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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100022/mycorrhizal-specificity-does-not-limit-the-distribution-of-an-endangered-orchid-species
#1
Michael Waud, Rein Brys, Wouter Van Landuyt, Bart Lievens, Hans Jacquemyn
What factors determine the distribution of a species is a central question in ecology and conservation biology. In general, the distribution of plant species is assumed to be controlled by dispersal or environmentally controlled recruitment. For plant species which are critically dependent on mycorrhizal symbionts for germination and seedling establishment, specificity in mycorrhizal associations and availability of suitable mycorrhizal fungi can be expected to have a major impact on successful colonization and establishment, and thus ultimately on a species distribution...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099770/cryptic-lineages-of-a-common-alpine-mayfly-show-strong-life-history-divergence
#2
Marie Leys, Irene Keller, Christopher T Robinson, Katja Räsänen
Understanding ecological divergence of morphologically similar but genetically distinct species ̶ previously considered as a single morphospecies ̶ is of key importance in evolutionary ecology and conservation biology. Despite their morphological similarity, cryptic species may have evolved distinct adaptations. If such ecological divergence is unaccounted for, any predictions about their responses to environmental change and biodiversity loss may be biased. We used spatio-temporally replicated field surveys of larval cohort structure and population genetic analyses (using nuclear microsatellite markers) to test for life history divergence between two cryptic lineages of the alpine mayfly Baetis alpinus in the Swiss Alps...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097417/bistability-induced-by-generalist-natural-enemies-can-reverse-pest-invasions
#3
Sten Madec, Jérôme Casas, Guy Barles, Christelle Suppo
Analytical modeling of predator-prey systems has shown that specialist natural enemies can slow, stop and even reverse pest invasions, assuming that the prey population displays a strong Allee effect in its growth. We aimed to formalize the conditions in which spatial biological control can be achieved by generalists, through an analytical approach based on reaction-diffusion equations. Using comparison principles, we obtain sufficient conditions for control and for invasion, based on scalar bistable partial differential equations...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096376/myosin-driven-transport-network-in-plants
#4
Elizabeth G Kurth, Valera V Peremyslov, Hannah L Turner, Kira S Makarova, Jaime Iranzo, Sergei L Mekhedov, Eugene V Koonin, Valerian V Dolja
We investigate the myosin XI-driven transport network in Arabidopsis using protein-protein interaction, subcellular localization, gene knockout, and bioinformatics analyses. The two major groups of nodes in this network are myosins XI and their membrane-anchored receptors (MyoB) that, together, drive endomembrane trafficking and cytoplasmic streaming in the plant cells. The network shows high node connectivity and is dominated by generalists, with a smaller fraction of more specialized myosins and receptors...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093938/capacity-and-consent
#5
Scott Lamont, Cameron Stewart, Mary Chiarella
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare practitioners have a legal, ethical and professional obligation to obtain patient consent for all healthcare treatments. There is increasing evidence which suggests dissonance and variation in practice in assessment of decision-making capacity and consent processes. AIMS: This study explores healthcare practitioners' knowledge and practices of assessing decision-making capacity and obtaining patient consent to treatment in the acute generalist setting...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092750/assessing-common-birds-ecological-requirements-to-address-nature-conservation-in-permanent-crops-lessons-from-italian-vineyards
#6
Giacomo Assandri, Giuseppe Bogliani, Paolo Pedrini, Mattia Brambilla
Viticulture has contributed to shaping cultural landscapes in several regions across all continents. Recent farming intensification is causing landscape homogenization and biodiversity loss in several of those areas, but knowledge about the impacts on biodiversity in vineyards is still scarce. Simplified agro-ecosystems resulting from intensification host mainly generalist and common species, which still play a key role in the regulation of ecosystems and in the provision of ecosystem services. We assessed the abundance of 11 common bird species at 47 linear transects in a vineyard-dominated landscape in Trentino (NE Italy), in both spring and winter, and analysed abundance variation in relation to three independent groups of predictors: landscape, management, and topographic-climatic variables...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086925/partnerships-in-mental-healthcare-service-delivery-in-low-resource-settings-developing-an-innovative-network-in-rural-nepal
#7
Bibhav Acharya, Duncan Maru, Ryan Schwarz, David Citrin, Jasmine Tenpa, Soniya Hirachan, Madhur Basnet, Poshan Thapa, Sikhar Swar, Scott Halliday, Brandon Kohrt, Nagendra P Luitel, Erick Hung, Bikash Gauchan, Rajeev Pokharel, Maria Ekstrand
BACKGROUND: Mental illnesses are the largest contributors to the global burden of non-communicable diseases. However, there is extremely limited access to high quality, culturally-sensitive, and contextually-appropriate mental healthcare services. This situation persists despite the availability of interventions with proven efficacy to improve patient outcomes. A partnerships network is necessary for successful program adaptation and implementation. PARTNERSHIPS NETWORK: We describe our partnerships network as a case example that addresses challenges in delivering mental healthcare and which can serve as a model for similar settings...
