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novel vagal

Rui Guo, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Jin Su, Haiyu Xu, Yanqiong Zhang, Fangbo Zhang, Defeng Li, Yi Zhang, Xuefeng Xiao, Shuangcheng Ma, Hongjun Yang
BACKGROUND: Quality marker (Q-markers) has been proposed as a novel concept for quality evaluation and standard elaboration of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Xin-Su-Ning capsule (XSNC) has been extensively used for the treatment of arrhythmia with the satisfactory therapeutic effects in clinics. However, it is lack of reliable and effective Q-markers of this prescription. PURPOSE: To identify potential Q-markers of XSNC against arrhythmia. STUDY DESIGN: An integrative pharmacology-based investigation was performed...
February 10, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Gabriel Shimizu Bassi, Luis Ulloa, Victor Rodrigues Santos, Flávio Del Vecchio, Polianna Delfino-Pereira, Gerson Jonathan Rodrigues, Jaci Airton Castania, Fernando Queiróz Cunha, Hélio Cesar Salgado, Thiago Mattar Cunha, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Alexandre Kanashiro
The neuronal control of the immune system is fundamental to the development of new therapeutic strategies for inflammatory disorders. Recent studies reported that afferent vagal stimulation attenuates peripheral inflammation by activating specific sympathetic central and peripheral networks, but only few subcortical brain areas were investigated. In the present study, we report that afferent vagal stimulation also activates specific cortical areas, as the parietal and cingulate cortex. Since these cortical structures innervate sympathetic-related areas, we investigate whether electrical stimulation of parietal cortex can attenuate knee joint inflammation in non-anesthetized rats...
March 6, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Lauren J Human, Wendy Berry Mendes
OBJECTIVE: Research has long sought to identify which individuals are best at accurately perceiving others' personalities or are good judges, yet consistent predictors of this ability have been difficult to find. In the current studies, we revisit this question by examining a novel physiological correlate of social sensitivity, cardiac vagal flexibility, which reflects dynamic modulation of cardiac vagal control. METHOD: We examined whether greater cardiac vagal flexibility was associated with forming more accurate personality impressions, defined as viewing targets more in line with their distinctive self-reported profile of traits, in two studies, including a thin-slice video perceptions study (N = 109) and a dyadic interaction study (N = 175)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Personality
Eric A Schmidt, Fabien Despas, Anne Pavy-Le Traon, Zofia Czosnyka, John D Pickard, Kamal Rahmouni, Atul Pathak, Jean M Senard
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure within the cranium . ICP rise compresses brain vessels and reduces cerebral blood delivery. Massive ICP rise leads to cerebral ischemia, but it is also known to produce hypertension, bradycardia and respiratory irregularities due to a sympatho-adrenal mechanism termed Cushing response. One still unresolved question is whether the Cushing response is a non-synaptic acute brainstem ischemic mechanism or part of a larger physiological reflex for arterial blood pressure control and homeostasis regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Andrea Iorio, Dorina Ylli, Renato Polimanti, Fabiana Picconi, Paola Maggio, Davide Francomano, Antonio Aversa, Dario Manfellotto, Maria Fuciarelli, Simona Frontoni
AIMS: An increased rate of cerebrovascular complications in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been reported. Previous studies demonstrated an association between glycemic variability (GV) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CRV) in MetS, thus suggesting a putative role of GV on cerebrovascular events. Although the pathophysiological mechanism linking GV to damage is still to be elucidated, evidence suggests oxidative stress plays a crucial role. Since functional variants in glutathione S-transferases (GST) genes modulate the cellular detoxification processes, the aim of this study was to elucidate the involvement of GSTs in MetS and investigating the correlation with GV, arterial stiffness, and sympatho-vagal (SV) balance...
February 13, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Daniela Lucini, Roberto Sala, Antonio Spataro, Mara Malacarne, Manuela Benzi, Stefano Tamorri, Massimo Pagani
PURPOSE: Optimal autonomic regulation and stress resilience might be considered critical elements of athletic performance. We hypothesize that a novel unitary autonomic index for sports (ANSIs), together with a somatic stress related symptom score (4SQ) might help characterize athletes who were eventually selected for the Rio 2016 Olympic Games Italian team (Rio +). METHODS: In this retrospective study we examined 778 athletes (age 24.4 ± 6.7 yrs) who underwent a planned yearly pre-participation screening...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Gaetano Valenza, Luca Citi, J Phillip Saul, Riccardo Barbieri
Reliable and effective non-invasive measures of sympathetic and parasympathetic peripheral outflow are of crucial importance in cardiovascular physiology. Although many techniques have been proposed to take up this long-lasting challenge, none has proposed a satisfying discrimination of the dynamics of the two separate branches. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability is the most currently used technique for such assessment. Despite its widespread use, it has been demonstrated that the subdivision in the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands does not fully reflect separate influences of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches, respectively, mainly due to their simultaneous action in the LF...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Mario Estévez-Báez, Calixto Machado, Julio Montes-Brown, Javier Jas-García, Gerry Leisman, Adam Schiavi, Andrés Machado-García, Claudia Carricarte-Naranjo, Eli Carmeli
Literature reports on the very high frequency (VHF) range of 0.4-0.9 Hz in heart rate variability (HRV) are scanty. The VHF presence in cardiac transplant patients and other conditions associated with reduced vagal influence on the heart encouraged us to explore this spectral band in healthy subjects and in patients diagnosed with cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN), and to assess the potential clinical value of some VHF indices. The study included 80 healthy controls and 48 patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) with CAN...
