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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643846/feeding-behaviour-of-generalist-pests-on-brassica-juncea-implication-for-manipulation-of-glucosinolate-biosynthesis-pathway-for-enhanced-resistance
#1
Pawan Kumar, Rehna Augustine, Amarjeet Kumar Singh, Naveen C Bisht
Differential accumulation of plant defense metabolites has been suggested to have important ecological consequence in the context of plant-insect interactions. Feeding of generalist pests on Brassica juncea showed a distinct pattern with selective exclusion of leaf margins which are high in glucosinolates. Molecular basis of this differential accumulation of glucosinolates could be explained based on differential expression profile of BjuMYB28 homologs, the major biosynthetic regulators of aliphatic glucosinolates, as evident from quantitative real-time PCR and promoter:GUS fusion studies in allotetraploid B...
June 23, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638514/internal-medicine-residents-ambulatory-management-of-core-geriatric-conditions
#2
Kathryn E Callahan, Lindsay A Wilson, Juliessa M Pavon, James F Lovato, Hal H Atkinson, Jan Busby-Whitehead, Thomas Dalton, Mitchell T Heflin, Patricia Iverson, Janice S Lawlor, Justin Marsden, William P Moran, Ellen Roberts, Jeff D Williamson
BACKGROUND: Adults aged 65 years and older account for more than 33% of annual visits to internal medicine (IM) generalists and specialists. Geriatrics experiences are not standardized for IM residents. Data are lacking on IM residents' continuity experiences with older adults and competencies relevant to their care. OBJECTIVE: To explore patient demographics and the prevalence of common geriatric conditions in IM residents' continuity clinics. METHODS: We collected data on age and sex for all IM residents' active clinic patients during 2011-2012...
June 2017: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632160/the-protease-inhibitor-ci2c-gene-induced-by-bird-cherry-oat-aphid-in-barley-inhibits-green-peach-aphid-fecundity-in-transgenic-arabidopsis
#3
Aleksandra Losvik, Lisa Beste, Sara Mehrabi, Lisbeth Jonsson
Aphids are phloem feeders that cause large damage globally as pest insects. They induce a variety of responses in the host plant, but not much is known about which responses are promoting or inhibiting aphid performance. Here, we investigated whether one of the responses induced in barley by the cereal aphid, bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) affects aphid performance in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana L. A barley cDNA encoding the protease inhibitor CI2c was expressed in A. thaliana and aphid performance was studied using the generalist green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer)...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616198/seed-dispersal-of-diospyros-virginiana-in-the-past-and-the-present-evidence-for-a-generalist-evolutionary-strategy
#4
Mimi Rebein, Charli N Davis, Helena Abad, Taylor Stone, Jillian Del Sol, Natalie Skinner, Matthew D Moran
Several North American trees are hypothesized to have lost their co-evolved seed disperser during the late-Pleistocene extinction and are therefore considered anachronistic. We tested this hypothesis for the American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) by studying the effects of gut passage of proposed seed dispersers on seedling survival and growth, natural fruiting characteristics, and modern animal consumption patterns. We tested gut passage effects on persimmon seeds using three native living species, the raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and coyote (Canis latrans), and two Pleistocene analogs; the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos)...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615084/community-wide-stable-isotope-analysis-reveals-two-distinct-trophic-groups-in-a-service-providing-carabid-community
#5
S Kamenova, C Leroux, S E Polin, M Plantegenest
Disentangling trophic interactions among species is important for elucidating mechanisms underlying ecosystem functioning and services. Carabid beetles are an important guild of predators that may regulate pest populations in arable landscapes, but their generalist feeding behavior hinders predictions about their actual contribution to pest control. In order to assess carabids' potential for pest control, we simultaneously analyzed the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of a community of 45 co-occurring species in wheat and oilseed rape fields...