January 13, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086764/an-audit-of-the-quality-of-online-immunisation-information-available-to-australian-parents
#8
K E Wiley, M Steffens, N Berry, J Leask
BACKGROUND: The Internet is increasingly a source of health information for parents, who use the Internet alongside health care providers for immunisation information. Concerns have been raised about the reliability of online immunisation information, however to date there has been no audit of the quality or quantity of what is available to Australian parents. The objective of this study was to address this gap by simulating a general online search for immunisation information, and assessing the quality and quantity of the web sites returned by the search...
January 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077317/zoonotic-pathogens-in-atlantic-forest-wild-rodents-in-brazil-bartonella-and-coxiella-infections
#9
Tatiana Rozental, Michelle Santos Ferreira, Alexandro Guterres, Maria Angélica Mares-Guia, Bernardo R Teixeira, Jonathan Gonçalves, Cibele Rodrigues Bonvicino, Paulo Sergio D'Andrea, Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos
Zoonotic pathogens comprise a significant and increasing fraction of all emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases that plague humans. Identifying host species is one of the keys to controlling emerging infectious diseases. From March 2007 until April 2012, we collected a total of 131 wild rodents in eight municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We investigated these rodents for infection with Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. In total, 22.1% (29/131) of the rodents were infected by at least one pathogen; co-infection was detected in 1...
January 8, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077086/the-measure-of-success-geographic-isolation-promotes-diversification-in-pachydactylus-geckos
#10
Matthew P Heinicke, Todd R Jackman, Aaron M Bauer
BACKGROUND: Geckos of the genus Pachydactylus and their close relatives comprise the most species-rich clade of lizards in sub-Saharan Africa. Many explanations have been offered to explain species richness patterns of clades. In the Pachydactylus group, one possible explanation is a history of diversification via geographic isolation. If geographic isolation has played a key role in facilitating diversification, then we expect species in more species-rich subclades to have smaller ranges than species in less diverse subclades...
January 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074571/screening-brief-intervention-and-referral-to-treatment-sbirt-implementation-barriers-facilitators-and-model-migration
#11
Janice Vendetti, Amanda Gmyrek, Donna Damon, Manu Singh, Bonnie McRee, Frances Del Boca
AIMS: To identify barriers and facilitators associated with initial implementation of a US alcohol and other substance use Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) grant program, and to identify modifications in program design that addressed implementation challenges. DESIGN: A mixed-method approach used quantitative and qualitative data, including SBIRT provider ratings of implementation barriers and facilitators, staff interview responses and program documentation...
February 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074569/screening-brief-intervention-and-referral-to-treatment-implications-of-samhsa-s-sbirt-initiative-for-substance-abuse-policy-and-practice
#12
Thomas F Babor, Frances Del Boca, Jeremy W Bray
AIMS: This paper describes the major findings and public health implications of a cross-site evaluation of a national Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) demonstration program funded by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). METHODS: Eleven multi-site programs in two cohorts of SAMHSA grant recipients were each funded for 5 years to promote the adoption and sustained implementation of SBIRT. The SBIRT cross-site evaluation used a multi-method evaluation design to provide comprehensive information on the processes, outcomes and costs of SBIRT as implemented in a variety of medical and community settings...
February 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074564/sustaining-sbirt-in-the-wild-simulating-revenues-and-costs-for-screening-brief-intervention-and-referral-to-treatment-programs
#13
Alexander J Cowell, William N Dowd, Michael J Mills, Jesse M Hinde, Jeremy W Bray
AIMS: To examine the conditions under which Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) programs can be sustained by health insurance payments. DESIGN: A mathematical model was used to estimate the number of patients needed for revenues to exceed costs. SETTING: Three medical settings in the United States were examined: in-patient, out-patient and emergency department. Components of SBIRT were delivered by combinations of health-care practitioners (generalists) and behavioral health specialists...
