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Rajarsi Mandal, Yasin Şenbabaoğlu, Alexis Desrichard, Jonathan J Havel, Martin G Dalin, Nadeem Riaz, Ken-Wing Lee, Ian Ganly, A Ari Hakimi, Timothy A Chan, Luc G T Morris
Recent clinical trials have demonstrated a clear survival advantage in advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients treated with immune checkpoint blockade. These emerging results reveal that HNSCC is one of the most promising frontiers for immunotherapy research. However, further progress in head and neck immuno-oncology will require a detailed understanding of the immune infiltrative landscape found in these tumors. We leveraged transcriptome data from 280 tumors profiled by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to comprehensively characterize the immune landscape of HNSCC in order to develop a rationale for immunotherapeutic strategies in HNSCC and guide clinical investigation...
October 20, 2016: JCI Insight
Vanaja Konduri, Dali Li, Matthew M Halpert, Dan Liang, Zhengdong Liang, Yunyu Chen, William E Fisher, Silke Paust, Jonathan M Levitt, Qizhi Cathy Yao, William K Decker
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, exhibiting a five-year overall survival (OS) of only 7% despite aggressive standard of care. Recent advances in immunotherapy suggest potential application of immune-based treatment approaches to PDAC. To explore this concept further, we treated orthotopically established K-ras(G12D)/p53(-/-) PDAC tumors with gemcitabine and a cell-based vaccine previously shown to generate durable cell-mediated (TH1) immunity...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Jason Miska, Aida Rashidi, Alan L Chang, Megan E Muroski, Yu Han, Lingjiao Zhang, Maciej S Lesniak
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are potently immunosuppressive cells that accumulate within the glioma microenvironment. The reduction in their function and/or trafficking has been previously shown to enhance survival in preclinical models of glioma. Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) is a tumor necrosis factor superfamily receptor enriched on Tregs that has shown promise as a target for immunotherapy. An agonistic antibody against GITR has been demonstrated to inhibit Tregs in a number of models and has only been recently addressed in glioma...
October 12, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Sanjay B Rathod, Anuradha S Tripathy
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Literature on the role of Regulatory T cells (Tregs) in acute viral infections is limited. Having established that the Tregs in self-limiting hepatitis E infection are elevated and functional, this study has focused on characterizing the specificity, phenotypes and identifying the molecules or factors responsible for enhancement of Treg cells and abrogation of Treg-mediated suppression in hepatitis E. METHODS: HEV rORF2p specific (a) Treg frequency, subset analysis and expression of surface and intracellular markers on Tregs and CFSE based functional analysis by flow cytometry (b) key cytokines quantification by multiplex (c) suppressive functional assay in the presence of anti-TGF-β1 or anti-IL-10 or both antibodies or Transwell insert or in combination were performed on samples from 58 acute patients (AVH-E), 45 recovered individuals from hepatitis E and 55 controls...
October 6, 2016: Human Immunology
Chad Tang, James W Welsh, Patricia de Groot, Erminia Massarelli, Joe Y Chang, Kenneth R Hess, Sreyashi Basu, Michael A Curran, Maria E Cabanillas, Vivek Subbiah, Siqing Fu, Apostolia M Tsimberidou, Daniel Karp, Daniel R Gomez, Adi Diab, Ritsuko Komaki, Padmanee Sharma, Aung Naing, David S Hong
PURPOSE: Little prospective data is available on clinical outcomes and immune correlates from combination radiation and immunotherapy. We conducted a phase I trial (NCT02239900) testing stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) with ipilimumab. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: SABR was given either concurrently (1 day after the first dose) or sequentially (1 week after the second dose) with ipilimumab (3 mg/kg every 3 weeks for 4 doses) to 5 treatment groups: concurrent 50 Gy (in 4 fractions) to liver; sequential 50 Gy (in 4 fractions) to liver; concurrent 50 Gy (in 4 fractions) to lung; sequential 50 Gy (in 4 fractions) to lung; and sequential 60 Gy (in 10 fractions) to lung or liver...
September 20, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Yuya Yoshida, Norihisa Mikami, Yuki Matsushima, Mai Miyawaki, Hiroki Endo, Rie Banno, Takumi Tsuji, Tetsuro Fujita, Takeyuki Kohno
INTRODUCTION: Combination treatment with fingolimod (FTY720) plus pathogenic antigen is thought to prevent glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI)325-339-induced arthritis progression by effective induction of immune tolerance. Here, we examined the efficacy of this combination treatment on remission maintenance. METHODS: GPI325-339-induced arthritis mice were treated for 5 days with FTY720 (1.0 mg/kg, p.o.) alone, GPI325-339 (10 μg/mouse, i.v.) alone, or with the FTY720 plus GPI325-339 combination...
