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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214357/nesting-habits-influence-population-genetic-structure-of-a-bee-living-in-anthropogenic-disturbance
#1
J L Vickruck, M H Richards
While most organisms are negatively affected by anthropogenic disturbance, a few species thrive in landscapes altered by humans. Typically, native bees are negatively impacted by anthropogenic environmental change, including habitat alteration and climate change. Here we investigate the population structure of the eastern carpenter bee Xylocopa virginica, a generalist pollinator with a broad geographic range spanning eastern North America. Eastern carpenter bees now nest almost exclusively in human made wooden structures, linking their geographic distribution and population structure to human activities and disturbance...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212654/diversity-and-distribution-of-avian-malaria-and-related-haemosporidian-parasites-in-captive-birds-from-a-brazilian%C3%A2-megalopolis
#2
Carolina Romeiro Fernandes Chagas, Gediminas Valkiūnas, Lilian de Oliveira Guimarães, Eliana Ferreira Monteiro, Fernanda Junqueira Vaz Guida, Roseli França Simões, Priscila Thihara Rodrigues, Expedito José de Albuquerque Luna, Karin Kirchgatter
BACKGROUND: The role of zoos in conservation programmes has increased significantly in last decades, and the health of captive animals is essential to guarantee success of such programmes. However, zoo birds suffer from parasitic infections, which often are caused by malaria parasites and related haemosporidians. Studies determining the occurrence and diversity of these parasites, aiming better understanding infection influence on fitness of captive birds, are limited. METHODS: In 2011-2015, the prevalence and diversity of Plasmodium spp...
February 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207815/generalist-dispersers-promote-germination-of-an-alien-fleshy-fruited-tree-invading-natural-grasslands
#3
Martín Raúl Amodeo, María Belén Vázquez, Sergio Martín Zalba
Plants with animal-dispersed fruits seem to overcome the barriers that limit their spread into new habitats more easily than other invasive plants and, at the same time, they pose special difficulties for containment, control or eradication. The effects of animals on plant propagules can be very diverse, with positive, neutral or negative consequences for germination and recruitment. Moreover, the environmental conditions where the seeds are deposited and where the post-dispersal processes take place can be crucial for their fate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205149/making-implicit-assumptions-explicit-in-the-costing-of-informal-care-the-case-of-head-and-neck-cancer-in-ireland
#4
Paul Hanly, Rebecca Maguire, Myles Balfe, Eleanor O'Sullivan, Linda Sharp
BACKGROUND: From a health service perspective, informal care is often viewed as a potentially cost-effective way of transferring costs out of the formal healthcare sector. However, informal care is not a free resource. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the impact of alternative valuation methods and key assumptions on the cost of informal care. METHODS: Informal carers who assisted in the care of a head and neck cancer survivor for at least 1 year were sent a postal questionnaire during January-June 2014 requesting information on time spent on caring tasks in the month prior to the survey...
February 15, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196828/systematic-review-of-the-effectiveness-barriers-and-facilitators-to-general-practitioner-engagement-with-specialist-secondary-services-in-integrated-palliative-care
#5
REVIEW
Sue-Ann Carmont, Geoffrey Mitchell, Hugh Senior, Michele Foster
: The general practitioner (GP) has a critical role in an integrated model of palliative care as they often know the patient and carer well, are experts in generalist care and have knowledge of health and social services in the community. Specialist palliative services have insufficient capacity to meet demand and those with non-cancer terminal conditions and those from rural and remote areas are underserved. Research has focused on improving access to palliative care by engaging the GP with specialist secondary services in integrated palliative care...
February 14, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196112/the-role-of-dispersal-mode-and-habitat-specialization-for-metacommunity-structure-of-shallow-beach-invertebrates
#6
Iván F Rodil, Paloma Lucena-Moya, Henri Jokinen, Victoria Ollus, Håkan Wennhage, Anna Villnäs, Alf Norkko
Metacommunity ecology recognizes the interplay between local and regional patterns in contributing to spatial variation in community structure. In aquatic systems, the relative importance of such patterns depends mainly on the potential connectivity of the specific system. Thus, connectivity is expected to increase in relation to the degree of water movement, and to depend on the specific traits of the study organism. We examined the role of environmental and spatial factors in structuring benthic communities from a highly connected shallow beach network using a metacommunity approach...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193109/child-neurology-education-for-pediatric-residents
#7
Dara V F Albert, Anup D Patel, Maria Behnam-Terneus, Beatriz Cunill-De Sautu, Nicole Verbeck, Alisa McQueen, H Barrett Fromme, John D Mahan
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the current state of child neurology education during pediatric residency provides adequate preparation for pediatric practice. A survey was sent to recent graduates from 3 pediatric residency programs to assess graduate experience, perceived level of competence, and desire for further education in child neurology. Responses from generalists versus subspecialists were compared. The response rate was 32%, half in general pediatric practice. Only 22% feel very confident in approaching patients with neurologic problems...
