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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905653/-perceptions-of-faculty-members-and-students-about-undergraduate-training-in-primary-health-care
#1
Mario Parada-Lezcano, María Inés Romero S, Fabián Moraga Cortés
BACKGROUND: It is unknown if medical education is preparing physicians to successfully work at primary health care settings. AIM: To explore what are the perceptions of faculty members and students about the type of physician needed and if medical education is coherent with the practice of primary health care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen semi-structured interviews to key informants from faculty members and ten focus groups with students were carried out...
August 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899327/novel-application-of-species-richness-estimators-to-predict-the-host-range-of-parasites
#2
David M Watson, Kirsty V Milner, Andrea Leigh
Host range is a critical life history trait of parasites, influencing prevalence, virulence and ultimately determining their distributional extent. Current approaches to measure host range are sensitive to sampling effort, the number of known hosts increasing with more records. Here, we develop a novel application of results-based stopping rules to determine how many hosts should be sampled to yield stable estimates of the number of primary hosts within regions, then use species richness estimation to predict host ranges of parasites across their distributional ranges...
November 26, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896027/assessing-pollinators-use-of-floral-resource-subsidies-in-agri-environment-schemes-an-illustration-using-phacelia-tanacetifolia-and-honeybees
#3
Rowan Sprague, Stéphane Boyer, Georgia M Stevenson, Steve D Wratten
BACKGROUND: Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) are frequently used in agriculture for pollination services because of their abundance, generalist floral preferences, ease of management and hive transport. However, their populations are declining in many countries. Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) are being implemented in agricultural systems to combat the decline in populations of pollinators and other insects. Despite AES being increasingly embedded in policy and budgets, scientific assessments of many of these schemes still are lacking, and only a few studies have examined the extent to which insect pollinators use the floral enhancements that are part of AES and on which floral components they feed (i...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892941/hatching-asynchrony-vs-foraging-efficiency-the-response-to-food-availability-in-specialist-vs-generalist-tit-species
#4
R Barrientos, J Bueno-Enciso, J J Sanz
Breeding mistiming is increasingly frequent in several ecosystems in the face of current climate change. Species belonging to higher trophic levels must employ mechanisms to reduce it. One of these mechanisms is hatching asynchrony, with the eggs in a clutch hatching over a period of several days. Some authors have suggested it to be adaptive when food is unpredictable. However, these birds can also suffer associated costs. We tested whether a species with higher foraging efficiency avoid hatching asynchrony compared to its sister species...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891314/comparison-of-views-on-the-need-for-continuing-education-on-oral-cancer-between-general-dentists-and-oral-medicine-experts-a-delphi-survey
#5
S Leuci, M Aria, M Nicolò, G Spagnuolo, K Warnakulasuriya, M D Mignogna
OBJECTIVES: The role of dental professionals in screening for oral cancer has been limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the educational priorities of oral medicine specialists, general dental practitioners, and doctors of dental surgery with regards to the diagnosis and management of oral cancers and potential malignant disorders. STUDY DESIGN: This was a longitudinal survey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Delphi survey was directed to a panel of 25 oral medicine specialists asking them to identify the major difficulties in diagnosing and managing patients with oral cancer or suspected malignancy...
September 2016: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888335/bayesian-inference-supports-the-host-selection-hypothesis-in-explaining-adaptive-host-specificity-by-european-bitterling
#6
Carl Smith
Generalist parasites have the capacity to infect multiple hosts. The temporal pattern of host specificity by generalist parasites is rarely studied, but is critical to understanding what variables underpin infection and thereby the impact of parasites on host species and the way they impose selection on hosts. Here, the temporal dynamics of infection of four species of freshwater mussel by European bitterling fish (Rhodeus amarus) was investigated over three spawning seasons. Bitterling lay their eggs in the gills of freshwater mussels, which suffer reduced growth, oxygen stress, gill damage and elevated mortality as a result of parasitism...
