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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791493/agricultural-matrices-affect-ground-ant-assemblage-composition-inside-forest-fragments
#1
Diego Santana Assis, Iracenir Andrade Dos Santos, Flavio Nunes Ramos, Katty Elena Barrios-Rojas, Jonathan David Majer, Evaldo Ferreira Vilela
The establishment of agricultural matrices generally involves deforestation, which leads to fragmentation of the remaining forest. This fragmentation can affect forest dynamics both positively and negatively. Since most animal species are affected, certain groups can be used to measure the impact of such fragmentation. This study aimed to measure the impacts of agricultural crops (matrices) on ant communities of adjacent lower montane Atlantic rainforest fragments. We sampled nine forest fragments at locations surrounded by different agricultural matrices, namely: coffee (3 replicates); sugarcane (3); and pasture (3)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790926/bathyarchaeota-globally-distributed-metabolic-generalists-in-anoxic-environments
#2
Zhichao Zhou, Jie Pan, Fengping Wang, Ji-Dong Gu, Meng Li
Bathyarchaeota, formerly known as the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group, is a phylum of global generalists that are widespread in anoxic sediments, which host relatively high abundant archaeal communities. Until now, 25 subgroups have been identified in the Bathyarchaeota. The distinct bathyarchaeotal subgroups diverged to adapt to the marine and freshwater environments. Based on the physiological and genomic evidence, acetyl-CoA centralized heterotrophic pathways of energy conservation have been proposed to function in Bathyarchaeota; these microbes are able to anaerobically utilize (i) detrital proteins, (ii) polymeric carbohydrates, (iii) fatty acids/aromatic compounds, (iv) methane (or short chain alkane) and methylated compounds, (v) and/or potentially other organic matter...
May 21, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790246/a-review-of-predation-as-a-limiting-factor-for-bird-populations-in-mesopredator-rich-landscapes-a-case-study-of-the-uk
#3
Staffan Roos, Jennifer Smart, David W Gibbons, Jeremy D Wilson
The impact of increasing vertebrate predator numbers on bird populations is widely debated among the general public, game managers and conservationists across Europe. However, there are few systematic reviews of whether predation limits the population sizes of European bird species. Views on the impacts of predation are particularly polarised in the UK, probably because the UK has a globally exceptional culture of intensive, high-yield gamebird management where predator removal is the norm. In addition, most apex predators have been exterminated or much depleted in numbers, contributing to a widely held perception that the UK has high numbers of mesopredators...
May 22, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789644/heritability-of-climate-relevant-traits-in-a-rainforest-skink
#4
Felipe Martins, Loeske Kruuk, John Llewelyn, Craig Moritz, Ben Phillips
There is justified concern about the impact of global warming on the persistence of tropical ectotherms. There is also growing evidence for strong selection on climate-relevant physiological traits. Understanding the evolutionary potential of populations is especially important for low dispersal organisms in isolated populations, because these populations have little choice but to adapt. Despite this, direct estimates of heritability and genetic correlations for physiological traits in ectotherms-which will determine their evolutionary responses to selection-are sparse, especially for reptiles...
May 22, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789469/fungal-diversity-in-lichens-from-extremotolerance-to-interactions-with-algae
#5
REVIEW
Lucia Muggia, Martin Grube
Lichen symbioses develop long-living thallus structures even in the harshest environments on Earth. These structures are also habitats for many other microscopic organisms, including other fungi, which vary in their specificity and interaction with the whole symbiotic system. This contribution reviews the recent progress regarding the understanding of the lichen-inhabiting fungi that are achieved by multiphasic approaches (culturing, microscopy, and sequencing). The lichen mycobiome comprises a more or less specific pool of species that can develop symptoms on their hosts, a generalist environmental pool, and a pool of transient species...
May 22, 2018: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788112/evolution-of-gustatory-receptor-gene-family-provides-insights-into-adaptation-to-diverse-host-plants-in-nymphalid-butterflies
#6
Hiromu C Suzuki, Katsuhisa Ozaki, Takashi Makino, Hironobu Uchiyama, Shunsuke Yajima, Masakado Kawata
The host plant range of herbivorous insects is a major aspect of insect-plant interaction, but the genetic basis of host range expansion in insects is poorly understood. In butterflies, gustatory receptor genes (GRs) play important roles in host plant selection by ovipositing females. Since several studies have shown associations between the repertoire sizes of chemosensory gene families and the diversity of resource use, we hypothesized that the increase in the number of genes in the GR family is associated with host range expansion in butterflies...
