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Hayley A Young, Heather Watkins
Reducing the glycemic load (GL) of the diet may benefit appetite control but its utility is complicated by psychological influences on eating. Disinhibited behaviour, a risk factor for overconsumption, is characterized by reduced prefrontal cortex activity, which in turn modulates vagal tone; a phenomenon associated with glucoregulation. This double blind randomised controlled trial explored for the first time the influence of disinhibited eating and vagal tone (heart rate variability (HRV)) on hunger and the postprandial response to GL...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Flora Lucena, Vanessa Foletto, Lucas Zanon Mascarin, Carlos Rogério Tonussi
AIMS: Rheumatoid arthritis brings great burdens to the patients. In addition to the highly expensive treatment, they are commonly associated with severe side-effects. In such context, the research for safe and affordable treatments is needed. MAIN METHODS: Arthritis was induced by CFA (0.5mg/mL) in female wistar rats. Trypsin was given p.o. (2.95mg/kg; 2mL) 24 hs after the intra-articular CFA injection. Articular incapacitation was measured daily by counting the paw elevation time (PET; s) during 1-min periods of stimulated walk, throughout the 7-days after intra-articular CFA injection...
October 8, 2016: Life Sciences
Inmaculada C Villar, Kristen J Bubb, Amie J Moyes, Eva Steiness, Trygve Gulbrandsen, Finn Olav Levy, Adrian J Hobbs
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: SER100 is a selective nociceptin receptor (NOP) agonist with sodium-potassium-sparing aquaretic and anti-natriuretic activity. This study was designed to characterize the functional cardiovascular pharmacology of SER100 in vitro and in vivo, including experimental models of cardiovascular disease. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Haemodynamic, ECG parameters and heart rate variability (HRV) were determined using radiotelemetry in healthy, conscious mice...
September 25, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Roberto Michelucci, Elena Pasini, Patrizia Riguzzi, Eva Andermann, Reetta Kälviäinen, Pierre Genton
Generalized motor seizures, usually tonic-clonic, tonic-vibratory, myoclonic or clonic, and stimulus-sensitive/action myoclonus are typical features of progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs). Despite the introduction of many anticonvulsants, the treatment of these symptoms, particularly myoclonus, remains challenging, due to the incomplete and often transitory effects of most drugs. Moreover, treatment is only symptomatic, since therapy targeting the underlying aetiology for these genetic conditions is in its infancy...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Guillaume de Lartigue, Charlene Diepenbroek
Vagal afferent neurons (VANs) play an important role in the control of food intake by signaling nutrient type and quantity to the brain. Recent findings are broadening our view of how VANs impact not only food intake but also energy homeostasis. This review focuses exclusively on studies of the vagus nerve from the past 2 years that highlight major new advancements in the field. We firstly discuss evidence that VANs can directly sense nutrients, and we consider new insights into mechanisms affecting sensing of gastric distension and signaling by gastrointestinal hormones ghrelin and GLP1...
September 1, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Stacy A Brethauer, Julietta Chang, Manoel Galvao Neto, Jan Willem Greve
BACKGROUND: Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) continue to be growing epidemics worldwide. Although bariatric surgery remains the most effective and durable treatment for both of these chronic diseases, there is a need for therapies with risk and benefit profiles between medication and standard surgical procedures. Currently there are several endoscopic and minimally invasive therapies available worldwide to treat T2D. OBJECTIVE: To review the current evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of medical devices to treat T2D...
