keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Generalist

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923945/antagonism-correlates-with-metabolic-similarity-in-diverse-bacteria
#1
Jakob Russel, Henriette L Røder, Jonas S Madsen, Mette Burmølle, Søren J Sørensen
In the Origin of Species, Charles R. Darwin [Darwin C (1859) On the Origin of Species] proposed that the struggle for existence must be most intense among closely related species by means of their functional similarity. It has been hypothesized that this similarity, which results in resource competition, is the driver of the evolution of antagonism among bacteria. Consequently, antagonism should mostly be prevalent among phylogenetically and metabolically similar species. We tested the hypothesis by screening for antagonism among all possible pairwise interactions between 67 bacterial species from 8 different environments: 2,211 pairs of species and 4,422 interactions...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921805/cytochrome-p450-diversification-and-hostplant-utilization-patterns-in-specialist-and-generalist-moths-birth-death-and-adaptation
#2
Bernarda Calla, Katherine Noble, Reed M Johnson, Kimberly K O Walden, Mary A Schuler, Hugh M Robertson, May R Berenbaum
Across insect genomes, the size of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) gene superfamily varies widely. CYPome size variation has been attributed to reciprocal adaptive radiations in insect detoxification genes in response to plant biosynthetic gene radiations driven by coevolution between herbivores and their chemically defended hostplants. Alternatively, variation in CYPome size may be due to random "birth and death" processes, whereby exponential increase via gene duplications is limited by random decay via gene death or transition via divergence...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919506/the-role-of-climatic-cycles-and-trans-saharan-migration-corridors-in-species-diversification-biogeography-of-psammophis-schokari-group-in-north-africa
#3
Duarte Vasconcelos Gonçalves, Fernando Martínez-Freiría, Pierre-André Crochet, Philippe Geniez, Salvador Carranza, José Carlos Brito
Highlands, hydrographic systems and coastal areas have been hypothesised to form corridors across the hyperarid Sahara desert in North Africa, allowing dispersal and gene flow for non-xeric species. Here we aim to provide a genetic test for the trans-Saharan corridor model, and predict the location and stability of ecological-corridors, by combining phylogeography and palaeoclimatic modelling. The model was the Psammophis schokari (Schokari sand racer) group, fast-moving and widely distributed generalist colubrids occurring mostly in arid and semiarid scrublands...
September 14, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914491/nirs-type-denitrifying-bacterial-assemblages-respond-to-environmental-conditions-of-a-shallow-estuary
#4
Jessica A Lisa, Amal Jayakumar, Bess B Ward, Bongkeun Song
Molecular analysis of dissimilatory nitrite reductase genes (nirS) was conducted using a customized microarray containing 165 nirS probes (archetypes) to identify members of sedimentary denitrifying communities. The goal of this study was to examine denitrifying community responses to changing environmental variables over spatial and temporal scales in the New River Estuary (NRE), NC, USA. Multivariate statistical analyses revealed three denitrifier assemblages and uncovered "generalist" and "specialist" archetypes based on the distribution of archetypes within these assemblages...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913165/molecular-characterization-of-babesia-peircei-and-babesia-ugwidiensis-provides-insight-into-the-evolution-and-host-specificity-of-avian-piroplasmids
#5
Michael J Yabsley, Ralph E T Vanstreels, Barbara C Shock, Michaelle Purdee, Elizabeth C Horne, Michael A Peirce, Nola J Parsons
There are 16 recognized species of avian-infecting Babesia spp. (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae). While the classification of piroplasmids has been historically based on morphological differences, geographic isolation and presumed host and/or vector specificities, recent studies employing gene sequence analysis have provided insight into their phylogenetic relationships and host distribution and specificity. In this study, we analyzed the sequences of the 18S rRNA gene and ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions of two Babesia species from South African seabirds: Babesia peircei from African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and Babesia ugwidiensis from Bank and Cape cormorants (Phalacrocorax neglectus and P...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910965/actinobacteria-phylogenomics-selective-isolation-from-an-iron-oligotrophic-environment-and-siderophore-functional-characterization-unveil-new-desferrioxamine-traits
#6
Pablo Cruz-Morales, Hilda E Ramos-Aboites, Cuauhtémoc Licona-Cassani, Nelly Selem-Mójica, Paulina M Mejía-Ponce, Valeria Souza-Saldívar, Francisco Barona-Gómez
Desferrioxamines are hydroxamate siderophores widely conserved in both aquatic and soil-dwelling Actinobacteria. While the genetic and enzymatic bases of siderophore biosynthesis and their transport in model families of this phylum are well understood, evolutionary studies are lacking. Here, we perform a comprehensive desferrioxamine-centric (des genes) phylogenomic analysis, which includes the genomes of six novel strains isolated from an iron and phosphorous depleted oasis in the Chihuahuan desert of Mexico...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910509/the-experience-of-palliative-care-service-provision-for-people-with-non-malignant-respiratory-disease-and-their-family-carers-an-all-ireland-qualitative-study
#7
Clare Mc Veigh, Joanne Reid, Philip Larkin, Sam Porter, Peter Hudson
AIM: To explore specialist and generalist palliative care provision for people with non-malignant respiratory disease, in rural and urban areas in the North and Republic of Ireland. BACKGROUND: Globally, palliative care is recommended as an appropriate healthcare option for people with advanced non- malignant lung disease. Yet, there is limited evidence regarding the integration of palliative care for this client group. DESIGN: Qualitative study...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901706/development-of-advanced-practice-competency-standards-for-dietetics-in-australia
#8
Claire Palermo, Sandra Capra, Eleanor J Beck, Janeane Dart, Jane Conway, Susan Ash
AIM: This study aimed to explore the work roles, major tasks and core activities of advanced practice dietitians in Australia to define the Competency Standards for advanced practice. METHODS: A qualitative approach was used to review advanced dietetic practice in Australia involving experienced professionals, mostly dietitians. Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 17 participants and an average of 20 years experience: 15 dietitian practitioners plus 2 employers (1 dietitian and 1 non-dietitian)...
