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Samuel Ginot, Lionel Hautier, Laurent Marivaux, Monique Vianey-Liaud
Studies linking postcranial morphology with locomotion in mammals are common. However, such studies are mostly restricted to caviomorphs in rodents. We present here data from various families, belonging to the three main groups of rodents (Sciuroidea, Myodonta, and Ctenohystrica). The aim of this study is to define morphological indicators for the astragalus and calcaneus, which allow for inferences to be made about the locomotor behaviours in rodents. Several specimens were dissected and described to bridge the myology of the leg with the morphology of the bones of interest...
2016: PeerJ
Cristina M Crava, Sukania Ramasamy, Lino Ometto, Gianfranco Anfora, Omar Rota-Stabelli
Chemosensory perception allows insects to interact with the environment by perceiving odorant or tastant molecules; genes encoding chemoreceptors are the molecular interface between the environment and the insect, and play a central role in mediating its chemosensory behavior. Here we explore how the evolution of these genes in the emerging pest Drosophila suzukii correlates with the peculiar ecology of this species. We annotated approximately 130 genes coding for gustatory receptors (GRs) and divergent ionotropic receptors (dIRs) in D...
October 19, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Mark Haddad, Ahmed Waqas, Wahhaj Qayyum, Maryam Shams, Saad Malik
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders such as depression are common and rank as major contributors to the global burden of disease. Condition recognition and subsequent management of depression is variable and influenced by the attitudes and beliefs of clinicians as well as those of patients. Most studies examining health professionals' attitudes have been conducted in Western nations; this study explores beliefs and attitudes about depression among doctors working in Lahore, Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015 used a questionnaire concerning demographics, education in psychiatry, beliefs about depression causes, and attitudes about depression using the Revised Depression Attitude Questionnaire (R-DAQ)...
October 18, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Rafael C Duarte, Martin Stevens, Augusto A V Flores
BACKGROUND: Colour and shape polymorphisms are important features of many species and may allow individuals to exploit a wider array of habitats, including through behavioural differences among morphs. In addition, differences among individuals in behaviour and morphology may reflect different strategies, for example utilising different approaches to camouflage. Hippolyte obliquimanus is a small shrimp species inhabiting different shallow-water vegetated habitats. Populations comprise two main morphs: homogeneous shrimp of variable colour (H) and transparent individuals with coloured stripes (ST)...
October 18, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Ai Kawahara, Gi-Hong An, Sachie Miyakawa, Jun Sonoda, Tatsuhiro Ezawa
Soil acidity is a major constraint on plant productivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi support plant colonization in acidic soil, but soil acidity also constrains fungal growth and diversity. Fungi in extreme environments generally evolve towards specialists, suggesting that AM fungi in acidic soil are acidic-soil specialists. In our previous surveys, however, some AM fungi detected in strongly acidic soils could also be detected in a soil with moderate pH, which raised a hypothesis that the fungi in acidic soils are pH generalists...
2016: PloS One
Stefan Abrahamczyk, Michael Kessler, Daniel Hanley, Dirk N Karger, Matthias P J Müller, Anina C Knauer, Felix Keller, Michael Schwerdtfeger, Aelys M Humphreys
A longstanding debate concerns whether nectar sugar composition evolves as an adaptation to pollinator dietary requirements or whether it is 'phylogenetically constrained'. Here we use a modeling approach to evaluate the hypothesis that nectar sucrose proportion (NSP) is an adaptation to pollinators. We analyze ~2,100 species of asterids, spanning several plant families and pollinator groups (PGs), and show that the hypothesis of adaptation cannot be rejected: NSP evolves toward two optimal values, high NSP for specialist-pollinated and low NSP for generalist-pollinated plants...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Sarah Amador, Claire Goodman, Louise Robinson, Elizabeth L Sampson
BACKGROUND: People living and dying with non-cancer diagnoses, including dementia, have poorer access to generalist and specialist palliative care than people with cancer, and experience worse outcomes in terms of pain and symptom control, and quality and experience of care. In the UK, the National Council for Palliative Care (NCPC) ran a national survey of services for end-of-life care for people with dementia (2008) in which 16 services were identified, and reported on case studies and examples of good practice...
