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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395952/a-novel-methodology-for-assessing-laryngeal-and-vagus-nerve-integrity-in-patients-under-general-anesthesia
#1
Catherine F Sinclair, Maria J Téllez, Oscar R Tapia, Sedat Ulkatan, Vedran Deletis
OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel methodology for intraoperative neuro-monitoring of laryngeal and vagus nerves by utilizing the laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR). METHODS: Case series of 15 patients undergoing thyroid and cervical spine surgeries under total intravenous general anesthesia. Vocal fold mucosa was electrically stimulated to elicit a LAR using endotracheal tube based electrodes. Contralateral R1 (cR1) and R2 (cR2) responses were recorded using the endotracheal tube electrode contralateral to the simulating electrode...
March 14, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392428/modulation-of-experimental-arthritis-by-vagal-sensory-and-central-brain-stimulation
#2
Gabriel Shimizu Bassi, Daniel Penteado Martins Dias, Marcelo Franchin, Jhimmy Talbot, Daniel Gustavo Reis, Gustavo Batista Menezes, Jaci Airton Castania, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Leonardo Barbosa Moraes Resstel, Helio Cesar Salgado, Fernando Queiróz Cunha, Thiago Mattar Cunha, Luis Ulloa, Alexandre Kanashiro
Articular inflammation is a major clinical burden in multiple inflammatory diseases, especially in rheumatoid arthritis. Biological anti-rheumatic drug therapies are expensive and increase the risk of systemic immunosuppression, infections, and malignancies. Here, we report that vagus nerve stimulation controls arthritic joint inflammation by inducing local regulation of innate immune response. Most of the previous studies of neuromodulation focused on vagal regulation of inflammation via the efferent peripheral pathway toward the viscera...
April 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320117/use-of-social-media-to-assess-the-effectiveness-of-vagal-nerve-stimulation-in-dravet-syndrome-a-caregiver-s-perspective
#3
Rushna Ali, Mona Elsayed, Manpreet Kaur, Ellen Air, Naznin Mahmood, Jules Constantinou, Jason Schwalb
BACKGROUND: Dravet syndrome (DS) is a rare genetic epilepsy syndrome which is particularly pharmacoresistant. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is commonly used in the treatment of DS as an adjunct to medical therapy. A meaningful assessment of post-surgical outcomes with VNS is difficult given the rarity of the condition. OBJECTIVE: In a novel approach, we used social media to contact patients with DS to gather data on post-surgical seizure reduction and overall satisfaction with VNS...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268874/short-term-assessment-of-autonomic-nervous-system-as-a-potential-tool-to-quantify-pain-experience
#4
Arto J Hautala, Jaro Karppinen, Tapio Seppanen
Various pain conditions may result in altered autonomic nervous system regulation. We evaluated whether autonomic regulation, analyzed with short-term heart rate variability (HRV), differs between low back pain (LBP) patients and healthy controls. Additionally, we tested if short-term HRV recordings are feasible and informative in planning home monitoring of LBP patients. The study population consisted of 16 volunteers (8 LBP patients and 8 healthy subjects) (age 42±10 years, body mass index 26±4 kg/m2, 7 men and 9 women)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227072/short-term-assessment-of-autonomic-nervous-system-as-a-potential-tool-to-quantify-pain-experience
#5
Arto J Hautala, Jaro Karppinen, Tapio Seppanen, Arto J Hautala, Jaro Karppinen, Tapio Seppanen, Jaro Karppinen, Arto J Hautala, Tapio Seppanen
Various pain conditions may result in altered autonomic nervous system regulation. We evaluated whether autonomic regulation, analyzed with short-term heart rate variability (HRV), differs between low back pain (LBP) patients and healthy controls. Additionally, we tested if short-term HRV recordings are feasible and informative in planning home monitoring of LBP patients. The study population consisted of 16 volunteers (8 LBP patients and 8 healthy subjects) (age 42±10 years, body mass index 26±4 kg/m(2), 7 men and 9 women)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222576/may-a-unitary-autonomic-index-help-assess-autonomic-cardiac-regulation-in-elite-athletes-preliminary-observations-on-the-national-italian-olympic-committee-team