September 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899345/phylogeographic-structure-cryptic-speciation-and-demographic-history-of-the-sharpbelly-hemiculter-leucisculus-a-freshwater-habitat-generalist-from-southern-china
#9
Weitao Chen, Zaixuan Zhong, Wei Dai, Qi Fan, Shunping He
BACKGROUND: Species with broad distributions frequently divide into multiple genetic forms and may therefore be viewed as "cryptic species". Here, we used the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) and 12 nuclear DNA loci to investigate phylogeographic structures of the sharpbelly (Hemiculter leucisculus) in rivers in southern China and explored how the geological and climatic factors have shaped the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of this species. RESULTS: Our mitochondrial phylogenetic analysis identified three major lineages (lineages A, B, and C)...
September 12, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898602/parallel-patterns-of-host-specific-morphology-and-genetic-admixture-in-sister-lineages-of-a-commensal-barnacle
#10
Christine Ewers-Saucedo, Benny K K Chan, John D Zardus, John P Wares
Symbiotic relationships are often species specific, allowing symbionts to adapt to their host environments. Host generalists, on the other hand, have to cope with diverse environments. One coping strategy is phenotypic plasticity, defined by the presence of host-specific phenotypes in the absence of genetic differentiation. Recent work indicates that such host-specific phenotypic plasticity is present in the West Pacific lineage of the commensal barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758). We investigated genetic and morphological host-specific structure in the genetically distinct Atlantic sister lineage of C...
June 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898288/long-term-no-till-a-major-driver-of-fungal-communities-in-dryland-wheat-cropping-systems
#11
Dipak Sharma-Poudyal, Daniel Schlatter, Chuntao Yin, Scot Hulbert, Timothy Paulitz
In the dryland Pacific Northwest wheat cropping systems, no-till is becoming more prevalent as a way to reduce soil erosion and fuel inputs. Tillage can have a profound effect on microbial communities and soilborne fungal pathogens, such as Rhizoctonia. We compared the fungal communities in long-term no-till (NT) plots adjacent to conventionally tilled (CT) plots, over three years at two locations in Washington state and one location in Idaho, US. We used pyrosequencing of the fungal ITS gene and identified 422 OTUs after rarefication...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889977/novel-organelles-with-elements-of-bacterial-and-eukaryotic-secretion-systems-weaponize-parasites-of-drosophila
#12
Mary Ellen Heavner, Johnny Ramroop, Gwenaelle Gueguen, Girish Ramrattan, Georgia Dolios, Michael Scarpati, Jonathan Kwiat, Sharmila Bhattacharya, Rong Wang, Shaneen Singh, Shubha Govind
The evolutionary success of parasitoid wasps, a highly diverse group of insects widely used in biocontrol, depends on a variety of life history strategies in conflict with those of their hosts [1]. Drosophila melanogaster is a natural host of parasitic wasps of the genus Leptopilina. Attack by L. boulardi (Lb), a specialist wasp to flies of the melanogaster group, activates NF-κB-mediated humoral and cellular immunity. Inflammatory blood cells mobilize and encapsulate Lb eggs and embryos [2-5]. L. heterotoma (Lh), a generalist wasp, kills larval blood cells and actively suppresses immune responses...
September 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886960/-indoor-air-quality-and-parents-of-asthmatic-children-practices
#13
S Larramendy Magnin, B Desssome, L Moret
BACKGROUND: Indoor air pollution can worsen asthma in children. Better knowledge of factors determining parents' reception of recommendations to limit pollution of indoor air in the homes of asthmatic children would be helpful to improve implementation. METHOD: A descriptive study evaluating practices known to have an impact on the quality of air in homes was conducted among parents of asthmatic children aged 3 to 16 years. From May to September 2013, parents answered anonymous self-administered questionnaires in waiting rooms of generalist practitioners, in the Nantes University pneumology pediatric outpatient clinic, and as part of therapeutic education sessions conducted by the Asthma-44 Network...