October 14, 2016: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
Fidelindo A Lim, Cheryl A Nadeau
The current emphasis to make nurses full partners in health care dialogue, education, research, practice, and policy-making has made nursing education more challenging and exciting. Competing themes in an already saturated curriculum allow little room for adding more content to formal teaching-learning activities. Well-organized student-led interest groups are an excellent avenue for conducting focused extracurricular offerings that allow students to exercise their leadership and organizational skills, advocate for academic excellence, and add specialty topics missing in the generalist curriculum...
July 2016: Nursing Education Perspectives
Xue-Qin Wang, Guang-Hua Wang, Zeng-Rong Zhu, Qi-Yi Tang, Yang Hu, Fei Qiao, Kong Luen Heong, Jia-An Cheng
BACKGROUND: Spiders are effective biological control agents in rice ecosystems, but the comparative study of predations among main spider species under field conditions have not been fully explored since lack of practical methodology. In this study, more than 6000 spiders of dominant species were collected from subtropical rice ecosystems to compare their predations on Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) using DNA based gut content analysis. RESULTS: The positive rates for all spider taxa were closely related to prey densities, as well as their behaviors and niches...
October 14, 2016: Pest Management Science
Allison M Weis, Dylan B Storey, Conor C Taff, Andrea K Townsend, Bihua C Huang, Nguyet T Kong, Kristin A Clothier, Abigail Spinner, Barbara A Byrne, Bart C Weimer
: Campylobacter is the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Wild birds, including American crows are abundant in urban, suburban, and agricultural settings, and are likely zoonotic vectors of Campylobacter. Their proximity to humans and livestock increases the potential spreading of Campylobacter via crows between the environment, livestock, and humans. However, no studies have definitively demonstrated that crows are a vector for pathogenic Campylobacter We used genomics to evaluate zoonotic and pathogenic potential of Campylobacter from crows to other animals with 184 isolates obtained from crow, chicken, cow, sheep, goat, human, and non-human primates...
October 7, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Douglas S Krakower, Kevin M Maloney, Chris Grasso, Katherine Melbourne, Kenneth H Mayer
INTRODUCTION: An estimated 1.2 million Americans have indications for using antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV acquisition. For many of these at-risk individuals, the best opportunity to learn about and receive PrEP will be during routine visits to their generalist primary care clinicians. However, few generalist clinicians have prescribed PrEP, primarily because of practical concerns about providing PrEP in primary care settings. The experiences of specialized primary care clinicians who have prescribed PrEP can inform the feasibility of PrEP provision by generalists...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Maryse Vanderplanck, Sylvain Decleves, Nathalie Roger, Corentin Decroo, Guillaume Caulier, Gaetan Glauser, Pascal Gerbaux, Georges Lognay, Aurore Richel, Nathalie Escaravage, Denis Michez
Current evidence suggests that pollen is both chemically and structurally protected. Despite increasing interest in studying bee-flower networks, the constraints for bee development related to pollen nutritional content, toxicity and digestibility as well as their role in the shaping of bee-flower interactions have been poorly studied. In this study we combined bioassays of the generalist bee Bombus terrestris on pollen of Cirsium, Trifolium, Salix and Cistus genera with an assessment of nutritional content, toxicity and digestibility of pollen...
October 12, 2016: Insect Science
Rebecca J Critchley-Thorne, Jon M Davison, Jeffrey W Prichard, Lia M Reese, Yi Zhang, Kathleen A Repa, Jinhong Li, David L Diehl, Nirag C Jhala, Gregory Ginsberg, Maureen DeMarshall, Tyler Foxwell, Blair A Jobe, Ali H Zaidi, Lucas C Duits, Jacques J G H M Bergman, Anil K Rustgi, Gary W Falk
BACKGROUND: There is a need for improved tools to detect high grade dysplasia (HGD) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE). In previous work, we demonstrated that a 3-tier classifier predicted risk of incident progression in BE. Our aim was to determine if this risk classifier could detect a field effect in non-dysplastic (ND), indefinite for dysplasia (IND) or low-grade dysplasia (LGD) biopsies from BE patients with prevalent HGD/EAC. METHODS: We performed a multi-institutional case-control study to evaluate a previously developed risk classifier that is based upon quantitative image features derived from 9 biomarkers and morphology, and predicts risk for HGD/EAC in BE patients...
