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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330946/skull-size-and-biomechanics-are-good-estimators-of-in-vivo-bite-force-in-murid-rodents
#1
Samuel Ginot, Anthony Herrel, Julien Claude, Lionel Hautier
Rodentia is a species-rich group with diversified modes of life and diets. Although rodent skull morphology has been the focus of a voluminous literature, the functional significance of its variations has yet to be explored in live animals. Myomorphous rodents, including murids, have been suggested to represent "high-performance generalists." We measured in vivo bite force in 14 species of wild and lab-reared murid rodents of various sizes and diets to investigate potential morphofunctional differences between them...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327304/the-irrigation-effect-how-river-regulation-can-promote-some-riparian-vegetation
#2
Karen M Gill, Lori A Goater, Jeffrey H Braatne, Stewart B Rood
River regulation impacts riparian ecosystems by altering the hydrogeomorphic conditions that support streamside vegetation. Obligate riparian plants are often negatively impacted since they are ecological specialists with particular instream flow requirements. Conversely, facultative riparian plants are generalists and may be less vulnerable to river regulation, and could benefit from augmented flows that reduce drought stress during hot and dry periods. To consider this 'irrigation effect' we studied the facultative shrub, netleaf hackberry (Celtis reticulata), the predominant riparian plant along the Hells Canyon corridor of the Snake River, Idaho, USA, where dams produce hydropeaking, diurnal flow variation...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325015/ecological-mechanisms-underlying-soil-bacterial-responses-to-rainfall-along-a-steep-natural-precipitation-gradient
#3
Bonnie Waring, Christine V Hawkes
Changes in the structure and function of soil microbial communities can drive substantial ecosystem feedbacks to altered precipitation. However, the ecological mechanisms underlying community responses to environmental change are not well understood. We used an 18-month soil reciprocal transplant experiment along a steep precipitation gradient to quantify how changes in rainfall affected bacterial community structure. We also conducted an enhanced dispersal treatment to ask whether higher immigration rates of taxa from the surrounding environment would accelerate community responses to climate change...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324809/temporal-trends-in-arthropod-abundances-after-the-transition-to-organic-farming-in-paddy-fields
#4
Masaru H Tsutsui, Kazuhiko Kobayashi, Tadashi Miyashita
Organic farming aims to reduce the effect on the ecosystem and enhance biodiversity in agricultural areas, but the long-term effectiveness of its application is unclear. Assessments have rarely included various taxonomic groups with different ecological and economic roles. In paddy fields with different numbers of years elapsed since the transition from conventional to organic farming, we investigated changes in the abundance of insect pests, generalist predators, and species of conservation concern. The abundance of various arthropods exhibited diverse trends with respect to years elapsed since the transition to organic farming...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322323/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-associated-microbial-communities-from-dry-grassland-do-not-improve-plant-growth-on-abandoned-field-soil
#5
Hana Pánková, Clémentine Lepinay, Jana Rydlová, Alena Voříšková, Martina Janoušková, Tomáš Dostálek, Zuzana Münzbergová
After abandonment of agricultural fields, some grassland plant species colonize these sites with a frequency equivalent to dry grasslands (generalists) while others are missing or underrepresented in abandoned fields (specialists). We aimed to understand the inability of specialists to spread on abandoned fields by exploring whether performance of generalists and specialists depended on soil abiotic and/or biotic legacy. We performed a greenhouse experiment with 12 species, six specialists and six generalists...
January 10, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322321/polyphagy-by-omnivory-scavenging-improves-performance-of-a-polyphagous-caterpillar-on-marginal-hosts
#6
Eric F LoPresti
Few species of insect herbivores are highly polyphagous, but those few species are disproportionately ecologically and economically important and include many of the most destructive crop pests. Common correlates of extreme polyphagy across insects include the related behaviors of cannibalism and omnivory, though any functional consequences of these behaviors on the host range are unknown. I hypothesized that omnivory may allow these insects to exploit marginal hosts successfully (an expansion of realized niche)...