November 25, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886241/habitat-generalists-and-specialists-in-microbial-communities-across-a-terrestrial-freshwater-gradient
#7
C Monard, S Gantner, S Bertilsson, S Hallin, J Stenlid
Observations of distributions of microorganisms and their differences in community composition across habitats provide evidence of biogeographical patterns. However, little is known about the processes controlling transfers across habitat gradients. By analysing the overall microbial community composition (bacteria, fungi, archaea) across a terrestrial-freshwater gradient, the aim of this study was to understand the spatial distribution patterns of populations and identify taxa capable of crossing biome borders...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886140/english-stop-smoking-services-one-year-outcomes
#8
Linda Bauld, Rosemary Hiscock, Fiona Dobbie, Paul Aveyard, Tim Coleman, Jo Leonardi-Bee, Hayden McRobbie, Andy McEwen
The UK is a global leader in stop-smoking support-providing free behavioral support and cessation medication via stop smoking services (SSS) without charge to smokers. This study aimed to explore the client and service characteristics associated with abstinence 52 weeks after quitting. A prospective cohort study of 3057 SSS clients in nine different areas of England who began their quit attempt between March 2012 and March 2013 was conducted. Important determinants of long-term quitting were assessed through quit rates and multivariable logistic regression...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879245/sam-everington-the-proud-generalist
#9
Gareth Iacobucci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873369/the-genetic-architecture-of-novel-trophic-specialists-higher-effect-sizes-are-associated-with-exceptional-oral-jaw-diversification-in-a-pupfish-adaptive-radiation
#10
Christopher H Martin, Priscilla A Erickson, Craig T Miller
The genetic architecture of adaptation is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms and constraints governing diversification. However, most case studies focus on loss of complex traits or parallel speciation in similar environments. It is still unclear how the genetic architecture of these local adaptive processes compares to the architecture of evolutionary transitions contributing to morphological and ecological novelty. Here we identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) between two trophic specialists in an excellent case study for examining the origins of ecological novelty: a sympatric radiation of pupfishes endemic to San Salvador Island, Bahamas containing a large-jawed scale-eater and a short-jawed molluscivore with a skeletal nasal protrusion...
November 22, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871118/earlier-nesting-by-generalist-predatory-bird-is-associated-with-human-responses-to-climate-change
#11
Shawn H Smith, Karen Steenhof, Christopher J W McClure, Julie A Heath
Warming temperatures cause temporal changes in growing seasons and prey abundance that drive earlier breeding by birds, especially dietary specialists within homogeneous habitat. Less is known about how generalists respond to climate-associated shifts in growing seasons or prey phenology, which may occur at different rates across land cover types. We studied whether breeding phenology of a generalist predator, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius), was associated with shifts in growing seasons and, presumably, prey abundance, in a mosaic of non-irrigated shrub/grasslands and irrigated crops/pastures...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870857/life-history-traits-of-macrolophus-pygmaeus-with-different-prey-foods
#12
Serigne Sylla, Thierry Brévault, Karamoko Diarra, Philippe Bearez, Nicolas Desneux
Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a generalist predatory mirid widely used in augmentative biological control of various insect pests in greenhouse tomato production in Europe, including the invasive tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae). However, its biocontrol efficacy often relies on the presence of alternative prey. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of various prey foods (Ephestia kuehniella eggs, Bemisia tabaci nymphs, Tuta absoluta eggs and Macrosiphum euphorbiae nymphs) on some life history traits of M...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870035/large-connected-floodplain-forests-prone-to-flooding-best-sustain-plant-diversity
#13
Sarah E Johnson, Kathryn L Amatangelo, Philip A Townsend, Donald M Waller
Dams, levees, and water withdrawals disrupt hydrologic regimes and associated floodplain forests. Because these forests are also responding to changes in land use, species invasions, and climate change, the relative effects of these factors are hard to disentangle. Most studies of floodplain forests lack historic data, requiring us to rely on recent data or contemporary spatial relationships to these drivers to infer those causes of vegetation dynamics. Here, we use survey data from the 1950s to reconstruct plant community changes across 40 floodplain forests in Wisconsin...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870021/temperature-dependence-of-predation-stress-and-the-nutritional-ecology-of-a-generalist-herbivore