September 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Helioswilton Sales-Campos, Patrícia R de Souza, Paulo J Basso, Viviani Nardini, Angelica Silva, Fernanda Banquieri, Vanessa B F Alves, Javier E L Chica, Auro Nomizo, Cristina R B Cardoso
The clinical benefits of short-term therapy with glucocorticoids (GC) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are widely known. However, the effects of this treatment towards the re-establishment of the regulatory network in IBD are not fully explored. We have evaluated the immunological effects of the abbreviated GC therapy in experimental colitis induced by 3% dextran sulphate sodium in C57BL/6 mice. Treatment with GC improved disease outcome, constrained circulating leucocytes and ameliorated intestinal inflammation...
September 12, 2016: Immunology
Sheikh Fayaz Ahmad, Mushtaq Ahmad Ansari, Ahmed Nadeem, Khairy M A Zoheir, Saleh A Bakheet, Othman A Al-Shabanah, Ammar Cherkess Al Rikabi, Sabry M Attia
Protein tyrosine kinases are key mediators of the signal transduction cascades that control expression of many genes involved in the induction of inflammation caused by arthritis. Here we investigate the effect of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostin AG126 on a mouse model of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). We report that when given at 5mg/kg i.p. every 48h from days 0-21, AG126 exerts potent anti-arthritic effects. Further, we investigated the role of AG126 on the key mediators of arthritic inflammation, namely, edema, arthritic score, presence of immunophenotypes including Foxp3(+), CD4(+)Foxp3(+), and CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T regulatory (Treg) cells, as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators...
October 2016: Molecular Immunology
Deborah A Knee, Becker Hewes, Jennifer L Brogdon
Over the past decade, our understanding of cancer immunotherapy has evolved from assessing peripheral responses in the blood to monitoring changes in the tumour microenvironment. Both preclinical and clinical experience has taught us that modulation of the tumour microenvironment has significant implications to generating robust antitumour immunity. Clinical benefit has been well documented to correlate with a tumour microenvironment that contains a dense infiltration of CD8(+)CD45RO(+) T effectors and a high ratio of CD8(+) T cells to FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
November 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Tzu-Yu Shao, Ling-Hui Hsu, Chien-Hui Chien, Bor-Luen Chiang
Recent studies have revealed various Foxp3(-) regulatory T (Treg) cell subsets effectively protect mice from colitis. In the present study, we demonstrated that B cells induced a particular subset of regulatory T (Treg-of-B) cells, expressing programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), inducible costimulator (ICOS), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3), glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR), and OX-40, did not express Foxp3. Treg-of-B cells produced abundant levels of IL-10 and low levels of IL-4 and TGF-β...
2016: Scientific Reports
Tomoya Hirota, Hiroto Tsuboi, Mana Iizuka-Koga, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Hiromitsu Asashima, Masahiro Yokosawa, Yuya Kondo, Masaru Ohta, Yuhya Wakasa, Isao Matsumoto, Fumio Takaiwa, Takayuki Sumida
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of transgenic rice seeds expressing the altered peptide ligand (APL) of human glucose-6-phosphate-isomerase (hGPI325-339) in mice model of GPI induced arthritis (GIA). METHODS: We generated transgenic rice expressing T-cell epitope of hGPI325-339 and APL12 and contained in the seed endosperm. The transgenic rice seeds were orally administered prophylactically before the induction of GIA. The severity of arthritis and titers of serum anti-GPI antibodies were evaluated...
August 19, 2016: Modern Rheumatology
Walter Miguel Turato, Helioswilton Sales-Campos, Camila Bitu Moreno Braga, Selma Freire Carvalho Cunha, José Henrique Silvah, João Santana da Silva, Julio Sergio Marchini, Cristina Ribeiro Barros de Cardoso
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by a massive intestinal loss after surgery resection. Likewise, disturbances involving the intestine, which represents a complex immune environment, may result in breakdown of homeostasis and altered responses, thus leading to unpredictable clinical outcomes. However, the consequences of bowel resection were poorly investigated until now. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the immunological status of SBS-patients. For this purpose, ten subjects and nine healthy controls were evaluated...
July 30, 2016: Human Immunology
Lena Wyss, Brian D Stadinski, Carolyn G King, Sonja Schallenberg, Nicholas I McCarthy, Jun Young Lee, Karsten Kretschmer, Luigi M Terracciano, Graham Anderson, Charles D Surh, Eric S Huseby, Ed Palmer
The manner in which regulatory T cells (Treg cells) control lymphocyte homeostasis is not fully understood. We identified two Treg cell populations with differing degrees of self-reactivity and distinct regulatory functions. We found that GITR(hi)PD-1(hi)CD25(hi) (Triple(hi)) Treg cells were highly self-reactive and controlled lympho-proliferation in peripheral lymph nodes. GITR(lo)PD-1(lo)CD25(lo) (Triple(lo)) Treg cells were less self-reactive and limited the development of colitis by promoting the conversion of CD4(+) Tconv cells into induced Treg cells (iTreg cells)...