#6
Roberto Sala, Mara Malacarne, Fabio Tosi, Manuela Benzi, Nadia Solaro, Stefano Tamorri, Antonio Spataro, Massimo Pagani, Daniela Lucini
BACKGROUND: Long term endurance training, as occurring in elite athletes, is associated to cardiac neural remodeling in favor of cardioprotective vagal mechanisms, resulting in resting bradycardia and augmented contribution of cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity. Autonomic assessment can be performed by way of Heart Rate Variability. This technique however provides multiple indices, and there is not yet complete agreement on their specific significance. Purpose of the study was to assess whether a rank transformation and radar plot could provide a unitary autonomic index, capable to show a correlation between intensity of individual work and quality of autonomic regulation...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220475/dyadic-flexibility-mediates-the-relation-between-parent-conflict-and-infants-vagal-reactivity-during-the-face-to-face-still-face
#7
Alex Busuito, Ginger A Moore
Parent conflict is related to attenuated infant vagal reactivity, suggesting less effective regulation. Because infants' self-regulation develops in the context of coregulation, the current study examined a novel measure, flexibility, purported to reflect dyadic reorganization in response to contextual demands. Flexibility was expected to mediate the relation between greater conflict and lesser vagal reactivity during the reunion episode of the Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF). Six-month-old infants' and their mothers' (N = 53) affective behaviors were observed during the FFSF and heart rate data were collected for infants...
February 21, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219978/a-mutation-in-the-g-protein-gene-gnb2-causes-familial-sinus-node-and-atrioventricular-conduction-dysfunction
#8
Birgit Stallmeyer, Johanna Kuß, Stefan Kotthoff, Sven Zumhagen, Kirsty S Vowinkel, Susanne Rinne, Lina A Matschke, Corinna Friedrich, Ellen Schulze-Bahr, Stephan Rust, Guiscard Seebohm, Niels Decher, Eric Schulze-Bahr
Rationale: Familial sinus node and atrioventricular (AV) conduction dysfunction is a rare disorder that leads to paroxysmal dizziness, fatigue and syncope due to a temporarily or permanent reduced heart rate. To date, only a few genes for familial sinus and/or AV conduction dysfunction are known and the majority of cases remain etiologically unresolved. Objective: We aim to identify the disease gene in a large three-generation family (n=25) with autosomal dominant sinus node dysfunction (SND) and AV block (AVB) and to characterise the mutation-related pathomechanisms in familial SND+AVB...
February 20, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188890/the-hierarchical-basis-of-neurovisceral-integration
#9
REVIEW
Ryan Smith, Julian F Thayer, Sahib S Khalsa, Richard D Lane
The neurovisceral integration (NVI) model was originally proposed to account for observed relationships between peripheral physiology, cognitive performance, and emotional/physical health. This model has also garnered a considerable amount of empirical support, largely from studies examining cardiac vagal control. However, recent advances in functional neuroanatomy, and in computational neuroscience, have yet to be incorporated into the NVI model. Here we present an updated/expanded version of the NVI model that incorporates these advances...
February 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113141/seizure-detection-and-neuromodulation-a-summary-of-data-presented-at-the-xiii-conference-on-new-antiepileptic-drug-and-devices-eilat-xiii
#10
REVIEW
Meir Bialer, Svein I Johannessen, René H Levy, Emilio Perucca, Torbjörn Tomson, H Steve White, Matthias J Koepp
The Thirteenth Eilat Conference on New Antiepileptic Drugs and Devices (EILAT XIII) took place in Madrid, Spain from June 26th to 29th 2016. For the first time, the last day of the conference focused solely on new medical devices and neuromodulation. The current article summarises the presentations of that day, focusing first on EEG- and ECG based methods and devices for seizure detection. These methodologies form the basis for novel cardiac-based methods of vagal nerve and responsive deep brain stimulation that rely on the prediction or early detection of seizures and that are also included in this article...