June 15, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611815/interactions-between-plant-metabolites-affect-herbivores-a-study-with-pyrrolizidine-alkaloids-and-chlorogenic-acid
#6
Xiaojie Liu, Klaas Vrieling, Peter G L Klinkhamer
The high structural diversity of plant metabolites suggests that interactions among them should be common. We investigated the effects of single metabolites and combinations of plant metabolites on insect herbivores. In particular we studied the interacting effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PAs), and chlorogenic acid (CGA), on a generalist herbivore, Frankliniella occidentalis. We studied both the predominantly occurring PA N-oxides and the less frequent PA free bases. We found antagonistic effects between CGA and PA free bases on thrips mortality...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605850/offspring-hg-exposure-relates-to-parental-feeding-strategies-in-a-generalist-bird-with-strong-individual-foraging-specialization
#7
Cátia S A Santos, Léa Blondel, Alejandro Sotillo, Wendt Müller, Eric W M Stienen, Pascal Boeckx, Amadeu M V M Soares, Marta S Monteiro, Susana Loureiro, Liesbeth de Neve, Luc Lens
Generalist species can potentially exploit a wide variety of resources, but at the individual level they often show a certain degree of foraging specialization. Specific foraging strategies, however, may increase exposure to environmental contaminants that can alter the cost-benefit balance of consuming particular food items. The Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus) is known to opportunistically feed on a wide range of marine and terrestrial prey that differ in contaminant load, such as mercury (Hg) that strongly biomagnifies through the aquatic food web...
June 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596909/developing-a-scalable-training-model-in-global-mental-health-pilot-study-of-a-video-assisted-training-program-for-generalist-clinicians-in-rural-nepal
#8
B Acharya, J Tenpa, M Basnet, S Hirachan, P Rimal, N Choudhury, P Thapa, D Citrin, S Halliday, S B Swar, C van Dyke, B Gauchan, B Sharma, E Hung, M Ekstrand
BACKGROUND: In low- and middle-income countries, mental health training often includes sending few generalist clinicians to specialist-led programs for several weeks. Our objective is to develop and test a video-assisted training model addressing the shortcomings of traditional programs that affect scalability: failing to train all clinicians, disrupting clinical services, and depending on specialists. METHODS: We implemented the program -video lectures and on-site skills training- for all clinicians at a rural Nepali hospital...
2017: Global Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595600/extremely-low-plasmodium-prevalence-in-wild-plovers-and-coursers-from-cape-verde-and-madagascar
#9
Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Luke J Eberhart-Phillips, M Cristina Carmona-Isunza, Sama Zefania, María José Navarro, Oliver Kruger, Joseph Ivan Hoffman, Tamás Székely, Jordi Figuerola
BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about the prevalence of blood parasites in shorebirds, especially those breeding in the tropics. The prevalence of blood parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon was assessed in blood samples from Kentish plovers and cream-coloured coursers in Cape Verde, and samples of Kittlitz's plovers, Madagascar plovers and white-fronted plovers in Madagascar. RESULTS: Only two of these samples were positive for Plasmodium: a Kittlitz's plover was infected by a generalist lineage of Plasmodium that has already been reported in Europe and Africa, while in a white-fronted plover direct sequencing revealed a previously un-described Plasmodium lineage...
June 8, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595593/specialty-preferences-among-medical-students-in-botswana
#10
Ambrose Rukewe, W A Abebe, A A Fatiregun, M Kgantshang
BACKGROUND: With the establishment of a new medical college in Botswana to train generalist-doctors and specialists, we set out to explore the career preferences of medical students, factors that influence their choices and attitude to local postgraduate training. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among medical students in their third to fifth year, at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Botswana. The structured, self-administered questionnaires which were hand-delivered covered demographic characteristics of responders, career choices, preferred location of specialisation and factors that influenced the choices...