#14
Oswald J Schmitz, Adam E Rosenblatt, Meredith Smylie
Prey at risk of predation may experience stress and respond physiologically by altering their metabolic rates. Theory predicts that such physiological changes should alter prey nutrient demands from N-rich to C-rich macronutrients and shift the balance between maintenance and growth/reproduction. Theory further suggests that for ectotherms, temperature stands to exacerbate this stress. Yet, the interactive effects of predation stress and temperature stress on diet, metabolism, and survival of ectotherms are not well known...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868284/speciation-in-a-keystone-plant-genus-is-driven-by-elevation-a-case-study-in-new-guinean-ficus
#15
Simon T Segar, Martin Volf, Jan Zima, Brus Isua, Mentap Sisol, Legi Sam, Katerina Sam, Daniel Souto-Vilarós, Vojtech Novotny
Much of the world's insect and plant biodiversity is found in tropical and subtropical 'hotspots', which often include long elevational gradients. These gradients may function as 'diversity pumps' and contribute to both regional and local species richness. Climactic conditions on such gradients often change rapidly along short vertical distances, and may result in local adaptation and high levels of population genetic structure in plants and insects. We investigated the population genetic structure of two species of Ficus (Moraceae) along a continuously forested elevational gradient in Papua New Guinea...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868180/-reaction-on-patients-without-dsm-iv-disorders-and-or-subclinical-symptoms-in-generalistic-and-specialised-mental-health-care
#16
A Ruissen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867761/hyainailourine-and-teratodontine-cranial-material-from-the-late-eocene-of-egypt-and-the-application-of-parsimony-and-bayesian-methods-to-the-phylogeny-and-biogeography-of-hyaenodonta-placentalia-mammalia
#17
Matthew R Borths, Patricia A Holroyd, Erik R Seiffert
Hyaenodonta is a diverse, extinct group of carnivorous mammals that included weasel- to rhinoceros-sized species. The oldest-known hyaenodont fossils are from the middle Paleocene of North Africa and the antiquity of the group in Afro-Arabia led to the hypothesis that it originated there and dispersed to Asia, Europe, and North America. Here we describe two new hyaenodont species based on the oldest hyaenodont cranial specimens known from Afro-Arabia. The material was collected from the latest Eocene Locality 41 (L-41, ∼34 Ma) in the Fayum Depression, Egypt...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864911/spatio-temporal-variation-in-parasite-communities-maintains-diversity-at-the-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-ii%C3%AE-in-the-endangered-rio-grande-silvery-minnow
#18
Megan J Osborne, Tyler J Pilger, Joel D Lusk, Thomas F Turner
Climate change will strongly impact aquatic ecosystems particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. Fish-parasite interactions will also be affected by predicted altered flow and temperature regimes, and other environmental stressors. Hence, identifying environmental and genetic factors associated with maintaining diversity at immune genes is critical for understanding species' adaptive capacity. Here we combine genetic (MHC Class IIβ and microsatellites), parasitological and ecological data to explore the relationship between these factors in the remnant wild Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus) population, an endangered species found in the southwestern United States...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862998/sex-ratio-of-mirid-populations-shifts-in-response-to-hostplant-co-infestation-or-altered-cytokinin-signaling
#19
Nora Adam, Theresa Erler, Mario Kallenbach, Martin Kaltenpoth, Grit Kunert, Ian T Baldwin, Meredith C Schuman
Herbivore species sharing a host plant often compete. In this study, we show that host plant-mediated interaction between two insect herbivores - a generalist and a specialist - results in a sex ratio shift of the specialist's offspring. We studied demographic parameters of the specialist Tupiocoris notatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) when co-infesting the host plant Nicotiana attenuata (Solanaceae) with the generalist leafhopper Empoasca sp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). We show that the usually female-biased sex ratio of T...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862724/genotypiing-of-single-spore-isolates-of-a-pasteuria-penetrans-population-occurring-in-florida-using-snp-based-markers
#20
Soumi Joseph, L M Schmidt, W B Danquah, P Timper, T Mekete
AIMS: To generate single spore lines of a population of bacterial parasite of root-knot nematode (RKN), Pasteuria penetrans, isolated from Florida and examine genotypic variation and virulence characteristics exist within the population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six single spore lines (SSP), 16SSP, 17SSP, 18SSP, 25SSP, 26SSP, and 30SSP were generated. Genetic variability was evaluated by comparing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP's) in six protein-coding genes and the 16S rRNA gene...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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