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Katie Bardsley, Agnieska Kwarciak, Christine Freeman, Ian Brook, Paul Hatton, Aileen Crawford
The regeneration of large bone defects remains clinically challenging. The aim of our study was to use a rat model to use nasal chondrocytes to engineer a hypertrophic cartilage tissue which could be remodelled into bone in vivo by endochondral ossification. Primary adult rat nasal chondrocytes were isolated from the nasal septum, the cell numbers expanded in monolayer culture and the cells cultured in vitro on polyglycolic acid scaffolds in chondrogenic medium for culture periods of 5-10 weeks. Hypertrophic differentiation was assessed by determining the temporal expression of key marker genes and proteins involved in hypertrophic cartilage formation...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Sanjay Prakash, Chaturbhuj Rathore
The differential diagnosis of strictly unilateral hemicranial pain includes a large number of primary and secondary headaches and cranial neuropathies. It may arise from both intracranial and extracranial structures such as cranium, neck, vessels, eyes, ears, nose, sinuses, teeth, mouth, and the other facial or cervical structure. Available data suggest that about two-third patients with side-locked headache visiting neurology or headache clinics have primary headaches. Other one-third will have either secondary headaches or neuralgias...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
Umut Yilmaz
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: The posterior fossa is the location of some specific vascular pathologies and vascular anatomical variants that are important for radiologists to know and recognize. Vascular malformations that are also found in the supratentorial region have some divergent characteristics in the posterior fossa. PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS: Knowledge of the vascular anatomy of the posterior fossa and its variants is important for an understanding of vascular pathologies...
October 21, 2016: Der Radiologe
Leah Hobert, Emanuela Binello
Trepanation, the process of making a burr hole in the skull to access the brain, is an ancient form of a primitive craniotomy. There is widespread evidence of contributions made to this practice by ancient civilizations in Europe, Africa, and South America, where archaeologists have unearthed thousands of trepanned skulls dating back to the Neolithic period. Little is known about trepanation in China, and it is commonly believed that the Chinese only used traditional Chinese medicine and nonsurgical methods for treating brain injuries...
October 18, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Pim B Olthof, Michal Heger, Krijn P van Lienden, Kora de Bruin, Roelof J Bennink, Thomas M van Gulik
BACKGROUND: Portal vein embolization is the gold standard approach to preoperatively enhance the future liver remnant before liver resection. Portal vein embolization is studied in several experimental animal models; however, clinical translation of results is often difficult. We aimed to examine the translational value of the portal vein embolization response in a standardized rabbit model by comparing the volume and function increase with the response seen in patients. METHODS: Six rabbits were subjected to embolization of the cranial liver lobes, and the hypertrophy response of the caudal liver lobe was studied using computed tomography volumetry and Technetium-99m-labeled-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy...
October 18, 2016: Surgery
Philip Tack, Jan Victor, Paul Gemmel, Lieven Annemans
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) printing has numerous applications and has gained much interest in the medical world. The constantly improving quality of 3D-printing applications has contributed to their increased use on patients. This paper summarizes the literature on surgical 3D-printing applications used on patients, with a focus on reported clinical and economic outcomes. METHODS: Three major literature databases were screened for case series (more than three cases described in the same study) and trials of surgical applications of 3D printing in humans...