September 2016: Nature Immunology
Il-Kyu Kim, Yeonseok Chung, Chang-Yuil Kang
TH9 cells have been implicated in triggering antitumor immunity. We have identified that GITR co-stimulation inhibits iTreg cell generation but drives TH9 cell differentiation, thereby suppressing tumor growth via enhancing the function of DCs and CTLs in vivo. Our findings provide novel mechanisms by which GITR agonists exert antitumor activity.
May 2016: Oncoimmunology
Ying Zhang, Sabrina Mühlen, Clare V Oates, Jaclyn S Pearson, Elizabeth L Hartland
The type III secretion system effector protein NleE from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli plays a key role in the inhibition of NF-κB activation during infection. NleE inactivates the ubiquitin chain binding activity of host proteins TAK1-binding proteins 2 and 3 (TAB2 and TAB3) by modifying the Npl4 zinc finger domain through S-adenosyl methionine-dependent cysteine methylation. Using yeast two-hybrid protein interaction studies, we found that a conserved region between amino acids 34 and 52 of NleE, in particular the motif (49)GITR(52), was critical for TAB2 and TAB3 binding...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Svenja Meiler, Esther Smeets, Holger Winkels, Annelie Shami, Maria Fernanda Pascutti, Martijn A Nolte, Linda Beckers, Christian Weber, Norbert Gerdes, Esther Lutgens
OBJECTIVE: Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related protein (GITR) is expressed on CD4(+) effector memory T cells and regulatory T cells; however, its role on these functionally opposing cell types in atherosclerosis is not fully understood. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice (Ldlr(-/-)) were lethally irradiated and reconstituted with either bone marrow from B-cell-restricted Gitrl transgenic mice or from wild-type controls and fed a high-cholesterol diet for 11 weeks...
September 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Joerg U Schmohl, Tina Nuebling, Julia Wild, Tanja Kroell, Lothar Kanz, Helmut R Salih, Helga Schmetzer
Costimulatory ligands (COLs) and their receptors (COR) regulate immune reactions and cellular survival and might be relevant in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This study evaluated the clinical relevance of 4-1BBL, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) and ligand (GITRL), CD80, and CD86 in case of expression on AML blasts. 98 patients were evaluated at initial diagnosis. Immunophenotypically evaluated specific fluorescence index (SFI) levels of COR and COL on blasts were correlated with morphological, cytogenetic, and several prognostic parameters...
July 7, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
B S Kim, J Y Kim, E J Kim, J G Lee, D J Joo, K H Huh, M S Kim, Y S Kim
BACKGROUND: Thalidomide (TM) is known to have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties; however, its mechanism on T cells is still unclear. We previously showed the immune modulatory effect of TM on T cells and its therapeutic effect on lupus nephritis models. Here we examined the changes in the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamilies (TNFRSFs), including OX40, 4-1BB, and glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) in T cell subsets by TM treatments. METHODS: Splenic naïve T cells (Tnaives) from C57BL/6 mice were sort-purified and cultured for CD4(+) T cell proliferation and regulatory T cells (Tregs) conversion with TM treatments...
May 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Raquel M Gonçalves-Lopes, Nathália F Lima, Karina I Carvalho, Kézia K G Scopel, Esper G Kallás, Marcelo U Ferreira
Several CD4(+) T cell subtypes contribute to immune homeostasis in malaria, but the markers that define the main suppressive T cell subsets induced by this infection remain largely unknown. Here we provide a detailed phenotypic characterization of immunoregulatory CD4(+) T cell populations in uncomplicated human malaria. We found an increased proportion of CD4(+) T cells expressing CTLA-4, OX40, GITR, TNFRII, and CD69 in acute-phase single-species infections with Plasmodium vivax, P. falciparum, or both. Such an increase was not proportional to parasite density in P...
June 16, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Dirk Jäger, Niels Halama, Inka Zörnig, Paula Klug, Jürgen Krauss, Georg-Martin Haag
It is known that the immune response, reflected by high T cell infiltrates in primary tumors and metastases, influences the clinical course of colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, immunotherapy concepts have been adapted from other tumor entities, which typically rely on the activation of T cells in the tumor microenvironment (e.g. blockade of the immune checkpoint molecules PD-1 and CTLA-4). However, most of the strategies using the approved checkpoint inhibitors and/or combination strategies have more or less failed to produce impressive results in early phase trials in CRC...
2016: Oncology Research and Treatment
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