June 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594953/non-invasive-genetics-outperforms-morphological-methods-in-faecal-dietary-analysis-revealing-wild-boar-as-a-considerable-conservation-concern-for-ground-nesting-birds
#11
Ragne Oja, Egle Soe, Harri Valdmann, Urmas Saarma
Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) and other grouse species represent conservation concerns across Europe due to their negative abundance trends. In addition to habitat deterioration, predation is considered a major factor contributing to population declines. While the role of generalist predators on grouse predation is relatively well known, the impact of the omnivorous wild boar has remained elusive. We hypothesize that wild boar is an important predator of ground-nesting birds, but has been neglected as a bird predator because traditional morphological methods underestimate the proportion of birds in wild boar diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594833/diet-and-trophic-ecology-of-the-tiger-shark-galeocerdo-cuvier-from-south-african-waters
#12
Matthew L Dicken, Nigel E Hussey, Heather M Christiansen, Malcolm J Smale, Nomfundo Nkabi, Geremy Cliff, Sabine P Wintner
Knowledge of the diet and trophic ecology of apex predators is key for the implementation of effective ecosystem as well as species-based management initiatives. Using a combination of stomach content data and stable isotope analysis (δ15N and δ13C) the current study provides information on size-based and sex-specific variations in diet, trophic position (TP) and foraging habitat of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) caught in the KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board bather protection program. This study presents the longest time-series and most detailed analysis of stomach content data for G...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590557/declines-in-plant-palatability-from-polar-to-tropical-latitudes-depend-on-herbivore-and-plant-identity
#13
Alyssa M Demko, Charles D Amsler, Mark E Hay, Jeremy D Long, James B McClintock, Valerie J Paul, Erik E Sotka
Long-standing theory predicts that the intensity of consumer-prey interactions declines with increasing latitude, yet for plant-herbivore interactions, latitudinal changes in herbivory rates and plant palatability have received variable support. The topic is of growing interest given that lower-latitude species are moving poleward at an accelerating rate due to climate change, and predicting local interactions will depend partly on whether latitudinal gradients occur in these critical biotic interactions. Here, we assayed the palatability of 50 seaweeds collected from polar (Antarctica), temperate (northeastern Pacific; California), and tropical (central Pacific; Fiji) locations to two herbivores native to the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, the generalist crab Mithraculus sculptus and sea urchin Echinometra lucunter...
June 7, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589423/the-perennial-penstemon-variation-in-defensive-chemistry-across-years-populations-and-tissues
#14
Caitlin A Kelly, M Deane Bowers
Plants produce a variety of secondary metabolites that function as a defense against their natural enemies. Production of these secondary metabolites is genetically controlled, but is also phenotypically plastic and varies in response to both biotic and abiotic factors. Therefore, plant species may vary widely in their chemical defenses and such variation can be evident at temporal, spatial and tissue levels. Focusing on the chemical defenses of a native Colorado wildflower, Penstemon virgatus, we assessed the variation in iridoid glycoside (IG) content across two non-consecutive growing seasons, six natural populations and three tissue types: leaves, stems and flowers...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587639/unravelling-mummies-cryptic-diversity-host-specificity-trophic-and-coevolutionary-interactions-in-psyllid-parasitoid-food-webs
#15
Aidan A G Hall, Martin J Steinbauer, Gary S Taylor, Scott N Johnson, James M Cook, Markus Riegler
BACKGROUND: Parasitoids are hyperdiverse and can contain morphologically and functionally cryptic species, making them challenging to study. Parasitoid speciation can arise from specialisation on niches or diverging hosts. However, which process dominates is unclear because cospeciation across multiple parasitoid and host species has rarely been tested. Host specificity and trophic interactions of the parasitoids of psyllids (Hemiptera) remain mostly unknown, but these factors are fundamentally important for understanding of species diversity, and have important applied implications for biological control...
