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Matthew J Mimiaga, Beena Thomas, Kenneth H Mayer, Kristen S Regenauer, Alpana Dange, C Andres Bedoya, Shruta Rawat, Vinoth Balu, Conall O'Cleirigh, Katie B Biello, Vivek Anand, Soumya Swaminathan, Steven A Safren
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India are a key group at risk for HIV acquisition and transmission. They are also an extremely marginalized and stigmatized population, facing immense psychosocial stressors including, but not limited to, stigma, homophobia, discrimination, criminalization, low self-esteem, low self-acceptance, distress, and, as a result, high rates of mental health problems. Although these multi-level psychosocial problems may put MSM at high risk for HIV acquisition and transmission, currently HIV prevention interventions in India do not address them...
July 18, 2018: BMC Public Health
Juan M Leyva-Moral, Maria Feijoo-Cid, David Moriña, Joan A Caylà, Maider Arando, Martí Vall, María Jesús Barbera, Pere Armengol, Alvaro Vives, Gemma Martin-Ezquerra, Mercè Alsina, Patricia García Olalla
This study explored the role of circuit parties on the incidence of gonorrhea among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Barcelona (Spain). Specifically, it aimed to detect cyclic peaks in the number of reported diagnoses of gonorrhea after gay circuit parties. We analyzed monthly cases of gonorrhea reported from January 2007 through December 2016 after the main annual gay circuit parties in Barcelona. We used the integer autoregressive model for time series with discrete values. The performance of the model was tested in heterosexual men and women, in whom the circuit parties could be expected to have no impact...
July 16, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Christian T Bautista, Eyako K Wurapa, Jose L Sanchez
BACKGROUND: In the U.S. military, chlamydia and gonorrhea are common sexually transmitted infections, especially among female service members. The aim of this study was to determine whether the number of gonorrhea diagnoses sustained an increased hazard of chlamydia among military women. METHODS: This population-based study involved an analysis of all female gonorrhea cases in the U.S. Army reported in the Defense Medical Surveillance System between 2006 and 2012...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
Victoria Dolange, Colin P Churchward, Myron Christodoulides, Lori A S Snyder
Antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea is now a reality, as well as the consequences of untreatable infections. Gonococcal eye infections result in blindness if not properly treated; they accounted for the vast majority of infections in children in homes for the blind in the pre-antibiotic era. Neisseria gonorrhoeae infects the eyes of infants born to mothers with gonorrhea and can also infect the eyes of adults. Changes in sexual practices may account for the rise in adult gonococcal eye infections, although some cases seem to have occurred with no associated genital infection...
July 12, 2018: Antibiotics
Miao-Jung Chen, Susan Scheer, Trang Q Nguyen, Robert P Kohn, Sandra K Schwarcz
BACKGROUND: Early syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia but not HIV infections have increased in San Francisco, primarily among men. METHODS: We linked records of persons reported with early syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia to records of persons reported with HIV to measure the proportion and characteristics of San Francisco residents with HIV-sexually transmitted disease (STD) coinfection between 2007 and 2014. We measured trends in HIV coinfection separately for men and women for each STD...
August 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Liben Chen, Dong Jin Shin, Shuyu Zheng, Johan H Melendez, Charlotte Gaydos, Tza-Huei Wang
Multidrug-resistant gonorrhea has become an urgent issue for global public health. As the causative agent of gonorrhea ─ Neisseria gonorrhoeae ─ has been progressively developing resistance to nearly all prescribed antimicrobial drugs, monitoring its antimicrobial resistance on a broader scale has become a crucial agenda for effective antibiotic stewardship. Unfortunately, gold standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) relies on time and labor-intensive phenotypic assays, which lag behind the current diagnostic workflow for N...
July 12, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Alison Ridpath, Harrell Chesson, Julia L Marcus, Robert D Kirkcaldy, Elizabeth Torrone, Sevgi O Aral, Kyle T Bernstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 7, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Mallika Sabharwal, Lisa Masinter, Kingsley N Weaver
BACKGROUND: Barriers to health care service utilization contribute to the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among teens. School-based STI screening programs reach adolescents outside of the clinic-based health care model and schools with school-based health centers (SBHCs) may expedite treatment because of their proximity to the population. This study examined whether students who tested positive for STIs in a school-based screening program had differing times to treatment based on treatment location...
August 2018: Journal of School Health
Wen-Ting Cao, Rui Li, Ju-Ying Ying, Xiao-Li Chi, Xiao-Dong Yu
OBJECTIVES: Gonorrhea remains a major public health concern worldwide. This study aims to explore the spatiotemporal distribution and sociodemographic determinants of gonorrhea rates during 2004-2014 in mainland China. STUDY DESIGN: Space-time scan statistics and spatial panel regression model. METHODS: The gonorrhea infection data and sociodemographic data during 2004-2014 at the provincial level in mainland China were extracted from the China Public Health Science Data Center and China Statistical Yearbooks, respectively...
July 6, 2018: Public Health
Xiang-Sheng Chen, Yue-Ping Yin, Xin-Yu Li
Gonococcal antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a global threat significantly hampering the control of gonorrhea. Many socio-economic, biological, behavioral, and programmatic factors have played an important role in driving the emergence, transmission and spread of gonococcal AMR. However, research to address these scientific and programmatic questions is limited in China. Here we propose a ROADMAP (resistance surveillance, outcomes due to AMR, antibiotic stewardship and application, diagnostic tools, mechanisms of AMR, antimicrobial assessment, and population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics) plan for expanding interdisciplinary collaborations to address the research needs in China...