October 21, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Richard C Harrington, Brant C Faircloth, Ron I Eytan, W Leo Smith, Thomas J Near, Michael E Alfaro, Matt Friedman
BACKGROUND: Flatfish cranial asymmetry represents one of the most remarkable morphological innovations among vertebrates, and has fueled vigorous debate on the manner and rate at which strikingly divergent phenotypes evolve. A surprising result of many recent molecular phylogenetic studies is the lack of support for flatfish monophyly, where increasingly larger DNA datasets of up to 23 loci have either yielded a weakly supported flatfish clade or indicated the group is polyphyletic. Lack of resolution for flatfish relationships has been attributed to analytical limitations for dealing with processes such as nucleotide non-stationarity and incomplete lineage sorting (ILS)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Ramesh Kumar, Frederic W B Deleyiannis, Corbett Wilkinson, Brent R O'Neill
OBJECTIVE The authors' goals in this study were to describe a series of dog attacks on children that required neurosurgical consultation and to better understand the pattern of injuries inflicted, the circumstances that place children at risk for attack, and the dog breeds involved. In addition, the authors review the surgical and medical management of these patients. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of all children requiring neurosurgical consultation for dog bite at a regional Level 1 pediatric trauma center over a 15-year period...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Masaki Matsushita, Kenichi Mishima, Ryusaku Esaki, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno, Hiroshi Kitoh
OBJECTIVE Achondroplasia (ACH) is the most common short-limbed skeletal dysplasia caused by gain-of-function mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. Foramen magnum stenosis (FMS) is one of the serious neurological complications in ACH. Through comprehensive drug screening, the authors identified that meclozine, an over-the-counter drug for motion sickness, inhibited activation of FGFR3 signaling. Oral administration of meclozine to the growing ACH mice promoted longitudinal bone growth, but it did not prevent FMS...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Michael D Cusimano, Iryna Pshonyak, Michael Y Lee, Gabriela Ilie
OBJECTIVE The 30-day readmission rate has emerged as an important marker of the quality of in-hospital care in several fields of medicine. This review aims to summarize available research reporting readmission rates after cranial procedures and to establish an association with demographic, clinical, and system-related factors and clinical outcomes. METHODS The authors conducted a systematic review of several databases; a manual search of the Journal of Neurosurgery, Neurosurgery, Acta Neurochirurgica, Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences; and the cited references of the selected articles...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Juan Luis Gómez-Amador, Luis Alberto Ortega-Porcayo, Isaac Jair Palacios-Ortíz, Alexander Perdomo-Pantoja, Felipe Eduardo Nares-López, Alfredo Vega-Alarcón
Brainstem cavernous malformations are challenging due to the critical anatomy and potential surgical risks. Anterolateral, lateral, and dorsal surgical approaches provide limited ventral exposure of the brainstem. The authors present a case of a midline ventral pontine cavernous malformation resected through an endoscopic endonasal transclival approach based on minimal brainstem transection, negligible cranial nerve manipulation, and a straightforward trajectory. Technical and reconstruction technique advances in endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery provide a direct, safe, and effective corridor to the brainstem...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Scott Seaman, Paul Nelson, Jacob Alexander, Andrew Swift, James Fick
The authors present the case of a 53-year-old man who was referred with disabling retching provoked by left arm abduction. At the time of his initial evaluation, a cervical MRI study was available for review and revealed an anatomical variation of the ipsilateral juxtamedullary vertebrobasilar junction. After brain imaging revealed contact of the medulla by a dolichoectatic vertebral artery at the dorsal root entry zone of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, the patient was successfully treated by microvascular decompression of the brainstem and cranial nerves...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Gregory F Funston, Philip J Currie, David A Eberth, Michael J Ryan, Tsogtbaatar Chinzorig, Demchig Badamgarav, Nicholas R Longrich
A monodominant bonebed of Avimimus from the Nemegt Formation of Mongolia is the first oviraptorosaur bonebed described and the only recorded maniraptoran bonebed from the Late Cretaceous. Cranial elements recovered from the bonebed provide insights on the anatomy of the facial region, which was formerly unknown in Avimimus. Both adult and subadult material was recovered from the bonebed, but small juveniles are underrepresented. The taphonomic and sedimentological evidence suggests that the Avimimus bonebed represents a perimortem gregarious assemblage...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sarah Stadig, B Duncan X Lascelles, Anna Bergh
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common cause of chronic pain and dysfunction in older cats. The majority of cats with OA do not show signs of overt lameness, yet cats with orthopaedic disease are known to redistribute their body weight from the affected limb. OA can cause changes in the cat's behaviour, which is often misinterpreted as signs of aging. The aim of the present study was to investigate if cats with a previous cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) injury perform differently on the pressure mat and exhibit different behaviour compared to sound cats according to the owner´s subjective assessment...