June 6, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585258/masticatory-muscle-architecture-in-a-water-rat-from-australasia-murinae-hydromys-and-its-implication-for-the-evolution-of-carnivory-in-rodents
#16
P-H Fabre, A Herrel, Y Fitriana, L Meslin, L Hautier
Murines are well known for their generalist diet, but several of them display specializations towards a carnivorous diet such as the amphibious Indo-Pacific water-rats. Despite the fact that carnivory evolved repeatedly in this group, few studies have investigated associated changes in jaw muscle anatomy and biomechanics. Here, we describe the jaw muscles and cranial anatomy of a carnivorous water-rat, Hydromys chrysogaster. The architecture of the jaw musculature of six specimens captured both on Obi and Papua were studied and described using dissections...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585091/a-generalist-herbivore-copes-with-specialized-plant-defence-the-effects-of-induction-and-feeding-by-helicoverpa-armigera-lepidoptera-noctuidae-larvae-on-intact-arabidopsis-thaliana-brassicales-plants
#17
M P Zalucki, J M Zalucki, L E Perkins, K Schramm, D G Vassão, J Gershenzon, D G Heckel
Plants of the Brassicaceae are defended from feeding by generalist insects by constitutively-expressed and herbivory-induced glucosinolates (GS). We induced Arabidopsis plants 1, 16 and 24 h prior to allowing neonate larvae of the generalist Helicoverpa armigera to feed on whole plants for 72 h. These plants were subsequently retested with another group of neonates for a further 72 h. We used wild-type A. thaliana Col-0, and mutant lines lacking indolic GS, aliphatic GS or all GS. We hypothesized that larvae would not grow well on defended plants (WT) compared to those lacking GS, and would not grow well if plants had been primed or fed on for longer, due to the expected induced GS...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580824/addressing-health-workforce-inequities-in-the-mindanao-regions-of-the-philippines-tracer-study-of-graduates-from-a-socially-accountable-community-engaged-medical-school-and-graduates-from-a-conventional-medical-school
#18
Servando 'Ben' Halili, Fortunato Cristobal, Torres Woolley, Simone J Ross, Carole Reeve, A-J Neusy
Developing and retaining a high-quality medical workforce in low-resource countries is a worldwide challenge. The Filipino Ateneo de Zamboanga University-School of Medicine (ADZU-SOM) has adopted a strong focus on socially accountable health professional education (SAHPE) in order to address the shortage of physicians across rural and urban communities in the Western Mindanao region. A cross-sectional survey of graduates from two Philippines medical schools: ADZU-SOM in the Mindanao region and a medical school with a more conventional curriculum, found ADZU-SOM graduates were more likely to have joined the medical profession due to a desire to help others (p = 0...
June 5, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579915/microbiome-variation-in-corals-with-distinct-depth-distribution-ranges-across-a-shallow-mesophotic-gradient-15-85%C3%A2-m
#19
Bettina Glasl, Pim Bongaerts, Nathalie H Elisabeth, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Gerhard J Herndl, Pedro R Frade
Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) are generally poorly studied, and our knowledge of lower MCEs (below 60 m depth) is largely limited to visual surveys. Here, we provide a first detailed assessment of the prokaryotic community associated with scleractinian corals over a depth gradient to the lower mesophotic realm (15-85 m). Specimens of three Caribbean coral species exhibiting differences in their depth distribution ranges (Agaricia grahamae, Madracis pharensis and Stephanocoenia intersepta) were collected with a manned submersible on the island of Curaçao, and their prokaryotic communities assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis...
2017: Coral Reefs: Journal of the International Society for Reef Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578733/seed-treatments-with-thiamine-reduce-the-performance-of-generalist-and-specialist-aphids-on-crop-plants
#20
A M Hamada, J Fatehi, L M V Jonsson
Thiamine is a vitamin that has been shown to act as a trigger to activate plant defence and reduce pathogen and nematode infection as well as aphid settling and reproduction. We have here investigated whether thiamine treatments of seeds (i.e. seed dressing) would increase plant resistance against aphids and whether this would have different effects on a generalist than on specialist aphids. Seeds of wheat, barley, oat and pea were treated with thiamine alone or in combination with the biocontrol bacteria Pseudomonas chlororaphis MA 342 (MA 342)...
June 5, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
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