarily. This exploratory study investigates the heterogeneous roles of users based on a global co-innovation project in online community. Content analysis, social network analysis and cluster method are employed to measure user behaviors, distinguish user roles, and analyze user contributions...
September 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499512/the-organ-transplant-imperative
#16
REVIEW
Wil L Santivasi, Jacob J Strand, Paul S Mueller, Thomas J Beckman
More than 120,000 US patients were listed for solid organ transplants in 2016. Although data are scarce, we suspect that many of these patients will die while awaiting transplant and without engaging in goals-of-care discussions with their physicians. The challenges of addressing goals of care in patients with malignancy, end-stage renal disease, and heart failure have been studied. However, there is sparse literature on addressing goals of care throughout the dynamic process of transplant assessment and listing...
May 10, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498987/genetic-structure-and-phylogeography-of-the-leopard-cat-prionailurus-bengalensis-inferred-from-mitochondrial-genomes
#17
Riddhi P Patel, Saskia Wutke, Dorina Lenz, Shomita Mukherjee, Uma Ramakrishnan, Géraldine Veron, Jörns Fickel, Andreas Wilting, Daniel W Förster
The Leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis is a habitat generalist that is widely distributed across Southeast Asia. Based on morphological traits, this species has been subdivided into 12 subspecies. Thus far, there have been few molecular studies investigating intraspecific variation, and those had been limited in geographic scope. For this reason, we aimed to study the genetic structure and evolutionary history of this species across its very large distribution range in Asia. We employed both PCR-based (short mtDNA fragments, 94 samples) and high throughput sequencing based methods (whole mitochondrial genomes, 52 samples) on archival, noninvasively collected and fresh samples to investigate the distribution of intraspecific genetic variation...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498521/does-drought-stress-modify-the-effects-of-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-on-an-aboveground-chewing-herbivore
#18
Maite Fernández de Bobadilla, Julia Friman, Nurmi Pangesti, Marcel Dicke, Joop J A van Loon, Ana Pineda
Soil microbes have important effects on the interactions of plants with their environment, by promoting plant growth, inducing resistance to pests or by conferring tolerance to abiotic stress. However, their effects are variable and the factors responsible for this variation are mainly unknown. Our aim was to assess how drought stress modifies the effect of the non-pathogenic rhizobacterium Pseudomonas simiae WCS417r on plant growth and resistance against the generalist leaf-chewing caterpillar Mamestra brassicae...
May 12, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496966/effects-of-deer-on-the-photosynthetic-performance-of-invasive-and-native-forest-herbs
#19
J Mason Heberling, Nathan L Brouwer, Susan Kalisz
Overabundant generalist herbivores can facilitate non-native plant invasions, presumably through direct and indirect modifications to the environment that affect plant performance. However, ecophysiological mechanisms behind ungulate-mediated plant invasions have not been well-studied. At a long-term Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) exclusion site in a temperate deciduous forest, we quantified deer-mediated ecophysiological impacts on an invasive biennial Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) and two palatable native herbaceous perennials, Maianthemum racemosum and Trillium grandiflorum...
March 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496249/mind-the-gap-non-surgical-periodontal-therapy-specialist-versus-generalist
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: British Dental Journal
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