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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913777/diabetes-and-the-small-intestine
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan Gotfried, Stephen Priest, Ron Schey
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and its associated complications are becoming increasingly prevalent. Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with diabetes is known as diabetic enteropathy (DE) and may manifest as either diarrhea, fecal incontinence, constipation, dyspepsia, nausea, and vomiting or a combination of symptoms. The long-held belief that vagal autonomic neuropathy is the primary cause of DE has recently been challenged by newer theories of disease development. Specifically, hyperglycemia and the resulting oxidative stress on neural networks, including the nitrergic neurons and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), are now believed to play a central role in the development of DE...
September 15, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888535/from-psychological-moments-to-mortality-a-multidisciplinary-synthesis-on-heart-rate-variability-spanning-the-continuum-of-time
#2
REVIEW
Andrew H Kemp, Julian Koenig, Julian F Thayer
Heart rate variability (HRV) indexes functioning of the vagus nerve, arguably the most important nerve in the human body. The Neurovisceral Integration Model has provided a structural framework for understanding brain-body integration, highlighting the role of the vagus in adaptation to the environment. In the present paper, we emphasise a temporal framework in which HRV may be considered a missing, structural link between psychological moments and mortality, a proposal we label as Neurovisceral Integration Across a Continuum of Time (or NIACT)...
September 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885117/the-interperiosteodural-concept-applied-to-the-jugular-foramen-and-its-compartmentalization
#3
Florian Bernard, Ilyess Zemmoura, Jean Philippe Cottier, Henri-Dominique Fournier, Louis-Marie Terrier, Stéphane Velut
OBJECTIVE The dura mater is made of 2 layers: the endosteal layer (outer layer), which is firmly attached to the bone, and the meningeal layer (inner layer), which directly covers the brain and spinal cord. These 2 dural layers join together in most parts of the skull base and cranial convexity, and separate into the orbital and perisellar compartments or into the spinal epidural space to form the extradural neural axis compartment (EDNAC). The EDNAC contains fat and/or venous blood. The aim of this dissection study was to anatomically verify the concept of the EDNAC by focusing on the dural layers surrounding the jugular foramen area...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834306/arginase-a-novel-target-for-cardioprotection-by-vagal-nerve-stimulation
#4
EDITORIAL
A Uitterdijk, D J Duncker
The elegant study of Kiss et al.(1) in this issue of Acta Physiologica entitled 'Vagal nerve stimulation reduces infarct size via a mechanism involving the alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and down-regulation of cardiac and vascular arginase' explores the role of arginase in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion damage, and in the myocardial infarct-size limitation by vagal nerve stimulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 21, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766392/vagal-influences-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#5
S E Rasmussen, M Pfeiffer-Jensen, A M Drewes, A D Farmer, B W Deleuran, K Stengaard-Pedersen, B Brock, C Brock
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease with a prevalence of 0.5-1% in Western populations. Conventionally, it is treated with therapeutic interventions that include corticosteroids, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and biological agents. RA exerts a significant socio-economic burden and despite the use of existing treatments some patients end up with disabling symptoms. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a brain-body interface that serves to regulate homeostasis by integrating the external environment with the internal milieu...
August 2, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758209/distinct-projection-targets-define-subpopulations-of-mouse-brainstem-vagal-neurons-that-express-the-autism-associated-met-receptor-tyrosine-kinase
#6
Anna Kamitakahara, Hsiao-Huei Wu, Pat Levitt
Detailed anatomical tracing and mapping of the viscerotopic organization of the vagal motor nuclei has provided insight into autonomic function in health and disease. To further define specific cellular identities, we paired information based on visceral connectivity with a cell-type specific marker of a subpopulation of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and nucleus ambiguus (nAmb) that express the autism-associated MET receptor tyrosine kinase. As gastrointestinal disturbances are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we sought to define the relationship between MET-expressing (MET+) neurons in the DMV and nAmb, and the gastrointestinal tract...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715786/background-lead-and-mercury-exposures-psychological-and-behavioral-problems-in-children
#7
Brooks B Gump, Matthew J Dykas, James A MacKenzie, Amy K Dumas, Bryce Hruska, Craig K Ewart, Patrick J Parsons, Christopher D Palmer, Kestutis Bendinskas
BACKGROUND: The potential harm from exposure to nonessential metals, particularly mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb), has been the focus of research for years. Initial interest focused on relatively high exposures; however, recent evidence suggests that even background exposures might have adverse consequences for child development. Identifying the extent of these consequences is now a priority. METHODS: We assessed blood Pb and Hg levels in a biracial sample of 9-11 year-old children (N = 203)...
October 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705805/validation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-method-for-selective-vagal-deafferentation-of-the-gut
#8
Charlene Diepenbroek, Danielle Quinn, Ricky Stephens, Benjamin Zollinger, Seth Anderson, Annabelle Pan, Guillaume de Lartigue
There is a lack of tools that selectively target vagal afferent neurons (VAN) innervating the gut. We use saporin (SAP), a potent neurotoxin, conjugated to the GI hormone cholecystokinin (CCK-SAP) injected into the nodose ganglia (NG) of male Wistar rats to specifically ablate GI-VAN. We report that CCK-SAP ablates a sub-population of VAN in culture. In vivo, CCK-SAP injection into the NG reduces VAN innervating the mucosal and muscular layers of the stomach and small intestine, but not the colon, while leaving vagal efferent neurons intact...