February 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106018/cardioneuroablation-in-the-treatment-of-neurally-mediated-reflex-syncope-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#11
Tolga Aksu, Tümer Erdem Güler, Serdar Bozyel, Kazım Serhan Özcan, Kıvanç Yalın, Ferit Onur Mutluer
OBJECTIVE: An imbalance between parasympathetic and sympathetic tone is a main cause of neurally mediated reflex syncope (NMRS). These patients may be very symptomatic and the condition may require cardiac pacemaker implantation. Cardioneuroablation (CNA) is a relatively novel technique based on radiofrequency ablation of vagal ganglia that can be used in treatment of NMRS. The aim of this analysis was to compare potential role of CNA in patients with NMRS. METHODS: In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement, literature search was conducted using the keywords "cardioneuroablation," "vagal denervation," "reflex syncope," "vagal ablation," and "ganglionic plexi ablation...
December 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065827/gastric-bypass-surgery-recruits-a-gut-ppar-%C3%AE-striatal-d1r-pathway-to-reduce-fat-appetite-in-obese-rats
#12
Mohammed K Hankir, Florian Seyfried, Constantin A Hintschich, Thi-Ai Diep, Karen Kleberg, Mathias Kranz, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Luis A Tellez, Michael Rullmann, Marianne Patt, Jens Teichert, Swen Hesse, Osama Sabri, Peter Brust, Harald S Hansen, Ivan E de Araujo, Ute Krügel, Wiebke K Fenske
Bariatric surgery remains the single most effective long-term treatment modality for morbid obesity, achieved mainly by lowering caloric intake through as yet ill-defined mechanisms. Here we show in rats that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)-like rerouting of ingested fat mobilizes lower small intestine production of the fat-satiety molecule oleoylethanolamide (OEA). This was associated with vagus nerve-driven increases in dorsal striatal dopamine release. We also demonstrate that RYGB upregulates striatal dopamine 1 receptor (D1R) expression specifically under high-fat diet feeding conditions...
February 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053029/mutant-%C3%AE-synuclein-overexpression-induces-stressless-pacemaking-in-vagal-motoneurons-at-risk-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Efrat Lasser-Katz, Alon Simchovitz, Wei-Hua Chiu, Wolfgang H Oertel, Ronit Sharon, Hermona Soreq, Jochen Roeper, Joshua A Goldberg
α-Synuclein overexpression (ASOX) drives the formation of toxic aggregates in neurons vulnerable in Parkinson's disease (PD), including dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) and cholinergic neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). Just as these populations differ in when they exhibit α-synucleinopathies during PD pathogenesis, they could also differ in their physiological responses to ASOX. An ASOX-mediated hyperactivity of SN dopamine neurons, which was caused by oxidative dysfunction of Kv4...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979692/therapeutic-potential-and-limitations-of-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-in-sepsis
#14
REVIEW
Alexandre Kanashiro, Fabiane Sônego, Raphael G Ferreira, Fernanda V S Castanheira, Caio A Leite, Vanessa F Borges, Daniele C Nascimento, David F Cólon, José Carlos Alves-Filho, Luis Ulloa, Fernando Q Cunha
Sepsis is one of the main causes of mortality in hospitalized patients. Despite the recent technical advances and the development of novel generation of antibiotics, severe sepsis remains a major clinical and scientific challenge in modern medicine. Unsuccessful efforts have been dedicated to the search of therapeutic options to treat the deleterious inflammatory components of sepsis. Recent findings on neuronal networks controlling immunity raised expectations for novel therapeutic strategies to promote the regulation of sterile inflammation, such as autoimmune diseases...
December 12, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830572/inflammation-associated-co-morbidity-between-depression-and-cardiovascular-disease
#15
Angelos Halaris
Morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is exceedingly high worldwide. Depressive illness is a serious psychiatric illness that afflicts a significant portion of the world population. Epidemiological studies have confirmed the high co-morbidity between these two disease entities. The co-morbidity is bidirectional and the mechanisms responsible for it are complex and multifaceted. In addition to genetic, biological systems, psychosocial, and behavioral factors that are involved include the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuroendocrine, immune, and the vascular and hematologic systems...