January 10, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321862/assessing-the-utility-of-metabarcoding-for-diet-analyses-of-the-omnivorous-wild-pig-sus-scrofa
#7
Michael S Robeson, Kamil Khanipov, George Golovko, Samantha M Wisely, Michael D White, Michael Bodenchuck, Timothy J Smyser, Yuriy Fofanov, Noah Fierer, Antoinette J Piaggio
Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species descended from both domestic swine and Eurasian wild boar that was introduced to North America during the early 1500s. Wild pigs have since become the most abundant free-ranging exotic ungulate in the United States. Large and ever-increasing populations of wild pigs negatively impact agriculture, sport hunting, and native ecosystems with costs estimated to exceed $1.5 billion/year within the United States. Wild pigs are recognized as generalist feeders, able to exploit a broad array of locally available food resources, yet their feeding behaviors remain poorly understood as partially digested material is often unidentifiable through traditional stomach content analyses...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321859/habitat-related-seed-germination-traits-in-alpine-habitats
#8
Maria Tudela-Isanta, Eduardo Fernández-Pascual, Malaka Wijayasinghe, Simone Orsenigo, Graziano Rossi, Hugh W Pritchard, Andrea Mondoni
Understanding the key aspects of plant regeneration from seeds is crucial in assessing species assembly to their habitats. However, the regenerative traits of seed dormancy and germination are underrepresented in this context. In the alpine zone, the large species and microhabitat diversity provide an ideal context to assess habitat-related regenerative strategies. To this end, seeds of 53 species growing in alpine siliceous and calcareous habitats (6230 and 6170 of EU Directive 92/43, respectively) were exposed to different temperature treatments under controlled laboratory conditions...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321851/specificity-of-herbivore-induced-responses-in-an-invasive-species-alternanthera-philoxeroides-alligator-weed
#9
Mu Liu, Fang Zhou, Xiaoyun Pan, Zhijie Zhang, Milton B Traw, Bo Li
Herbivory-induced responses in plants can both negatively affect subsequently colonizing herbivores and mitigate the effect of herbivory on the host. However, it is still less known whether plants exhibit specific responses to specialist and generalist herbivores in non-secondary metabolite traits and how specificity to specialists and generalists differs between invasive and native plant populations. We exposed an invasive plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides, to Agasicles hygrophila (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae; specialist), Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae; generalist), manual clipping, or application of exogenous jasmonic acid and examined both the specificity of elicitation in traits of fitness (e...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319892/role-of-cytochrome-p450-2b-sequence-variation-and-gene-copy-number-in-facilitating-dietary-specialization-in-mammalian-herbivores
#10
Smiljka Kitanovic, Teri J Orr, Daniel Spalink, Granger B Cocke, Katharina Schramm, P Ross Wilderman, James R Halpert, M Denise Dearing
Theory postulates that dietary specialization in mammalian herbivores is enabled by a specialized set of liver enzymes that process the high concentrations of similar plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) in the diets of specialists. To investigate whether qualitative and quantitative differences in detoxification mechanisms distinguish dietary specialists from generalists, we compared the sequence diversity and gene copy number of detoxification enzymes in two woodrat species: a generalist, the white-throated woodrat (Neotoma albigula), and a juniper specialist, Stephens' woodrat (N...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315590/brassinosteroids-regulate-glucosinolate-biosynthesis-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#11
Ji Hyea Lee, Jeongyeo Lee, HyeRan Kim, Won Byoung Chae, Sun-Ju Kim, Yong Pyo Lim, Man-Ho Oh
Plants must constantly adjust their growth and defense responses to deal with the wide variety of stresses they encounter in their environment. Among phytohormones, brassinosteroids (BRs) are an important group of plant steroid hormones involved in numerous aspects of the plant lifecycle including growth, development, and responses to various stresses including insects. Here, we show that BRs regulate glucosinolate (GS) biosynthesis and function in insect herbivory. Preference tests and larval feeding experiments using the generalist herbivore, diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), revealed that the larvae of this moth prefer to feed on Arabidopsis thaliana brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (bri1-5) plants than on wild-type Ws-2 or BRI1-Flag (bri1-5 background) transgenic plants, which leads an increase in larval weight...
January 5, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314612/current-literature-review-of-registered-nurses-competency-in-the-global-community
#12
Ying Liu, Yupin Aungsuroch
PURPOSE: In order to enhance international standards of nursing service, this article aims to analyze the English full-text peer-reviewed published articles from the past 10 years that describe contemporary registered nurses' (RNs') competency in the global community. DESIGN: An integrative review of literature was conducted between June 2016 and January 2017. METHODS: A systematic search was completed using four databases (Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) that covered the years between 2007 and 2017, and used the key words nurs* OR (staff nurs* ) OR (register nurs* ) AND competenc* AND international OR global...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311667/ecological-plasticity-in-the-gastrointestinal-microbiomes-of-ethiopian-chlorocebus-monkeys
#13
Pål Trosvik, Eli K Rueness, Eric J de Muinck, Amera Moges, Addisu Mekonnen
Human activities can cause habitat degradation that may alter the types and quality of available food resources and thus influence the microbiomes of wild animal populations. Furthermore, seasonal shifts in food availability may cause adaptive responses in the gut microbiome to meet the need for different metabolic capabilities. Here, we demonstrate local-scale population structure in the gastrointestinal microbiotas of Chlorocebus monkeys, in southern Ethiopia, in response to varying degrees of human encroachment...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311634/variation-in-salinity-tolerance-between-and-within-anadromous-subpopulations-of-pike-esox-1ucius
#14
Johanna Sunde, Carl Tamario, Petter Tibblin, Per Larsson, Anders Forsman
Environmental heterogeneity is a key determinant of genetic and phenotypic diversity. Stable and homogenous environments tends to result in evolution of specialism and local adaptations, while temporally unpredictable environments may maintain a diversity of specialists, promote generalist strategies, or favour diversified bet hedging strategies. We compared salinity tolerance between two anadromous subpopulations of pike (Esox Lucius) that utilize freshwater spawning sites with different salinity regimes. Eggs from each population were artificially fertilized and incubated in a salinity gradient (0, 3, 5, 7, and 9 psu) using a split-brood design...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307053/antipsychotics-use-2006-2013-trends-in-prevalence-and-incidence-and-characterization-of-users
#15
François Montastruc, Anne Bénard-Laribière, Pernelle Noize, Elodie Pambrun, Fabienne Diaz-Bazin, Marie Tournier, Bernard Bégaud, Antoine Pariente
PURPOSE: The present study was conducted to describe antipsychotic (AP) prevalent and incident use, characteristics of AP users, and their trends in the French population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was repeated yearly from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2013 (for prevalence analysis) or to December 31, 2012 (for incidence analysis) using the French Health Insurance reimbursement database (Echantillon Généraliste de Bénéficiaires, EGB). For each year studied, prevalent and incident AP users were described in terms of age and gender overall, and according to the type of AP (FGAPs or SGAPs) used at index date...