July 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Fernanda C Silva, Franciny A Paiva, Flávia C Müller-Ribeiro, Henrique M A Caldeira, Marco A P Fontes, Rodrigo C A de Menezes, Karina R Casali, Gláucia H Fortes, Eleonora Tobaldini, Monica Solbiati, Nicola Montano, Valdo J Dias Da Silva, Deoclécio A Chianca
A low resting heart rate (HR) would be of great benefit in cardiovascular diseases. Ivabradine-a novel selective inhibitor of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated (HCN) channels- has emerged as a promising HR lowering drug. Its effects on the autonomic HR control are little known. This study assessed the effects of chronic treatment with ivabradine on the modulatory, reflex and tonic cardiovascular autonomic control and on the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Male Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups, receiving intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (VEH) or ivabradine (IVA) during 7 or 8 consecutive days...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Gennaro Liccardi, Antonello Salzillo, Luigino Calzetta, Mario Cazzola, Maria Gabriella Matera, Paola Rogliani
Recently, we studied occurrence and role of non-respiratory symptoms (n-RSs) before a worsening of asthma symptoms. Some n-RSs such as anxiety, reflux, heartburn, abdominal pain, which appeared within 3 h before the onset of an asthma attack, are the likely result of an imbalance between sympathetic/parasympathetic systems with an increase in cholinergic tone. Therefore, it is likely that some of these n-RSs induced by the increased cholinergic tone might be present related with specific parasympathetic-associated respiratory symptoms such as those elicited by airway narrowing...
August 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Run-Qing Xue, Lei Sun, Xiao-Jiang Yu, Dong-Ling Li, Wei-Jin Zang
Mitochondrial dynamics-fission and fusion-are associated with ischaemic heart disease (IHD). This study explored the protective effect of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial ischaemia in a rat model and tested whether VNS plays a role in preventing disorders of mitochondrial dynamics and function. Isoproterenol not only caused cardiac injury but also increased the expression of mitochondrial fission proteins [dynamin-related peptide1 (Drp1) and mitochondrial fission protein1 (Fis-1)) and decreased the expression of fusion proteins (optic atrophy-1 (OPA1) and mitofusins1/2 (Mfn1/2)], thereby disrupting mitochondrial dynamics and leading to increase in mitochondrial fragments...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Hiroshi Sunaga, John J Savarese, Jeff D McGilvra, Paul M Heerdt, Matthew R Belmont, Scott G Van Ornum, Matthew T Murrell, Jaideep K Malhotra, Peter M Savard, Erin Jeannotte, Bryce J Petty, Erica Allen, Gilbert W Carnathan
BACKGROUND: CW002, a novel nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent of intermediate duration, is degraded in vitro by L-cysteine; CW002-induced neuromuscular blockade (NMB) is antagonized in vivo by exogenous L-cysteine. Further, Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee-approved studies of safety and efficacy in eight anesthetized monkeys and six cats are described. METHODS: Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, twitch, and train-of-four were recorded; estimated dose producing 95% twitch inhibition (ED95) for NMB and twitch recovery intervals from 5 to 95% of baseline were derived...
July 26, 2016: Anesthesiology
Christopher R Honey, Peter Gooderham, Murray Morrison, Zurab Ivanishvili
The authors describe a novel cranial neuropathy manifesting with life-threatening episodic hemilaryngopharyngeal spasm (HELPS). A 50-year-old woman presented with a 4-year history of intermittent throat contractions, escalating to life-threatening respiratory distress. Botulinum toxin injections into her right vocal cord reduced the severity of her spasms, but the episodes continued to occur. MRI demonstrated a possible neurovascular conflict involving the cranial nerve IX-X complex and the posterior inferior cerebellar artery...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Monica Imbernon, Estrella Sanchez-Rebordelo, Amparo Romero-Picó, Imre Kalló, Melissa J Chee, Begoña Porteiro, Omar Al-Massadi, Cristina Contreras, Johan Fernø, Ana Senra, Rosalia Gallego, Cintia Folgueira, Luisa M Seoane, Margriet van Gestel, Roger A Adan, Zsolt Liposits, Carlos Dieguez, Miguel López, Ruben Nogueiras
UNLABELLED: The opioid system is widely known to modulate the brain reward system and thus affect the behavior of humans and other animals, including feeding. We hypothesized that the hypothalamic opioid system might also control energy metabolism in peripheral tissues. Mice lacking the kappa opioid receptor (κOR) and adenoviral vectors overexpressing or silencing κOR were stereotaxically delivered in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of rats. Vagal denervation was performed to assess its effect on liver metabolism...