February 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073472/the-interaction-between-cyanobacteria-and-zooplankton-in-a-more-eutrophic-world
#14
REVIEW
Kemal Ali Ger, Pablo Urrutia-Cordero, Paul C Frost, Lars-Anders Hansson, Orlando Sarnelle, Alan E Wilson, Miquel Lürling
As blooms of cyanobacteria expand and intensify in freshwater systems globally, there is increasing interest in their ecological effects. In addition to being public health hazards, cyanobacteria have long been considered a poor quality food for key zooplankton grazers that link phytoplankton to higher trophic levels. While past laboratory studies have found negative effects of nutritional constraints and defensive traits (i.e., toxicity and colonial or filamentous morphology) on the fitness of large generalist grazers (i...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067238/jasmonate-response-decay-and-defense-metabolite-accumulation-contributes-to-age-regulated-dynamics-of-plant-insect-resistance
#15
Ying-Bo Mao, Yao-Qian Liu, Dian-Yang Chen, Fang-Yan Chen, Xin Fang, Gao-Jie Hong, Ling-Jian Wang, Jia-Wei Wang, Xiao-Ya Chen
Immunity deteriorates with age in animals but comparatively little is known about the temporal regulation of plant resistance to herbivores. The phytohormone jasmonate (JA) is a key regulator of plant insect defense. Here, we show that the JA response decays progressively in Arabidopsis. We show that this decay is regulated by the miR156-targeted SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE9 (SPL9) group of proteins, which can interact with JA ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, including JAZ3. As SPL9 levels gradually increase, JAZ3 accumulates and the JA response is attenuated...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063867/-it-s-like-heart-failure-it-s-chronic%C3%A2-and-it-will-kill-you-a-qualitative-analysis-of-burnout-among-hospice-and-palliative-care-clinicians
#16
Dio Kavalieratos, Daniel E Siconolfi, Karen E Steinhauser, Janet Bull, Robert M Arnold, Keith M Swetz, Arif H Kamal
CONTEXT: Although prior surveys have identified rates of self-reported burnout among palliative care clinicians as high as 62%, limited data exist to elucidate the causes, ameliorators, and effects of this phenomenon. OBJECTIVES: We explored burnout among palliative care clinicians, specifically their experiences with burnout, their perceived sources of burnout, and potential individual, interpersonal, organizational, and policy-level solutions to address burnout...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062071/chemical-profile-and-defensive-function-of-the-latex-of-euphorbia-peplus
#17
Juan Hua, Yan Liu, Chao-Jiang Xiao, Shu-Xi Jing, Shi-Hong Luo, Sheng-Hong Li
Plant latex is an endogenous fluid secreted from highly specialized laticifer cells and has been suggested to act as a plant defense system. The chemical profile of the latex of Euphorbia peplus was investigated. A total of 13 terpenoids including two previously unknown diterpenoids, (2S*,3S*,4R*,5R*,6R*,8R*,l1R*,13S*,14S*,15R*, 16R*)-5,8,15-triacetoxy-3-benzoyloxy-11,16-dihydroxy-9-oxopepluane and (2R*,3R*, 4S*,5R*,7S*,8S*,9S*,l3S*,14S*,15R*)-2,5,8,9,14-pentaacetoxy-3-benzoyloxy-15-hydroxy-7-isobutyroyloxyjatropha-6(17),11E-diene), ten known diterpenoids, and a known acyclic triterpene alcohol peplusol, were identified, using HPLC and UPLC-MS/MS analyses and through comparison with the authentic compounds isolated from the whole plant...
January 3, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060868/non-communicable-disease-preventive-screening-by-hiv-care-model
#18
Corinne M Rhodes, Yuchiao Chang, Susan Regan, Virginia A Triant
IMPORTANCE: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic has evolved, with an increasing non-communicable disease (NCD) burden emerging and need for long-term management, yet there are limited data to help delineate the optimal care model to screen for NCDs for this patient population. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to compare rates of NCD preventive screening in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) by type of HIV care model, focusing on metabolic/cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer screening...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058798/inductions-of-reproduction-and-population-growth-in-the-generalist-predator-cyrtorhinus-lividipennis-hemiptera-miridae-exposed-to-sublethal-concentrations-of-insecticides
#19
Weiwei Lu, Qiujing Xu, Jun Zhu, Chen Liu, Linquan Ge, Guoqing Yang, Fang Liu
BACKGROUND: The miridbug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, is a significant predacious enemy of rice planthoppers. The effects of sublethal concentrations of triazophos, deltamethrin and imidacloprid on fecundity, egg hatchability, expression levels of genes associated with reproduction, and population growth in C. lividipennis were investigated. RESULTS: The fecundities for three pair combinations (♀c  × ♂t , ♀t  × ♂c and ♀t  × ♂t ) treated with sublethal concentrations of the insecticides triazophos, deltamethrin and imidacloprid (LC10 and LC20 ) showed a significant increase compared to the untreated pairs (♀c  × ♂c )...
January 6, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057063/avian-malaria-on-madagascar-bird-hosts-and-putative-vector-mosquitoes-of-different-plasmodium-lineages
#20
Sandrine Schmid, Anke Dinkel, Ute Mackenstedt, Michaël Luciano Tantely, Fano José Randrianambinintsoa, Sébastien Boyer, Friederike Woog
BACKGROUND: Avian malaria occurs almost worldwide and is caused by Haemosporida parasites (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon). Vectors such as mosquitoes, hippoboscid flies or biting midges are required for the transmission of these parasites. There are few studies about avian malaria parasites on Madagascar but none about suitable vectors. METHODS: To identify vectors of avian Plasmodium parasites on Madagascar, we examined head, thorax and abdomen of 418 mosquitoes from at least 18 species using a nested PCR method to amplify a 524 bp fragment of the haemosporidian mitochondrial cytochrome b gene...
January 5, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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