May 18, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787595/current-and-previous-spatial-distributions-of-oilseed-rape-fields-influence-the-abundance-and-the-body-size-of-a-solitary-wild-bee-andrena-cineraria-in-permanent-grasslands
#7
Colin Van Reeth, Gaël Caro, Christian Bockstaller, Nadia Michel
Wild bees are essential pollinators whose survival partly depends on the capacity of their environment to offer a sufficient amount of nectar and pollen. Semi-natural habitats and mass-flowering crops such as oilseed rape provide abundant floristic resources for bees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences of the spatial distribution of semi-natural habitats and oilseed rape fields on the abundance and the mean body size of a solitary bee in grasslands. We focused on a generalist mining bee, Andrena cineraria, that forages and reproduces during oilseed rape flowering...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785353/diet-breadth-and-exploitation-of-exotic-plants-shift-the-core-microbiome-of-cephaloleia-a-group-of-tropical-herbivorous-beetles
#8
Chelsea L Blankenchip, Dana E Michels, H Elizabeth Braker, Shana K Goffredi
The beetle genus Cephaloleia has evolved in association with tropical ginger plants and for many species their specific host plant associations are known. Here we show that the core microbiome of six closely related Costa Rican Cephaloleia species comprises only eight bacterial groups, including members of the Acinetobacter , Enterobacteriacea, Pseudomonas , Lactococcus, and Comamonas . The Acinetobacter and Enterobacteriacea together accounted for 35% of the total average 16S rRNA ribotypes recovered from all specimens...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784886/-legionella-pneumophila-is-directly-sensitive-to-2-deoxyglucose-phosphate-via-its-uhpc-transporter-but-is-indifferent-to-shifts-in-host-cell-glycolytic-metabolism
#9
Jordan V Price, Kallie Jiang, Abigail Galantowicz, Alana Freifeld, Russell E Vance
Toll-like receptor stimulation induces a pronounced shift to increased glycolytic metabolism in mammalian macrophages. We observed that bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) increase glycolysis in response to infection with Legionella pneumophila ( L. pneumophila ), but the role of host macrophage glycolysis on intracellular L. pneumophila replication is not currently understood. Treatment with 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) blocks L. pneumophila replication in mammalian macrophages but has no effect on bacteria grown in broth...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784812/distributed-and-dynamic-intracellular-organization-of-extracellular-information
#10
Alejandro A Granados, Julian M J Pietsch, Sarah A Cepeda-Humerez, Iseabail L Farquhar, Gašper Tkačik, Peter S Swain
Although cells respond specifically to environments, how environmental identity is encoded intracellularly is not understood. Here, we study this organization of information in budding yeast by estimating the mutual information between environmental transitions and the dynamics of nuclear translocation for 10 transcription factors. Our method of estimation is general, scalable, and based on decoding from single cells. The dynamics of the transcription factors are necessary to encode the highest amounts of extracellular information, and we show that information is transduced through two channels: Generalists (Msn2/4, Tod6 and Dot6, Maf1, and Sfp1) can encode the nature of multiple stresses, but only if stress is high; specialists (Hog1, Yap1, and Mig1/2) encode one particular stress, but do so more quickly and for a wider range of magnitudes...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782225/a-comparison-of-reproductive-and-energetic-states-in-a-marine-apex-predator-the-tiger-shark-galeocerdo-cuvier
#11
Neil Hammerschlag, Rachel A Skubel, James Sulikowski, Duncan J Irschick, Austin J Gallagher
To fuel the high energetic demands of reproduction, vertebrates employ different tactics of resource use. Large sharks exhibit long gestation periods and have relatively few well-developed young, which likely incurs high energetic costs. However, information on the relationship between the reproductive and energetic states for most shark species is lacking. In the present study, we used a noninvasive approach to assess relationships among reproductive stage, plasma triglyceride levels, body condition, and circulating reproductive hormones in free-ranging female tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier)...
July 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781216/measuring-inequalities-in-the-demographical-and-geographical-distribution-of-physicians-in-china-generalist-versus-specialist
#12
Jingxian Wu
OBJECTIVE: The equitable distribution of both generalist and specialist physicians is vital in establishing a fair and efficient health care system. The presents study aims at comparatively measuring the demographical and geographical distribution of generalist and specialist physicians in China from 2012 to 2016. METHODS: The data were obtained from China Health and Family Planning Statistics and China Statistical Yearbooks 2013 to 2017. Descriptive statistical methods were used to address the quantity and density of physicians, and Gini coefficient was adopted as inequality indicator to trace their distribution inequalities...
May 20, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779502/multi-locus-phylogenetics-of-the-midichloria-endosymbionts-reveals-variable-specificity-of-association-with-ticks
#13
M Buysse, O Duron
Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii is a maternally inherited bacterium of ticks with a unique intra-mitochondrial lifestyle. Here, we investigate on the evolutionary history of these associations and the degree of Midichloria-tick specificity. While previous surveys used the 16S rRNA gene as an exclusive molecular marker, we rather developed a multi-locus typing method based on four more variable housekeeping genes (groEL, rpoB, dnaK and ftsZ) and on one flagellum gene (fliC) present in Midichloria genomes...
