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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106018/cardioneuroablation-in-the-treatment-of-neurally-mediated-reflex-syncope-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#1
Tolga Aksu, Tümer Erdem Güler, Serdar Bozyel, Kazım Serhan Özcan, Kıvanç Yalın, Ferit Onur Mutluer
OBJECTIVE: An imbalance between parasympathetic and sympathetic tone is a main cause of neurally mediated reflex syncope (NMRS). These patients may be very symptomatic and the condition may require cardiac pacemaker implantation. Cardioneuroablation (CNA) is a relatively novel technique based on radiofrequency ablation of vagal ganglia that can be used in treatment of NMRS. The aim of this analysis was to compare potential role of CNA in patients with NMRS. METHODS: In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement, literature search was conducted using the keywords "cardioneuroablation," "vagal denervation," "reflex syncope," "vagal ablation," and "ganglionic plexi ablation...
December 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065827/gastric-bypass-surgery-recruits-a-gut-ppar-%C3%AE-striatal-d1r-pathway-to-reduce-fat-appetite-in-obese-rats
#2
Mohammed K Hankir, Florian Seyfried, Constantin A Hintschich, Thi-Ai Diep, Karen Kleberg, Mathias Kranz, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Luis A Tellez, Michael Rullmann, Marianne Patt, Jens Teichert, Swen Hesse, Osama Sabri, Peter Brust, Harald S Hansen, Ivan E de Araujo, Ute Krügel, Wiebke K Fenske
Bariatric surgery remains the single most effective long-term treatment modality for morbid obesity, achieved mainly by lowering caloric intake through as yet ill-defined mechanisms. Here we show in rats that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)-like rerouting of ingested fat mobilizes lower small intestine production of the fat-satiety molecule oleoylethanolamide (OEA). This was associated with vagus nerve-driven increases in dorsal striatal dopamine release. We also demonstrate that RYGB upregulates striatal dopamine 1 receptor (D1R) expression specifically under high-fat diet feeding conditions...
January 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053029/mutant-%C3%AE-synuclein-overexpression-induces-stressless-pacemaking-in-vagal-motoneurons-at-risk-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Efrat Lasser-Katz, Alon Simchovitz, Wei-Hua Chiu, Wolfgang H Oertel, Ronit Sharon, Hermona Soreq, Jochen Roeper, Joshua A Goldberg
: α-Synuclein overexpression (ASOX) drives the formation of toxic aggregates in neurons vulnerable in Parkinson's disease (PD), including dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) and cholinergic neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). Just as these populations differ in when they exhibit α-synucleinopathies during PD pathogenesis, they could also differ in their physiological responses to ASOX. An ASOX-mediated hyperactivity of SN dopamine neurons, which was caused by oxidative dysfunction of Kv4...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979692/therapeutic-potential-and-limitations-of-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-in-sepsis
#4
REVIEW
Alexandre Kanashiro, Fabiane Sônego, Raphael G Ferreira, Fernanda V S Castanheira, Caio A Leite, Vanessa F Borges, Daniele C Nascimento, David F Cólon, José Carlos Alves-Filho, Luis Ulloa, Fernando Q Cunha
Sepsis is one of the main causes of mortality in hospitalized patients. Despite the recent technical advances and the development of novel generation of antibiotics, severe sepsis remains a major clinical and scientific challenge in modern medicine. Unsuccessful efforts have been dedicated to the search of therapeutic options to treat the deleterious inflammatory components of sepsis. Recent findings on neuronal networks controlling immunity raised expectations for novel therapeutic strategies to promote the regulation of sterile inflammation, such as autoimmune diseases...
December 12, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830572/inflammation-associated-co-morbidity-between-depression-and-cardiovascular-disease
#5
Angelos Halaris
Morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is exceedingly high worldwide. Depressive illness is a serious psychiatric illness that afflicts a significant portion of the world population. Epidemiological studies have confirmed the high co-morbidity between these two disease entities. The co-morbidity is bidirectional and the mechanisms responsible for it are complex and multifaceted. In addition to genetic, biological systems, psychosocial, and behavioral factors that are involved include the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuroendocrine, immune, and the vascular and hematologic systems...