September 5, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886166/assigning-ecological-roles-to-the-populations-belonging-to-a-phenanthrene-degrading-bacterial-consortium-using-omic-approaches
#14
Sabrina Festa, Bibiana Marina Coppotelli, Laura Madueño, Claudia Lorena Loviso, Marianela Macchi, Ricardo Martin Neme Tauil, María Pía Valacco, Irma Susana Morelli
The present study describes the behavior of a natural phenanthrene-degrading consortium (CON), a synthetic consortium (constructed with isolated strains from CON) and an isolated strain form CON (Sphingobium sp. AM) in phenanthrene cultures to understand the interactions among the microorganisms present in the natural consortium during phenanthrene degradation as a sole carbon and energy source in liquid cultures. In the contaminant degradation assay, the defined consortium not only achieved a major phenanthrene degradation percentage (> 95%) but also showed a more efficient elimination of the intermediate metabolite...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886028/traits-underlying-community-consequences-of-plant-intra-specific-diversity
#15
Luis Abdala-Roberts, Riley Pratt, Jessica D Pratt, Kailen A Mooney
A plant's performance and interactions with other trophic levels are recorgnized to be contingent upon plant diversity and underlying associational dynamics, but far less is known about the plant traits driving such phenomena. We manipulated diversity in plant traits using pairs of plant and a substitutive design to elucidate the mechanisms underlying diversity effects operating at a fine spatial scale. Specifically, we measured the effects of diversity in sex (sexual monocultures vs. male and female genotypes together) and growth rate (growth rate monocultures vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883425/computational-genome-wide-survey-of-odorant-receptors-from-two-solitary-bees-dufourea-novaeangliae-hymenoptera-halictidae-and-habropoda-laboriosa-hymenoptera-apidae
#16
Snehal D Karpe, Surbhi Dhingra, Axel Brockmann, R Sowdhamini
Olfactory/odorant receptors (ORs) probably govern eusocial behaviour in honey bees through detection of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) and queen mandibular gland pheromones (QMP). CHCs are involved in nest-mate recognition whereas QMP acts as sex pheromone for drones and as retinue pheromone for female workers. Further studies on the effect of eusociality on the evolution of ORs are hindered by the non-availability of comprehensive OR sets of solitary species. We report complete OR repertoires from two solitary bees Dufourea novaeangliae (112 ORs) and Habropoda laboriosa (151 ORs)...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882653/behavioural-responses-of-two-spotted-spider-mites-induced-by-predator-borne-and-prey-borne-cues
#17
Enikő Gyuris, Erna Szép, Jenő Kontschán, Attila Hettyey, Zoltán Tóth
Applying predatory mites as biological control agents is a well established method against spider mites which are major pests worldwide. Although antipredator responses can influence the outcome of predator-prey interactions, we have limited information about what cues spider mites use to adjust their behavioural antipredator responses. We experimentally exposed two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) to different predator-borne cues (using a specialist predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis, or a generalist predator, Amblyseius swirskii), conspecific prey-borne cues, or both, and measured locomotion and egg-laying activity...
September 4, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881479/response-to-the-acp-osteoporosis-guideline-2017-revision
#18
EDITORIAL
Liron Caplan, Karen E Hansen, Kenneth G Saag
The American College of Physicians (ACP) recently updated their clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of low bone density and osteoporosis. These guidelines, aimed at generalists, importantly emphasize the critical nature of osteoporosis and provide a basic framework to guide its management. We support the ACP's effort to improve awareness and treatment of osteoporosis. However, we would like to address some important limitations encompassed by the six ACP recommendations that are particularly relevant to specialists, such as rheumatologists...
September 7, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880431/the-role-of-herbivore-and-plant-related-experiences-in-intraspecific-host-preference-of-a-relatively-specialized-parasitoid
#19
Tolulope Morawo, Henry Fadamiro
Parasitoids use odor cues from infested plants and herbivore hosts to locate their hosts. Specialist parasitoids of generalist herbivores are predicted to rely more on herbivore-derived cues than plant-derived cues. Microplitis croceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a relatively specialized larval endoparasitoid of Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is a generalist herbivore on several crops including cotton and soybean. Using M. croceipes/H. virescens as a model system, we tested the following predictions about specialist parasitoids of generalist herbivores: (i) naïve parasitoids will show innate responses to herbivore-emitted kairomones, regardless of host plant identity, and (ii) herbivore-related experience will have a greater influence on intraspecific oviposition preference than plant-related experience...
September 6, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877341/fine-tuning-the-plant-domestication-reduced-defense-hypothesis-specialist-vs-generalist-herbivores
#20
Mickaël D P Gaillard, Gaétan Glauser, Christelle A M Robert, Ted C J Turlings
Domesticated plants are assumed to have weakened chemical defenses. We argue, however, that artificial selection will have maintained defense traits against specialized herbivores that have coexisted with the crops throughout their domestication. We assessed the performance of eight species of insect herbivores from three feeding guilds on six European maize lines and six populations of their wild ancestor, teosinte. A metabolomics approach was used in an attempt to identify compounds responsible for observed differences in insect performance...
September 6, 2017: New Phytologist
keyword
keyword
71935
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"