March 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190401/rapid-transcriptional-plasticity-of-duplicated-gene-clusters-enables-a-clonally-reproducing-aphid-to-colonise-diverse-plant-species
#8
Thomas C Mathers, Yazhou Chen, Gemy Kaithakottil, Fabrice Legeai, Sam T Mugford, Patrice Baa-Puyoulet, Anthony Bretaudeau, Bernardo Clavijo, Stefano Colella, Olivier Collin, Tamas Dalmay, Thomas Derrien, Honglin Feng, Toni Gabaldón, Anna Jordan, Irene Julca, Graeme J Kettles, Krissana Kowitwanich, Dominique Lavenier, Paolo Lenzi, Sara Lopez-Gomollon, Damian Loska, Daniel Mapleson, Florian Maumus, Simon Moxon, Daniel R G Price, Akiko Sugio, Manuella van Munster, Marilyne Uzest, Darren Waite, Georg Jander, Denis Tagu, Alex C C Wilson, Cock van Oosterhout, David Swarbreck, Saskia A Hogenhout
BACKGROUND: The prevailing paradigm of host-parasite evolution is that arms races lead to increasing specialisation via genetic adaptation. Insect herbivores are no exception and the majority have evolved to colonise a small number of closely related host species. Remarkably, the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, colonises plant species across 40 families and single M. persicae clonal lineages can colonise distantly related plants. This remarkable ability makes M. persicae a highly destructive pest of many important crop species...
February 13, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190366/predictors-of-remote-practice-location-in-the-first-seven-cohorts-of-james-cook-university-mbbs-graduates
#9
Torres Woolley, Tarun Sen Gupta, Maria Bellei
INTRODUCTION: This article describes factors predicting James Cook University (JCU) medical graduates undertaking at least 1 year of remote practice. The cross-sectional design involved point-in-time (2015) analysis of the JCU medical school's ongoing longitudinal graduate tracking database. Participants were the first seven cohorts of graduates from the JCU medical school who had completed at least their postgraduate year (PGY) 4 in Australia (<i>n</i>=529); that is, PGY 4 to PGY 10 graduates...
January 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187938/occurrence-of-veterinary-pharmaceuticals-in-golden-eagle-nestlings-unnoticed-scavenging-on-livestock-carcasses-and-other-potential-exposure-routes
#10
Guillermo Blanco, Alexandra Junza, Dolores Barrón
Wildlife exposure to pharmaceuticals can occur through contaminated water, and through the excreta and carcasses of medicated livestock, with potential for bioaccumulation and transfer through food webs. We evaluated whether nestling exposure to pharmaceuticals can occur from food delivered to nests in the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), a top predator and facultative scavenger. Despite the fact that diet analysis suggests an apparently low dependence on livestock carcasses reduced to two piglets remains (1...
February 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187589/palaearctic-i-protosmia-i-bees-of-the-subgenus-i-chelostomopsis%C3%A2-i-megachilidae-osmiini-biology-taxonomy-and-key-to-species
#11
Andreas Müller
Chelostomopsis represents a subgenus of the osmiine bee genus Protosmia (Megachilidae) containing three Palaearctic and one Nearctic species. Analysis of female pollen loads and literature data indicate that all Chelostomopsis species are broad pollen generalists exploiting the flowers of numerous plant families, such as Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Cistaceae and Brassicaceae. Preexisting linear cavities in dead wood or pine cones serve as nesting sites and pure resin is used to construct cell partitions and nest plug...
February 2, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187564/a-review-of-the-i-pseudomyrmex-i-i-ferrugineus-i-and-i-pseudomyrmex-i-i-goeldii-i-species-groups-acacia-ants-and-relatives-hymenoptera-formicidae
#12
Philip S Ward
The Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus group contains the Mesoamerican acacia-ants, an assemblage of species that inhabit and protect swollen-thorn acacias (Vachellia spp.). Recent phylogenetic studies have confirmed the existence of two generalist (dead twig-inhabiting) species that are embedded within the P. ferrugineus group. They are described here as P. evitus sp. nov. (occurring from Mexico to Costa Rica) and P. feralis sp. nov. (Guatemala). The morphological definition of the P. ferrugineus group is revised to incorporate additional variability in the worker and queen castes...
February 6, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185282/impacts-of-habitat-loss-and-fragmentation-on-the-activity-budget-ranging-ecology-and-habitat-use-of-bale-monkeys-chlorocebus-djamdjamensis-in-the-southern-ethiopian-highlands
#13
Addisu Mekonnen, Peter J Fashing, Afework Bekele, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Eli K Rueness, Nga Nguyen, Nils Chr Stenseth
Understanding the extent to which primates in forest fragments can adjust behaviorally and ecologically to changes caused by deforestation is essential to designing conservation management plans. During a 12-month period, we studied the effects of habitat loss and degradation on the Ethiopian endemic, bamboo specialist, Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) by comparing its habitat quality, activity budget, ranging ecology and habitat use in continuous forest and two fragments. We found that habitat loss and fragmentation resulted in major differences in vegetation composition and structure between forest types...