2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816306/intravenous-electrical-vagal-nerve-stimulation-prior-to-coronary-reperfusion-in-a-canine-ischemia-reperfusion-model-markedly-reduces-infarct-size-and-prevents-subsequent-heart-failure
#16
Takahiro Arimura, Keita Saku, Takamori Kakino, Takuya Nishikawa, Takeshi Tohyama, Takafumi Sakamoto, Kazuo Sakamoto, Takuya Kishi, Tomomi Ide, Kenji Sunagawa
BACKGROUND: Reducing myocardial damage is a prerequisite to prevent chronic heart failure after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Although vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) has been repeatedly demonstrated to have potent anti-infarct effect, technical difficulties have precluded its clinical application. We developed a novel therapeutic strategy of intravenous VNS (iVNS) and examined whether iVNS administered prior to coronary reperfusion in a canine AMI model reduces infarct size and prevents heart failure...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761024/eating-disinhibition-and-vagal-tone-moderate-the-postprandial-response-to-glycemic-load-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Hayley A Young, Heather Watkins
Reducing the glycemic load (GL) of the diet may benefit appetite control but its utility is complicated by psychological influences on eating. Disinhibited behaviour, a risk factor for overconsumption, is characterized by reduced prefrontal cortex activity, which in turn modulates vagal tone; a phenomenon associated with glucoregulation. This double blind randomised controlled trial explored for the first time the influence of disinhibited eating and vagal tone (heart rate variability (HRV)) on hunger and the postprandial response to GL...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729269/analgesic-and-anti-edematogenic-effects-of-oral-trypsin-were-abolished-after-subdiaphragmatic-vagotomy-and-spinal-monoaminergic-inhibition-in-rats
#18
Flora Lucena, Vanessa Foletto, Lucas Zanon Mascarin, Carlos Rogério Tonussi
AIMS: Rheumatoid arthritis brings great burdens to the patients. In addition to the highly expensive treatment, they are commonly associated with severe side effects. In such context, the research for safe and affordable treatments is needed. MAIN METHODS: Arthritis was induced by CFA (0.5mg/mL) in female wistar rats. Trypsin was given p.o. (2.95mg/kg; 2mL) 24h after the intra-articular CFA injection. Articular incapacitation was measured daily by counting the paw elevation time (PET; s) during 1-min periods of stimulated walk, throughout the 7-days after intra-articular CFA injection...
December 1, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667485/functional-pharmacological-characterisation-of-ser100-in-cardiovascular-health-and-disease
#19
Inmaculada C Villar, Kristen J Bubb, Amie J Moyes, Eva Steiness, Trygve Gulbrandsen, Finn Olav Levy, Adrian J Hobbs
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: SER100 is a selective nociceptin receptor (NOP) agonist with sodium-potassium-sparing aquaretic and anti-natriuretic activity. This study was designed to characterize the functional cardiovascular pharmacology of SER100 in vitro and in vivo, including experimental models of cardiovascular disease. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Haemodynamic, ECG parameters and heart rate variability (HRV) were determined using radiotelemetry in healthy, conscious mice...
September 25, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629998/myoclonus-and-seizures-in-progressive-myoclonus-epilepsies-pharmacology-and-therapeutic-trials
#20
REVIEW
Roberto Michelucci, Elena Pasini, Patrizia Riguzzi, Eva Andermann, Reetta Kälviäinen, Pierre Genton
Generalized motor seizures, usually tonic-clonic, tonic-vibratory, myoclonic or clonic, and stimulus-sensitive/action myoclonus are typical features of progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs). Despite the introduction of many anticonvulsants, the treatment of these symptoms, particularly myoclonus, remains challenging, due to the incomplete and often transitory effects of most drugs. Moreover, treatment is only symptomatic, since therapy targeting the underlying aetiology for these genetic conditions is in its infancy...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
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