2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816306/intravenous-electrical-vagal-nerve-stimulation-prior-to-coronary-reperfusion-in-a-canine-ischemia-reperfusion-model-markedly-reduces-infarct-size-and-prevents-subsequent-heart-failure
#6
Takahiro Arimura, Keita Saku, Takamori Kakino, Takuya Nishikawa, Takeshi Tohyama, Takafumi Sakamoto, Kazuo Sakamoto, Takuya Kishi, Tomomi Ide, Kenji Sunagawa
BACKGROUND: Reducing myocardial damage is a prerequisite to prevent chronic heart failure after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Although vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) has been repeatedly demonstrated to have potent anti-infarct effect, technical difficulties have precluded its clinical application. We developed a novel therapeutic strategy of intravenous VNS (iVNS) and examined whether iVNS administered prior to coronary reperfusion in a canine AMI model reduces infarct size and prevents heart failure...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761024/eating-disinhibition-and-vagal-tone-moderate-the-postprandial-response-to-glycemic-load-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Hayley A Young, Heather Watkins
Reducing the glycemic load (GL) of the diet may benefit appetite control but its utility is complicated by psychological influences on eating. Disinhibited behaviour, a risk factor for overconsumption, is characterized by reduced prefrontal cortex activity, which in turn modulates vagal tone; a phenomenon associated with glucoregulation. This double blind randomised controlled trial explored for the first time the influence of disinhibited eating and vagal tone (heart rate variability (HRV)) on hunger and the postprandial response to GL...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729269/analgesic-and-anti-edematogenic-effects-of-oral-trypsin-were-abolished-after-subdiaphragmatic-vagotomy-and-spinal-monoaminergic-inhibition-in-rats
#8
Flora Lucena, Vanessa Foletto, Lucas Zanon Mascarin, Carlos Rogério Tonussi
AIMS: Rheumatoid arthritis brings great burdens to the patients. In addition to the highly expensive treatment, they are commonly associated with severe side effects. In such context, the research for safe and affordable treatments is needed. MAIN METHODS: Arthritis was induced by CFA (0.5mg/mL) in female wistar rats. Trypsin was given p.o. (2.95mg/kg; 2mL) 24h after the intra-articular CFA injection. Articular incapacitation was measured daily by counting the paw elevation time (PET; s) during 1-min periods of stimulated walk, throughout the 7-days after intra-articular CFA injection...
December 1, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667485/functional-pharmacological-characterisation-of-ser100-in-cardiovascular-health-and-disease
#9
Inmaculada C Villar, Kristen J Bubb, Amie J Moyes, Eva Steiness, Trygve Gulbrandsen, Finn Olav Levy, Adrian J Hobbs
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: SER100 is a selective nociceptin receptor (NOP) agonist with sodium-potassium-sparing aquaretic and anti-natriuretic activity. This study was designed to characterize the functional cardiovascular pharmacology of SER100 in vitro and in vivo, including experimental models of cardiovascular disease. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Haemodynamic, ECG parameters and heart rate variability (HRV) were determined using radiotelemetry in healthy, conscious mice...