February 11, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Khalil Hajiasgharzadeh, Behzad Baradaran
The hepatic vagus branches innervate the liver and serve an important role in liver-brain connection. It appears that brain modulates inflammatory responses by activation of vagal efferent fibers. This activation and subsequent acetylcholine releases from vagus nerve terminals leads to inhibition of inflammatory cytokines through α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) which located on the surface of different cell types such as liver Kupffer cells. This protective role of vagus-α7nAChR axis in liver diseases has been shown in several experimental studies...
December 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
R J Mulders, K C G de Git, E Schéle, S L Dickson, Y Sanz, R A H Adan
Western diets, with high consumption of simple sugars and saturated fats, contribute to the rise in the prevalence of obesity. It now seems clear that high-fat diets cause obesity, at least in part, by modifying the composition and function of the microorganisms that colonize in the gastrointestinal tract, the microbiota. The exact pathways by which intestinal microbiota contribute to obesity remain largely unknown. High-fat diet-induced alterations in intestinal microbiota have been suggested to increase energy extraction, intestinal permeability and systemic inflammation while decreasing the capability to generate obesity-suppressing short-chain fatty acids...
January 23, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Bashar W Badran, Logan T Dowdle, Oliver J Mithoefer, Nicholas T LaBate, James Coatsworth, Joshua C Brown, William H DeVries, Christopher W Austelle, Lisa M McTeague, Mark S George
BACKGROUND: Electrical stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) via transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) may influence afferent vagal networks. There have been 5 prior taVNS/fMRI studies, with inconsistent findings due to variability in stimulation targets and parameters. OBJECTIVE: We developed a taVNS/fMRI system to enable concurrent electrical stimulation and fMRI acquisition to compare the effects of taVNS in relation to control stimulation...
December 29, 2017: Brain Stimulation
I Ughratdar, K A Kawsar, R Mitchell, R Selway, K Ashkan
BACKGROUND: Battery replacement or revision surgery for neuromodulation implants is conventionally performed using sharp dissection. Meticulous dissection within thick scar tissue is vital to avoid damage to surrounding lead(s) which could result in more extensive revision surgery. Traditional electrosurgery devices are contraindicated as the emitted energy can be transferred to the hardware resulting in implant or tissue damage with severe consequent complications. OBJECTIVE: We report our experience and potential applications of a novel, pulsed monopolar radiofrequency energy device (PEAK PlasmaBlade™, Medtronic plc) which facilitates dissection around implants without the risk of damaging or transmitting energy through the system...
January 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Elizabeth G Mietlicki-Baase, Claudia G Liberini, Jayme L Workinger, Ron L Bonaccorso, Tito Borner, David J Reiner, Kieran Koch-Laskowski, Lauren E McGrath, Rinzin Lhamo, Lauren M Stein, Bart C De Jonghe, George G Holz, Christian L Roth, Robert P Doyle, Matthew R Hayes
AIMS: While pharmacological glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are FDA-approved for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity, a major side effect is nausea/malaise. We recently developed a conjugate of vitamin B12 bound to the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (Ex4), which displays enhanced proteolytic stability and retention of GLP-1R agonism. Here, we evaluate whether the conjugate (B12-Ex4) can improve glucose tolerance without producing anorexia and malaise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the effects of systemic B12-Ex4 and unconjugated Ex4 on food intake and body weight change, oral glucose tolerance, and nausea/malaise in male rats, and on intraperitoneal glucose tolerance in mice...