January 6, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301704/interacting-effects-of-ambient-temperature-and-food-quality-on-the-foraging-ecology-of-small-mammalian-herbivores
#16
Meghan J Camp, Lisa A Shipley, Charlotte R Milling, Janet L Rachlow, Jennifer S Forbey
Both temperature and diet quality play an important role in the time and energy budgets of small mammalian herbivores. However, little is known about how temperature and diet quality interact to influence diet selection, nutrient extraction, and energetics, and how these effects might differ among species. Therefore, we examined the effects of diet quality and temperature on aspects of the foraging ecology of two species of lagomorphs, pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis), which are small dietary specialists, and mountain cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus nuttallii), which are larger dietary and habitat generalists...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301524/what-does-complex-mean-in-palliative-care-triangulating-qualitative-findings-from-3-settings
#17
Emma Carduff, Sarah Johnston, Catherine Winstanley, Jamie Morrish, Scott A Murray, Juliet Spiller, Anne Finucane
BACKGROUND: Complex need for patients with a terminal illness distinguishes those who would benefit from specialist palliative care from those who could be cared for by non-specialists. However, the nature of this complexity is not well defined or understood. This study describes how health professionals, from three distinct settings in the United Kingdom, understand complex need in palliative care. METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with professionals in primary care, hospital and hospice settings...
January 4, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301047/the-effects-of-dispersal-and-predator-density-on-prey-survival-in-an-insect-red-clover-metacommunity
#18
David J Stasek, James N Radl, Thomas O Crist
Trophic interactions are often studied within habitat patches, but among-patch dispersal of individuals may influence local patch dynamics. Metacommunity concepts incorporate the effects of dispersal on local and community dynamics. There are few experimental tests of metacommunity theory using insects compared to those conducted in microbial microcosms. Using connected experimental mesocosms, we varied the density of the leafhopper Agallia constricta Van Duzee (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and a generalist insect predator, the damsel bug (Nabis spp...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301018/herbivore-derived-fatty-acid-amides-elicit-reactive-oxygen-species-burst-in-plants
#19
Anna Block, Shawn A Christensen, Charles T Hunter, Hans T Alborn
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be elicited by many forms of stress, including pathogen attack, abiotic stress, damage and insect infestation. Perception of microbe- or damage-associated elicitors triggers an ROS burst in many plant species; however, the impact of herbivore fatty-acid amides on ROS elicitation remains largely unexplored. In this study we show that the lepidopteran-derived fatty-acid amide elicitor N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine (GLN18:3) can induce a ROS burst in multiple plant species. Furthermore, in Arabidopsis this ROS burst is partially dependent on the plasma membrane localized NADPH oxidases RBOHD and RBOHF, and an Arabidopsis rbohD/F double mutant produces enhanced GLN18:3-induced jasmonic acid...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299287/diet-reveals-links-between-morphology-and-foraging-in-a-cryptic-temperate-reef-fish
#20
Natalia S Winkler, Maite Paz-Goicoechea, Robert W Lamb, Alejandro Pérez-Matus
Predators select prey so as to maximize energy and minimize manipulation time. In order to reduce prey detection and handling time, individuals must actively select their foraging space (microhabitat) and populations exhibit morphologies that are best suited for capturing locally available prey. We explored how variation in diet correlates with habitat type, and how these factors influence key morphological structures (mouth gape, eye diameter, fin length, fin area, and pectoral fin ratio) in a common microcarnivorous cryptic reef fish species, the triplefin Helcogrammoides cunninghami...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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