September 25, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629998/myoclonus-and-seizures-in-progressive-myoclonus-epilepsies-pharmacology-and-therapeutic-trials
#10
Roberto Michelucci, Elena Pasini, Patrizia Riguzzi, Eva Andermann, Reetta Kälviäinen, Pierre Genton
Generalized motor seizures, usually tonic-clonic, tonic-vibratory, myoclonic or clonic, and stimulus-sensitive/action myoclonus are typical features of progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs). Despite the introduction of many anticonvulsants, the treatment of these symptoms, particularly myoclonus, remains challenging, due to the incomplete and often transitory effects of most drugs. Moreover, treatment is only symptomatic, since therapy targeting the underlying aetiology for these genetic conditions is in its infancy...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591963/novel-developments-in-vagal-afferent-nutrient-sensing-and-its-role-in-energy-homeostasis
#11
REVIEW
Guillaume de Lartigue, Charlene Diepenbroek
Vagal afferent neurons (VANs) play an important role in the control of food intake by signaling nutrient type and quantity to the brain. Recent findings are broadening our view of how VANs impact not only food intake but also energy homeostasis. This review focuses exclusively on studies of the vagus nerve from the past 2 years that highlight major new advancements in the field. We firstly discuss evidence that VANs can directly sense nutrients, and we consider new insights into mechanisms affecting sensing of gastric distension and signaling by gastrointestinal hormones ghrelin and GLP1...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568475/gastrointestinal-devices-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#12
REVIEW
Stacy A Brethauer, Julietta Chang, Manoel Galvao Neto, Jan Willem Greve
BACKGROUND: Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) continue to be growing epidemics worldwide. Although bariatric surgery remains the most effective and durable treatment for both of these chronic diseases, there is a need for therapies with risk and benefit profiles between medication and standard surgical procedures. Currently there are several endoscopic and minimally invasive therapies available worldwide to treat T2D. OBJECTIVE: To review the current evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of medical devices to treat T2D...
July 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507948/chronic-treatment-with-ivabradine-does-not-affect-cardiovascular-autonomic-control-in-rats
#13
Fernanda C Silva, Franciny A Paiva, Flávia C Müller-Ribeiro, Henrique M A Caldeira, Marco A P Fontes, Rodrigo C A de Menezes, Karina R Casali, Gláucia H Fortes, Eleonora Tobaldini, Monica Solbiati, Nicola Montano, Valdo J Dias Da Silva, Deoclécio A Chianca
A low resting heart rate (HR) would be of great benefit in cardiovascular diseases. Ivabradine-a novel selective inhibitor of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated (HCN) channels- has emerged as a promising HR lowering drug. Its effects on the autonomic HR control are little known. This study assessed the effects of chronic treatment with ivabradine on the modulatory, reflex and tonic cardiovascular autonomic control and on the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Male Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups, receiving intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (VEH) or ivabradine (IVA) during 7 or 8 consecutive days...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492525/can-bronchial-asthma-with-an-highly-prevalent-airway-and-systemic-vagal-tone-be-considered-an-independent-asthma-phenotype-possible-role-of-anticholinergics
#14
Gennaro Liccardi, Antonello Salzillo, Luigino Calzetta, Mario Cazzola, Maria Gabriella Matera, Paola Rogliani
Recently, we studied occurrence and role of non-respiratory symptoms (n-RSs) before a worsening of asthma symptoms. Some n-RSs such as anxiety, reflux, heartburn, abdominal pain, which appeared within 3 h before the onset of an asthma attack, are the likely result of an imbalance between sympathetic/parasympathetic systems with an increase in cholinergic tone. Therefore, it is likely that some of these n-RSs induced by the increased cholinergic tone might be present related with specific parasympathetic-associated respiratory symptoms such as those elicited by airway narrowing...
August 2016: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491814/vagal-nerve-stimulation-improves-mitochondrial-dynamics-via-an-m3-receptor-camkk%C3%AE-ampk-pathway-in-isoproterenol-induced-myocardial-ischaemia
#15
Run-Qing Xue, Lei Sun, Xiao-Jiang Yu, Dong-Ling Li, Wei-Jin Zang
Mitochondrial dynamics-fission and fusion-are associated with ischaemic heart disease (IHD). This study explored the protective effect of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial ischaemia in a rat model and tested whether VNS plays a role in preventing disorders of mitochondrial dynamics and function. Isoproterenol not only caused cardiac injury but also increased the expression of mitochondrial fission proteins [dynamin-related peptide1 (Drp1) and mitochondrial fission protein1 (Fis-1)) and decreased the expression of fusion proteins (optic atrophy-1 (OPA1) and mitofusins1/2 (Mfn1/2)], thereby disrupting mitochondrial dynamics and leading to increase in mitochondrial fragments...