February 9, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185208/genetic-diversity-of-urban-camponotus-mayr-hymenoptera-formicidae-ants-revealed-by-capture-of-alates-and-dna-sequencing
#14
A A Oliveira, A E C Campos, R Harakava
The Camponotus Mayr genus of carpenter ants is one of the largest in species number and widely represented in the Neotropical Region. Most species are generalists and capable of exploiting diverse habitats including urban environments. Urban green areas can act as a repository of regional biodiversity, thus we investigated whether this is valid for the largest city in South America. We compared the richness of Camponotus spp. in two green areas in regions with distinct urbanization profiles and also with previous surveys made in smaller cities and in natural areas of the original Atlantic Forest...
February 9, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182679/comparative-host-selection-responses-of-specialist-helicoverpa-assulta-and-generalist-helicoverpa-armigera-moths-in-complex-plant-environments
#15
Wei-Zheng Li, Xiao-Hui Teng, Hong-Fei Zhang, Ting Liu, Qiong Wang, Guohui Yuan, Xian-Ru Guo
We tested the behavioral responses of ovipositing females and natal larvae of two sibling species, a generalist Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and a specialist Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée), to odor sources emitted from different combinations of six plant species (tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum; hot pepper, Capsicum annuum; tomato, Solanum esculentum; cotton, Gossypium hirsutum; peanut, Arachis hypogaea; maize, Zea mays). Under the conditions of plant materials versus corresponding controls, both stages of both species could find their corresponding host plants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181584/patterns-of-pollen-and-nectar-foraging-specialization-by-bumblebees-over-multiple-timescales-using-rfid
#16
Avery L Russell, Sarah J Morrison, Eleni H Moschonas, Daniel R Papaj
The ecological success of social insects is frequently ascribed to improvements in task performance due to division of labour amongst workers. While much research has focused on improvements associated with lifetime task specialization, members of colonies can specialize on a given task over shorter time periods. Eusocial bees in particular must collect pollen and nectar rewards to survive, but most workers appear to mix collection of both rewards over their lifetimes. We asked whether bumblebees specialize over timescales shorter than their lifetime...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180916/fermentation-of-model-hemicelluloses-by-prevotella-strains-and-butyrivibrio-fibrisolvens-in-pure-culture-and-in-ruminal-enrichment-cultures
#17
Elianna L Emerson, Paul J Weimer
Hemicelluloses are major components of plant biomass, but their fermentation in the rumens of cattle and other ruminants is poorly understood. We compared four species of the ruminally dominant genus Prevotella and the well-known hemicellulose utilizer, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, with respect to degradation of several isolated hemicelluloses (xylans, glucomannan, and xyloglucan). We also performed Illumina sequencing of the V3/V4 region of 16S rRNA genes to determine the relative proportions of Prevotella and Butyrivibrio in hemicellulose-fed enrichment cultures inoculated from ruminal contents of dairy cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) rich in hemicelluloses...
February 8, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176133/extended-spider-cognition
#18
REVIEW
Hilton F Japyassú, Kevin N Laland
There is a tension between the conception of cognition as a central nervous system (CNS) process and a view of cognition as extending towards the body or the contiguous environment. The centralised conception requires large or complex nervous systems to cope with complex environments. Conversely, the extended conception involves the outsourcing of information processing to the body or environment, thus making fewer demands on the processing power of the CNS. The evolution of extended cognition should be particularly favoured among small, generalist predators such as spiders, and here, we review the literature to evaluate the fit of empirical data with these contrasting models of cognition...
February 7, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170395/genetic-structure-and-distribution-of-parisotoma-notabilis-collembola-in-europe-cryptic-diversity-split-of-lineages-and-colonization-patterns
#19
Helge von Saltzwedel, Stefan Scheu, Ina Schaefer
Climatic and biome changes of the past million years influenced the population structure and genetic diversity of soil-living arthropods in Europe. However, their effects on the genetic structure of widespread and abundant soil animal species such as the Collembola Parisotoma notabilis remain virtually unknown. This generalist and parthenogenetic species is an early colonizer of disturbed habitats and often occurs in human modified environments. To investigate ancient climatic influence and recent distributions on the genetic structure of P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168036/edge-responses-are-different-in-edges-under-natural-versus-anthropogenic-influence-a-meta-analysis-using-ground-beetles
#20
Tibor Magura, Gábor L Lövei, Béla Tóthmérész
Most edges are anthropogenic in origin, but are distinguishable by their maintaining processes (natural vs. continued anthropogenic interventions: forestry, agriculture, urbanization). We hypothesized that the dissimilar edge histories will be reflected in the diversity and assemblage composition of inhabitants. Testing this "history-based edge effect" hypothesis, we evaluated published information on a common insect group, ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in forest edges. A meta-analysis showed that the diversity-enhancing properties of edges significantly differed according to their history...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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