October 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Fu L Ng, Manish Saxena, Felix Mahfoud, Atul Pathak, Melvin D Lobo
Hypertension continues to be a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality, fuelled by an abundance of patients with uncontrolled blood pressure despite the multitude of pharmacological options available. This may occur as a consequence of true resistant hypertension, through an inability to tolerate current pharmacological therapies, or non-adherence to antihypertensive medication. In recent years, there has been a rapid expansion of device-based therapies proposed as novel non-pharmacological approaches to treating resistant hypertension...
August 2016: Current Hypertension Reports
Hidetoshi Hoshikawa, Kenta Sawazaki, Daisuke Sato, Saori Yoshida, Tsukasa Miyamura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Karen P Briski, Prem K Shrestha
Hindbrain dorsal vagal complex A2 noradrenergic signaling represses the pre-ovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in response to energy deficiency. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia augments A2 neuron adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ) expression, coincident with LH surge suppression. We hypothesized that ERβ is critical for hypoglycemia-associated patterns of LH secretion and norepinephrine (NE) activity in key reproduction-relevant forebrain structures...
September 7, 2016: Neuroscience
Takuya Kishi
Major pathophysiology of heart failure is an autonomic nervous system dysfunction as a result of excess sympathoexcitation and/or withdrawal of vagal nerve activity. Although we already have various pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies for heart failure, survival of heart failure patients remains around 50%. To achieve further reductions in morbidity and mortality of heart failure, neuromodulations with devices, such as baroreflex activating therapy, vagal nerve stimulation, renal sympathetic denervation, spinal cord stimulation, and left cardiac sympathetic denervation, have been expected...
June 9, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
Stuart B Mazzone, Bradley J Undem
Vagal sensory neurons constitute the major afferent supply to the airways and lungs. Subsets of afferents are defined by their embryological origin, molecular profile, neurochemistry, functionality, and anatomical organization, and collectively these nerves are essential for the regulation of respiratory physiology and pulmonary defense through local responses and centrally mediated neural pathways. Mechanical and chemical activation of airway afferents depends on a myriad of ionic and receptor-mediated signaling, much of which has yet to be fully explored...
July 2016: Physiological Reviews
Francesca Puledda, Peter J Goadsby
Neuromodulation is a promising, novel approach for the treatment of primary headache disorders. Neuromodulation offers a new dimension in the treatment that is both easily reversible and tends to be very well tolerated. The autonomic nervous system is a logical target given the neurobiology of common primary headache disorders, such as migraine and the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). This article will review new encouraging results of studies from the most recent literature on neuromodulation as acute and preventive treatment in primary headache disorders, and cover some possible underlying mechanisms...
July 2016: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Serkan Erkan, Jessica Somner, Gunesh P Rajan
Background Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) of the head and neck with intracranial extension is rare and may pose difficulties to the diagnosis and management. Method We describe a unique case of a 76-year-old man with a metastatic RCC to the neck and lateral skull base with intracranial extension presenting with Collet-Sicard syndrome 8 years after initial diagnosis. The radiologic features were consistent with the diagnosis of a glomus vagale tumor on the basis of clinical and radiologic features...
June 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports
Dominik Linz, Mathias Hohl, Shayan Khoshkish, Felix Mahfoud, Christian Ukena, Hans-Ruprecht Neuberger, Klaus Wirth, Michael Böhm
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increases susceptibility to atrial fibrillation (AF) by a combined sympatho-vagal hyperactivation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of autonomic nervous system modulation by low-level baroreceptor stimulation (LL-BRS) compared to high-level BRS (HL-BRS) on atrial arrhythmogenic changes in a pig model of OSA. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen pigs received tracheotomy under general urethane/chloralose anesthesia...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
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