October 11, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Matthew Limb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Susan Gennaro
With more people having access to health care in the United States as a result of the Affordable Care Act, there is a greater need for nurses now than ever before. Generalist nurses will need to be educated, not just to care for people in hospitals, but also to promote health and help manage chronic conditions in a wide variety of health care settings. More advanced-practice nurses will be needed to provide primary care. Although the need for nurses educated at both the undergraduate and graduate levels in emerging health care systems is increasing, the number of nursing educators is decreasing...
October 2016: Nursing for Women's Health
Livia M S Ataide, Maria L Pappas, Bernardus C J Schimmel, Antonio Lopez-Orenes, Juan M Alba, Marcus V A Duarte, Angelo Pallini, Robert C Schuurink, Merijn R Kant
Inducible anti-herbivore defenses in plants are predominantly regulated by jasmonic acid (JA). On tomato plants, most genotypes of the herbivorous generalist spider mite Tetranychus urticae induce JA defenses and perform poorly on it, whereas the Solanaceae specialist Tetranychus evansi, who suppresses JA defenses, performs well on it. We asked to which extent these spider mites and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus longipes preying on these spider mites eggs are affected by induced JA-defenses. By artificially inducing the JA-response of the tomato JA-biosynthesis mutant def-1 using exogenous JA and isoleucine (Ile), we first established the relationship between endogenous JA-Ile-levels and the reproductive performance of spider mites...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Gill Schierhout, Veronica Matthews, Christine Connors, Sandra Thompson, Ru Kwedza, Catherine Kennedy, Ross Bailie
BACKGROUND: Addressing evidence-practice gaps in primary care remains a significant public health challenge and is likely to require action at different levels of the health system. Whilst Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) is associated with improvements in overall delivery, little is known about delivery of different types of care processes, and their relative improvement during CQI. METHODS: We used data from over 15,000 clinical audit records of clients with Type 2 diabetes collected as part of a wide-scale CQI program implemented between 2005 and 2014 in 162 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health centres...
October 7, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Henrik H De Fine Licht, Annette B Jensen, Jørgen Eilenberg
Obligate parasites are under strong selection to increase exploitation of their host to survive while evading detection by host immune defences. This has often led to elaborate pathogen adaptations and extreme host specificity. Specialization on one host, however, often incurs a trade-off influencing the capacity to infect alternate hosts. Here, we investigate host adaptation in two morphologically indistinguishable and closely related obligate specialist insect-pathogenic fungi from the phylum Entomophthoromycota, Entomophthora muscae sensu stricto and E...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Christopher R Stephens, Constantino González-Salazar, Víctor Sánchez-Cordero, Ingeborg Becker, Eduardo Rebollar-Tellez, Ángel Rodríguez-Moreno, Miriam Berzunza-Cruz, Cristina Domingo Balcells, Gabriel Gutiérrez-Granados, Mircea Hidalgo-Mihart, Carlos N Ibarra-Cerdeña, Martha Pilar Ibarra López, Luis Ignacio Iñiguez Dávalos, María Magdalena Ramírez Martínez
Zoonoses are an important class of infectious diseases. An important element determining the impact of a zoonosis on domestic animal and human health is host range. Although for particular zoonoses some host species have been identified, until recently there have been no methods to predict those species most likely to be hosts or their relative importance. Complex inference networks infer potential biotic interactions between species using their degree of geographic co-occurrence, and have been posited as a potential tool for predicting disease hosts...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Miriam Kaltenbach, Stephane Emond, Florian Hollfelder, Nobuhiko Tokuriki
The extent to which an emerging new function trades off with the original function is a key characteristic of the dynamics of enzyme evolution. Various cases of laboratory evolution have unveiled a characteristic trend; a large increase in a new, promiscuous activity is often accompanied by only a mild reduction of the native, original activity. A model that associates weak trade-offs with "evolvability" was put forward, which proposed that enzymes possess mutational robustness in the native activity and plasticity in promiscuous activities...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
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