October 20, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Annah Lane, Ling Lee, Donna Traves, Andreas Lee
INTRODUCTION: The antenatal diagnosis of open spina bifida (OSB), a neural tube defect, is predominantly made at the second trimester morphology scan by ultrasound detection of structural abnormalities resulting from the associated Chiari II malformation. Evidence has emerged suggesting that these structural abnormalities can be detected earlier, by examination of the posterior fossa as part of the first trimester nuchal translucency scan. In particular, absence of the intra-cranial translucency (IT) of the fourth ventricle has shown promise as a diagnostic marker of OSB, although the sensitivity and specificity of this finding varies widely in the literature...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Wei Bu, Huiling Ren, Yunping Deng, Nobel Del Mar, Natalie M Guley, Bob M Moore, Marcia G Honig, Anton Reiner
We have previously reported that mild TBI created by focal left-side cranial blast in mice produces widespread axonal injury, microglial activation, and a variety of functional deficits. We have also shown that these functional deficits are reduced by targeting microglia through their cannabinoid type-2 (CB2) receptors using 2-week daily administration of the CB2 inverse agonist SMM-189. CB2 inverse agonists stabilize the G-protein coupled CB2 receptor in an inactive conformation, leading to increased phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), and thus bias activated microglia from a pro-inflammatory M1 to a pro-healing M2 state...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Naim N Khoury, Pierre-Olivier Champagne, Marc Kotowski, Jean Raymond, Daniel Roy, Alain Weill
Endovascular particle embolization is a common procedure with a relatively safe profile. We report here four cases in which cranial nerves, skin and mucosal ischemic complications occurred with the use of hydrogel microspheres (250-500 µm in size). Given the compressibility and higher penetration potential of microsphere particles compared with polyvinyl alcohol particles of similar size, we suggest oversizing hydrogel microsphere particles for head and neck embolizations.
October 20, 2016: Interventional Neuroradiology
Mohamad Bydon, Mohamed Macki, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Daniel M Sciubba, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Timothy F Witham, Ziya L Gokaslan, Ali Bydon
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study is to determine the incidence and prognostic factors of adjacent segment disease (ASD) following first-time lumbar discectomy (LD). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all neurosurgical patients who underwent first-time LD for degenerative lumbar disease from 1990 to 2012. ASD was defined as a clinical and radiographic progression of degenerative spinal disease that required surgical decompression (with or without fusion) at the level above or below the index discectomy...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Ethan L Fulwood, Doug M Boyer, Richard F Kay
The pterion, on the lateral aspect of the cranium, is where the zygomatic, frontal, sphenoid, squamosal, and parietal bones approach and contact. The configuration of these bones distinguishes New and Old World anthropoids: most extant platyrrhines exhibit contact between the parietal and zygomatic bones, while all known catarrhines exhibit frontal-alisphenoid contact. However, it is thought that early stem-platyrrhines retained the apparently primitive catarrhine condition. Here we re-evaluate the condition of key fossil taxa using μCT (micro-computed tomography) imaging...
November 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
Mădălina-Anca Lazar, Horaţiu Rotaru, Ioana Bâldea, Adina B Boşca, Cristian P Berce, Cristina Prejmerean, Doina Prodan, Radu S Câmpian
This study aims to assess the biocompatibility of new advanced fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) to be used for custom-made cranial implants. Four new formulations of FRC were obtained using polymeric matrices (combinations of monomers bisphenol A glycidylmethacrylate [bis-GMA], urethane dimethacrylate [UDMA], triethylene glycol dimethacrylate [TEGDMA], hydroxyethyl methacrylate [HEMA]) and E-glass fibers (300 g/mp). Every FRC contains 65% E-glass and 35% polymeric matrix. Composition of polymeric matrices are: bis-GMA (21%), TEGDMA (14%) for FRC1; bis-GMA (21%), HEMA (14%) for FRC2; bis-GMA (3...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
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