May 21, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778675/groundwater-contamination-and-land-drainage-induce-divergent-responses-in-boreal-spring-ecosystems
#14
Kaisa Lehosmaa, Jussi Jyväsjärvi, Jari Ilmonen, Pekka M Rossi, Lauri Paasivirta, Timo Muotka
Degradation of freshwater ecosystems has engendered legislative mandates for the protection and management of surface waters while groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) have received much less attention. This is so despite biodiversity and functioning of GDEs are currently threatened by several anthropogenic stressors, particularly intensified land use and groundwater contamination. We assessed the impacts of land drainage (increased input of dissolved organic carbon, DOC, from peatland drainage) and impaired groundwater chemical quality (NO3 - -N enrichment from agricultural or urban land use) on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in 20 southern Finnish cold-water springs using several taxonomic and functional measures...
May 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778306/proton-pump-inhibitors-prescriptions-in-france-main-trends-from-2006-to-2016-on-french-health-insurance-database
#15
Quentin Boucherie, Franck Rouby, Diane Frankel, Patrice Roll, Joelle Micallef
Because national data on proton pump inbibitors (PPIs) consumption in France are scarce and because there is a growing literature on potential adverse drug reaction induced by this pharmacological class, we would like to more describe the main evolution of PPI use and the main characteristics of its users in France. We used a 1/97th representative sample of beneficiaries of the French health insurance called "échantillon généraliste des bénéficiaires" (EGB) to describe PPIs' use over time (duration of use by year) from 2006 to 2016...
March 7, 2018: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771449/intraspecific-variation-in-indirect-plant-soil-feedbacks-influences-a-wetland-plant-invasion
#16
Warwick J Allen, Laura A Meyerson, Andrew J Flick, James T Cronin
Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) influence plant competition via direct interactions with pathogens and mutualists or indirectly via apparent competition/mutualisms (i.e., spillover to co-occurring plants) and soil legacy effects. It is currently unknown how intraspecific variation in PSFs interacts with the environment (e.g., nutrient availability) to influence competition between native and invasive plants. We conducted a fully crossed multi-factor greenhouse experiment to determine the effects of Phragmites australis rhizosphere soil biota, interspecific competition, and nutrient availability on biomass of replicate populations from one native and two invasive lineages of common reed (P...
May 17, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768418/obgyn-screening-for-environmental-exposures-a-call-for-action
#17
N M Grindler, A A Allshouse, E Jungheim, T L Powell, T Jansson, A J Polotsky
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposures have known adverse effects on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Professional societies recommend routine screening for environmental, occupational, and dietary exposures to reduce exposures and their associated sequelae. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the frequency of environmental exposure screening by obstetricians and gynecologists (OBGYNs) at initial patient visits. STUDY DESIGN: Practicing OBGYNs were approached at the University of Colorado and by social media...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767218/management-of-emotionally-challenging-responses-of-hospitalized-patients-with-cancer
#18
Yelena Burklin, Daniel P Hunt
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, and the majority of hospital admissions of patients with cancer occur because of uncontrolled, urgent symptoms. In addition to complex physical presentations, these patients often manifest a number of complex emotional and psychological responses resulting in a unique set of healthcare needs and expectations. Inpatient generalists or hospitalists frequently serve as the primary providers of medical care for these patients. Formal training for nononcologists on effective communication strategies in managing patients with cancer in a hospital setting may not fully prepare generalists for challenging patient encounters, however...
May 2018: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765689/a-new-archaic-baleen-whale-toipahautea-waitaki-early-late-oligocene-new-zealand-and-the-origins-of-crown-mysticeti
#19
Cheng-Hsiu Tsai, R Ewan Fordyce
A new genus and species of extinct baleen whale † Toipahautea waitaki (Late Oligocene, New Zealand) is based on a skull and associated bones, from the lower Kokoamu Greensand, about 27.5 Ma (local upper Whaingaroan Stage, early Chattian). The upper jaw includes a thin, elongate and apparently toothless maxilla, with evidence of arterial supply for baleen. Open sutures with the premaxilla suggest a flexible (kinetic) upper jaw. The blowhole is well forward. The mandible is bowed laterally and slightly dorsally; unlike the Eomysticetidae, there are no mandibular alveoli, and the coronoid process is tapered and curved laterally...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764657/does-host-plant-adaptation-lead-to-pesticide-resistance-in-generalist-herbivores
#20
REVIEW
Wannes Dermauw, Adam Pym, Chris Bass, Thomas Van Leeuwen, René Feyereisen
Most herbivorous arthropods feed on one or a few closely related plant species; however, certain insect and mite species have a greatly expanded host range. Several of these generalists also show a remarkable propensity to evolve resistance to chemical pesticides. In this review, we ask if the evolution of mechanisms to tolerate the diversity of plant secondary metabolites that generalist herbivores encounter, has pre-adapted them to resist synthetic pesticides. Critical examination of the evidence suggests that a generalist life-style per se is not a predictor of rapid resistance evolution to pesticides...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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