July 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703868/cardiac-vagal-tone-a-non-invasive-measure-of-parasympathetic-tone-is-a-clinically-relevant-tool-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#9
C Brock, N Jessen, B Brock, P E Jakobsen, T K Hansen, J M Rantanen, S Riahi, Y K Dimitrova, A Dons-Jensen, Q Aziz, A M Drewes, A D Farmer
AIMS: To compare a novel index of parasympathetic tone, cardiac vagal tone, with established autonomic variables and to test the hypotheses that (1) cardiac vagal tone would be associated with established time and frequency domain measures of heart rate and (2) cardiac vagal tone would be lower in people with Type 1 diabetes than in a matched healthy cohort and lower still in people with established neuropathy. METHODS: Cardiac vagal tone is a validated cardiometrically derived index of parasympathetic tone...
July 13, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686077/stressing-the-feedback-attention-and-cardiac-vagal-tone-during-a-cognitive-stress-task
#10
Muhammad Abid Azam, Paul Ritvo, Samantha R Fashler, Joel Katz
OBJECTIVES: The present study examined relationships among gaze behaviour and cardiac vagal tone using a novel stress-inducing task. METHODS: Participants' (N = 40) eye movements and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured during an unsolvable computer-based task randomly presenting feedback of "Right" and "Wrong" answers distinctly onscreen after each trial. Subgroups were created on the basis of more frequent eye movements to the right ("Correct"-Attenders; n = 23) or wrong ("Incorrect"-Attenders; n = 17) areas onscreen...
July 7, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663046/long-term-vagal-stimulation-for-heart-failure-eighteen-month-results-from-the-neural-cardiac-therapy-for-heart-failure-nectar-hf-trial
#11
Gaetano M De Ferrari, Craig Stolen, Anton E Tuinenburg, D Jay Wright, Josep Brugada, Christian Butter, Helmut Klein, Petr Neuzil, Cornelis Botman, Maria Angeles Castel, Antonio D'Onofrio, Gert J de Borst, Scott Solomon, Kenneth M Stein, Bernd Schubert, Kevin Stalsberg, Nicholas Wold, Stephen Ruble, Faiez Zannad
BACKGROUND: The NECTAR-HF study evaluated safety and feasibility of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) for the treatment of heart failure patients. The first six-month randomized phase of the study did not show improvement in left ventricular remodelling in response to VNS. This study reports the 18-month results and provides novel findings aiming to understand the lack of efficacy of VNS, including a new technique assessing the effects of VNS. METHODS: Ninety-six patients were randomized 2:1 to active or inactive VNS for 6months, thereafter VNS was activated for all patients...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643050/application-of-transoral-continuous-intraoperative-neuromonitoring-in-natural-orifice-transluminal-endoscopic-surgery-for-thyroid-disease-a-preliminary-study
#12
Han-Kun Chen, Chun-Liang Chen, Kuo-Shan Wen, Yi-Feng Lin, Kai-Yuan Lin, Yih-Huei Uen
BACKGROUND: The novel concept of continuous intraoperative neuromonitoring (Cont-IONM) through stimulation of the vagal nerve has been used in thyroidectomies to prevent imminent injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). This article reports on this technology and the results of using transoral Cont-IONM in natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery for thyroid disease. METHODS: Cont-IONM of the RLN was achieved through automatic cyclical stimulation of the vagal nerve using a C2 monitor and delta stimulating electrode...
June 22, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585146/deceleration-capacity-a-novel-measure-for-autonomic-nervous-system-in-patients-with-vasovagal-syncope-on-tilt-table-testing
#13
Fen Huang, Chun-Fang Xu, Xiao-Yan Deng, Ping Zuo, Fan Lin, Jing-Jing Fan, Wen-Jia Xu, Xiao-Yun Yang
This study was to investigate the changes of autonomic nerve function and hemodynamics in patients with vasovagal syncope (VVS) during head-up tilt-table testing (HUT). HUT was performed in 68 patients with unexplained syncope and 18 healthy subjects served as control group. According to whether bradycardia, hypotension or both took place during the onset of syncope, the patients were divided during the test into three subgroups: vasodepressor syncope (VD), cardioinhibitory syncope (CI) and mixed syncope (MX) subgroups...