January 12, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Melanie Klarer, Jean-Philippe Krieger, Juliet Richetto, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Lydia Günther, Christine Winter, Myrtha Arnold, Wolfgang Langhans, Urs Meyer
Reduced activity of vagal efferents has long been implicated in schizophrenia and appears to be responsible for diminished parasympathetic activity and associated peripheral symptoms such as low heart rate variability and cardiovascular complications in affected individuals. In contrast, only little attention has been paid to the possibility that impaired afferent vagal signaling may be relevant for the disorder's pathophysiology as well. The present study explored this hypothesis using a model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA) in male rats...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yuko Kozasa, Noriyuki Nakashima, Masayuki Ito, Taisuke Ishikawa, Hiroki Kimoto, Kazuo Ushijima, Naomasa Makita, Makoto Takano
The heart rate is dynamically controlled by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems that regulate the sinoatrial node (SAN). HCN4 pacemaker channels are well-known causative molecule of congenital sick sinus syndrome. Although HCN4 channels are activated by cAMP, the sympathetic response of SAN was preserved in the patients carrying loss-of-function mutations of HCN4 gene. In order to clarify the contribution of HCN4 channels in the autonomic regulation of SAN, we developed novel gain-of-function mutant mice in which expression level of HCN4 channels could be reversibly changed from zero to ∼3 times of that in wild type mice, using tetracycline trans-activator and tetracycline responsive element...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Roberta Sellaro, Beatrice de Gelder, Alessandra Finisguerra, Lorenza S Colzato
The polyvagal theory suggests that the vagus nerve is the key phylogenetic substrate enabling optimal social interactions, a crucial aspect of which is emotion recognition. A previous study showed that the vagus nerve plays a causal role in mediating people's ability to recognize emotions based on images of the eye region. The aim of this study is to verify whether the previously reported causal link between vagal activity and emotion recognition can be generalized to situations in which emotions must be inferred from images of whole faces and bodies...
November 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Motahareh Moghtadaei, Ellen Langille, Sara A Rafferty, Oleg Bogachev, Robert A Rose
Natriuretic peptides (NPs) play essential roles in the regulation of cardiovascular function. NP effects are mediated by receptors known as NPR-A, NPR-B or NPR-C. NPs have potent effects on regulation of heart rate (HR) by the autonomic nervous system (ANS), but the role of NPR-C in these effects has not been investigated. Accordingly, we have used telemetric ECG recordings in awake, freely moving wildtype and NPR-C knockout (NPR-C-/-) mice and performed heart rate variability (HRV) analysis to assess alterations in sympatho-vagal balance on the heart following loss of NPR-C...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jesse Paul Somann, Gabriel Albors, Kaitlyn Neihouser, Kun-Han Lu, Zhongming Liu, Matthew Peter Ward, Abigail Durkes, J Paul Robinson, Terry Powley, Pedro Irazoqui
Numerous studies of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) have been published showing it to be a potential treatment for chronic inflammation and other related diseases and disorders. Studies in recent years have shown that electrical stimulation of the vagal efferent fibers can artificially modulate cytokine levels and reduce systematic inflammation. Most VNS research in the treatment of inflammation have been acute studies on rodent subjects. Our study tested VNS on freely moving animals by stimulating and recording from the cervical vagus with nerve cuff electrodes over an extended period of time...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Junpei Yamamoto, Junta Imai, Tomohito Izumi, Hironori Takahashi, Yohei Kawana, Kei Takahashi, Shinjiro Kodama, Keizo Kaneko, Junhong Gao, Kenji Uno, Shojiro Sawada, Tomoichiro Asano, Vladimir V Kalinichenko, Etsuo A Susaki, Makoto Kanzaki, Hiroki R Ueda, Yasushi Ishigaki, Tetsuya Yamada, Hideki Katagiri
Under insulin-resistant conditions such as obesity, pancreatic β-cells proliferate to prevent blood glucose elevations. A liver-brain-pancreas neuronal relay plays an important role in this process. Here, we show the molecular mechanism underlying this compensatory β-cell proliferation. We identify FoxM1 activation in islets from neuronal relay-stimulated mice. Blockade of this relay, including vagotomy, inhibits obesity-induced activation of the β-cell FoxM1 pathway and suppresses β-cell expansion. Inducible β-cell-specific FoxM1 deficiency also blocks compensatory β-cell proliferation...
December 5, 2017: Nature Communications
Christian Stevns Hansen, Dorte Vistisen, Marit Eika Jørgensen, Daniel R Witte, Eric J Brunner, Adam G Tabák, Mika Kivimäki, Michael Roden, Marek Malik, Christian Herder
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of inflammation and adiponectin are associated with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in cross-sectional studies, but prospective data are scarce. This study aimed to assess the associations of biomarkers of subclinical inflammation and adiponectin with subsequent changes in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in non-diabetic and diabetic individuals. METHODS: Data are based on up to 25,050 person-examinations for 8469 study participants of the Whitehall II cohort study...
December 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
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