January 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466033/preclinical-pharmacology-of-cw002-a-nondepolarizing-neuromuscular-blocking-drug-of-intermediate-duration-degraded-and-antagonized-by-l-cysteine-additional-studies-of-safety-and-efficacy-in-the-anesthetized-rhesus-monkey-and-cat
#16
Hiroshi Sunaga, John J Savarese, Jeff D McGilvra, Paul M Heerdt, Matthew R Belmont, Scott G Van Ornum, Matthew T Murrell, Jaideep K Malhotra, Peter M Savard, Erin Jeannotte, Bryce J Petty, Erica Allen, Gilbert W Carnathan
BACKGROUND: CW002, a novel nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent of intermediate duration, is degraded in vitro by L-cysteine; CW002-induced neuromuscular blockade (NMB) is antagonized in vivo by exogenous L-cysteine. Further, Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee-approved studies of safety and efficacy in eight anesthetized monkeys and six cats are described. METHODS: Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, twitch, and train-of-four were recorded; estimated dose producing 95% twitch inhibition (ED95) for NMB and twitch recovery intervals from 5 to 95% of baseline were derived...
July 26, 2016: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392269/episodic-hemilaryngopharyngeal-spasm-helps-syndrome-case-report-of-a-surgically-treatable-novel-neuropathy
#17
Christopher R Honey, Peter Gooderham, Murray Morrison, Zurab Ivanishvili
The authors describe a novel cranial neuropathy manifesting with life-threatening episodic hemilaryngopharyngeal spasm (HELPS). A 50-year-old woman presented with a 4-year history of intermittent throat contractions, escalating to life-threatening respiratory distress. Botulinum toxin injections into her right vocal cord reduced the severity of her spasms, but the episodes continued to occur. MRI demonstrated a possible neurovascular conflict involving the cranial nerve IX-X complex and the posterior inferior cerebellar artery...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387967/hypothalamic-kappa-opioid-receptor-mediates-both-diet-induced-and-melanin-concentrating-hormone-induced-liver-damage-through-inflammation-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#18
Monica Imbernon, Estrella Sanchez-Rebordelo, Amparo Romero-Picó, Imre Kalló, Melissa J Chee, Begoña Porteiro, Omar Al-Massadi, Cristina Contreras, Johan Fernø, Ana Senra, Rosalia Gallego, Cintia Folgueira, Luisa M Seoane, Margriet van Gestel, Roger A Adan, Zsolt Liposits, Carlos Dieguez, Miguel López, Ruben Nogueiras
UNLABELLED: The opioid system is widely known to modulate the brain reward system and thus affect the behavior of humans and other animals, including feeding. We hypothesized that the hypothalamic opioid system might also control energy metabolism in peripheral tissues. Mice lacking the kappa opioid receptor (κOR) and adenoviral vectors overexpressing or silencing κOR were stereotaxically delivered in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of rats. Vagal denervation was performed to assess its effect on liver metabolism...
October 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27370788/device-based-therapy-for-hypertension
#19
REVIEW
Fu L Ng, Manish Saxena, Felix Mahfoud, Atul Pathak, Melvin D Lobo
Hypertension continues to be a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality, fuelled by an abundance of patients with uncontrolled blood pressure despite the multitude of pharmacological options available. This may occur as a consequence of true resistant hypertension, through an inability to tolerate current pharmacological therapies, or non-adherence to antihypertensive medication. In recent years, there has been a rapid expansion of device-based therapies proposed as novel non-pharmacological approaches to treating resistant hypertension...
August 2016: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362028/novel-way-to-increase-cardiac-vagal-activity-by-applying-facial-skin-stimulation-using-a-newly-developed-tool-3662-board-101-june-4-9-30-am-11-00-am
#20
Hidetoshi Hoshikawa, Kenta Sawazaki, Daisuke Sato, Saori Yoshida, Tsukasa Miyamura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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