June 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541256/modulation-of-brainstem-activity-and-connectivity-by-respiratory-gated-auricular-vagal-afferent-nerve-stimulation-in-migraine-patients
#14
Ronald G Garcia, Richard L Lin, Jeungchan Lee, Jieun Kim, Riccardo Barbieri, Roberta Sclocco, Ajay D Wasan, Robert R Edwards, Bruce R Rosen, Nouchine Hadjikhani, Vitaly Napadow
Migraine pathophysiology includes altered brainstem excitability, and recent neuromodulatory approaches aimed at controlling migraine episodes have targeted key brainstem relay and modulatory nuclei. In this study, we evaluated the impact of respiratory-gated auricular vagal afferent nerve stimulation (RAVANS), a novel neuromodulatory intervention based on an existing transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation approach, in the modulation of brainstem activity and connectivity in migraine patients. We applied 3T-functional magnetic resonance imaging with improved in-plane spatial resolution (2...
August 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529765/signals-of-vagal-circuits-engaging-with-akt1-in-%C3%AE-7-nachr-cd11b-cells-lessen-e-coli-and-lps-induced-acute-inflammatory-injury
#15
Caiqi Zhao, Xi Yang, Emily M Su, Yuanyuan Huang, Ling Li, Michael A Matthay, Xiao Su
Vagal circuits-α7 nAChR (α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, coded by Chrna7) signaling utilizes spleen as a hub to dampen systemic inflammatory responses. Vagal innervations also extend to the distal airways and alveoli. Vagotomy and deficiency of α7 nAChR deteriorate E. coli and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung inflammatory responses; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we hypothesized that vagal circuits would limit splenic release and lung recruitment of α7 nAChR(+)CD11b(+) cells (CD11b is coded by Itgam, a surface marker of monocytes and neutrophils) via phosphorylation of AKT1 and that this process would define the severity of lung injury...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475580/neural-substrate-of-posterior-left-atrium-a-novel-modulation-for-inducibility-and-remodeling-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-canine
#16
Mu Qin, Li Li, Xu Liu, Tao Liu, Shao Bo Shi
BACKGROUND: The neural mechanism of posterior left atrium (PLA) for genesis of atrial fibrillation has not been completely elucidated. We sought to assess the contribution of PLA denervation on atrial fibrillation (AF) inducibility and atrial remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: After left thoracotomy in anesthetized dogs (n = 32), electrode catheters were attached to the PLA, left atrial roof, left pulmonary vein and left atrial appendage. Experiment 1 (n = 16): Vagal stimulation (VS group, n = 8) led to more pronounced ERP shortening in PLA than in other sites (CTL:71±7 ms vs VS: 52±6 ms, P<0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462724/non-pharmacological-modulation-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-for-heart-failure-treatment-where-do-we-stand
#17
Costas Tsioufis, Panayiotis Iliakis, Alexandros Kasiakogias, Dimitrios Konstantinidis, Dragan Lovic, Dimitrios Petras, Michalis Doumas, Eleftherios Tsiamis, Vasilios Papademetriou, Dimitrios Tousoulis
An imbalance in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a central pathophysiologic mechanism in heart failure (HF) and has been a principal target of treatment in these patients. Traditional pharmacologic agents do not provide specific modulation of discrete arms of the ANS, while side effects may lead to poor tolerance. Technological advances have provided a series of invasive methods that may provide a focused effect on the ANS in selected patient groups. Renal denervation, initially targeted for patients with resistant hypertension, has given positive preliminary results in terms of heart structure and function...
April 28, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454890/plasticity-of-vagal-afferent-signaling-in-the-gut
#18
REVIEW
Gintautas Grabauskas, Chung Owyang
Vagal sensory neurons mediate the vago-vagal reflex which, in turn, regulates a wide array of gastrointestinal functions including esophageal motility, gastric accommodation and pancreatic enzyme secretion. These neurons also transmit sensory information from the gut to the central nervous system, which then mediates the sensations of nausea, fullness and satiety. Recent research indicates that vagal afferent neurons process non-uniform properties and a significant degree of plasticity. These properties are important to ensure that vagally regulated gastrointestinal functions respond rapidly and appropriately to various intrinsic and extrinsic factors...
April 10, 2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452399/does-the-ability-to-express-different-emotions-predict-different-indices-of-physical-health-a-skill-based-study-of-physical-symptoms-and-heart-rate-variability
#19
Natalie L Tuck, Kathryn S Adams, Nathan S Consedine
OBJECTIVES: The outward expression of emotion has been frequently associated with better health outcomes, whereas suppressing emotion is thought to contribute to worse physical health. However, work has typically focused on trait expressive tendencies and the possibility that individual differences in the ability to express specific emotions may also be associated with health has not been widely tested. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of community dwelling adults...
April 28, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395952/a-novel-methodology-for-assessing-laryngeal-and-vagus-nerve-integrity-in-patients-under-general-anesthesia
#20
Catherine F Sinclair, Maria J Téllez, Oscar R Tapia, Sedat Ulkatan, Vedran Deletis
OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel methodology for intraoperative neuro-monitoring of laryngeal and vagus nerves by utilizing the laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR). METHODS: Case series of 15 patients undergoing thyroid and cervical spine surgeries under total intravenous general anesthesia. Vocal fold mucosa was electrically stimulated to elicit a LAR using endotracheal tube based electrodes. Contralateral R1 (cR1) and R2 (cR2) responses were recorded using the endotracheal tube electrode contralateral to the simulating electrode...
July 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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