July 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Adeyimika Titilayo Desmennu, Musibau Ayoade Titiloye, Eme Theodora Owoaje
Background: Street youths are faced with a number of health challenges that could be linked to their exposure to the risk elements, accessing medical care including motivation and /or ignorance to utilise available health care. Objective: This qualitative study therefore aimed at determining the behavioural risks for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and health seeking behaviour of street youths in Ibadan. Methods: Sixteen focus group discussion (FGD) sessions were conducted among 160 street youths aged between 15-24 years...
March 2018: African Health Sciences
Silvia Ratto-Kim, In-Kyu Yoon, Robert M Paris, Jean-Louis Excler, Jerome H Kim, Robert J O'Connell
The US military has been a leading proponent of vaccine development since its founding. General George Washington ordered the entire American army to be variolated against smallpox after recognizing the serious threat that it posed to military operations. He did this on the recommendation from Dr. John Morgan, the physician-in-chief of the American army, who wrote a treatise on variolation in 1776. Although cases of smallpox still occurred, they were far fewer than expected, and it is believed that the vaccination program contributed to victory in the War of Independence...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ryszard A Zielke, Adriana Le Van, Benjamin I Baarda, Marco F Herrera, Christopher J Acosta, Ann E Jerse, Aleksandra E Sikora
Lysozymes are nearly omnipresent as the first line of immune defense against microbes in animals. They exert bactericidal action through antimicrobial peptide activity and peptidoglycan hydrolysis. Gram-negative bacteria developed several weapons to battle lysozymes, including inhibitors of c-type lysozymes in the MliC/PliC family and the Neisseria adhesin complex protein (ACP). Until the recent discovery of ACP, no proteinaceous lysozyme inhibitors were reported for the genus Neisseria, including the important human pathogen N...
July 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Stephanie A Ragland, Marίa V Humbert, Myron Christodoulides, Alison K Criss
The bacterial pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gc) infects mucosal sites rich in antimicrobial proteins, including the bacterial cell wall-degrading enzyme lysozyme. Certain Gram-negative bacteria produce protein inhibitors that bind to and inhibit lysozyme. Here, we identify Ng_1063 as a new inhibitor of lysozyme in Gc, and we define its functions in light of a second, recently identified lysozyme inhibitor, Ng_1981. In silico analyses indicated that Ng_1063 bears sequence and structural homology to MliC-type inhibitors of lysozyme...
July 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Melissa A Habel, Jami S Leichliter, Patricia J Dittus, Ian H Spicknall, Sevgi O Aral
BACKGROUND: Heterosexual anal and oral sex are related to the acquisition and transmission of STDs. As common reportable STDs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis) in the U.S. are increasing, it is important to understand recent oral and anal sexual behaviors. METHODS: We examined the prevalence and correlates of heterosexual anal and oral sex, associated condom use, and having multiple partners among men and women 15-44 years. RESULTS: Approximately one-third of women and men had ever engaged in anal sex including 11% of adolescents (15-19 years)...
June 29, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Shih-Fen Chen, Jen-Huai Chiang, Chung-Y Hsu, Yu-Chih Shen
OBJECTIVES: In Taiwan, there has been a growing emphasis on physical health screening, health education and improving access to treatment in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). However, sexual health needs, including screening and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI), are neglected in this population. The study aimed to investigate the association between SCZ and the subsequent incident STI and to examine potential risk factors. METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, 58,948 SCZ patients and 235,784 controls matched by gender and age were enrolled between 2000 and 2010 and followed until the end of 2011...
June 25, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Kathleen Nudel, Ryan McClure, Matthew Moreau, Emma Briars, A Jeanine Abrams, Brian Tjaden, Xiao-Hong Su, David Trees, Peter A Rice, Paola Massari, Caroline A Genco
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a bacterial pathogen responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of N. gonorrhoeae worldwide has resulted in limited therapeutic choices for this infection. Men who seek treatment often have symptomatic urethritis; in contrast, gonococcal cervicitis in women is usually minimally symptomatic, but may progress to pelvic inflammatory disease. Previously, we reported the first analysis of gonococcal transcriptome expression determined in secretions from women with cervical infection...
August 29, 2018: MSphere
Vidisha Singh, Richard A Crosby, Beau Gratzer, Pamina M Gorbach, Lauri Markowitz, Elissa Meites
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). National guidelines recommend that MSM receive HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia screening at least annually, and hepatitis A and B and human papillomavirus vaccinations. We investigated associations between disclosure of male-male sexual orientation/behavior and receipt of this panel of services. METHODS: Gay, bisexual and other MSM aged 18-26 years were enrolled from health clinics serving lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities in Los Angeles and Chicago during 2012-2014...
June 25, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Helen Wood, Sajni Gudka
Introduction: Sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening is a crucial initiative that aims to reduce the increasing global prevalence of many common STIs such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Many STIs are either asymptomatic or show mild symptoms that are often attributed to other infections; hence, screening is the only way to identify - and by extension, treat - them. In this way, the spread of STIs can be reduced, and the health implications of an untreated STI are minimized...
2018: Integrated Pharmacy Research and Practice
Thekla F Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Sonja N Brilleslijper-Kater, Marc A Benninga, Ramón J L Lindauer, Arianne H Teeuw
Recognizing child sexual abuse (CSA) in children is difficult, as there can be many hurdles in the assessment of alleged CSA. With this paper, we try to improve the recognition of CSA by discussing: (1) the difficulties regarding this matter and (2) the diagnostic evaluation of alleged CSA, combining both practical clinical recommendations based on recent research. Children are restrained to disclose CSA due to various reasons, such as fears, shame, and linguistic or verbal limitations. Associations between CSA and urogenital or gastrointestinal symptoms, internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and atypical sexual behavior in children have been reported...
June 25, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
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