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Insulinoma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071719/quantitative-proteomic-profiling-of-the-extracellular-matrix-of-pancreatic-islets-during-the-angiogenic-switch-and-insulinoma-progression
#1
Alexandra Naba, Karl R Clauser, D R Mani, Steven A Carr, Richard O Hynes
The angiogenic switch, the time at which a tumor becomes vascularized, is a critical step in tumor progression. Indeed, without blood supply, tumors will fail to grow beyond 1 mm(3) and are unlikely to disseminate. The extracellular matrix (ECM), a major component of the tumor microenvironment, is known to undergo significant changes during angiogenesis and tumor progression. However the extent of these changes remains unknown. In this study, we used quantitative proteomics to profile the composition of the ECM of pancreatic islets in a mouse model of insulinoma characterized by a precisely timed angiogenic switch...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049845/rest-corepressors-rcor1-and-rcor2-and-the-repressor-insm1-regulate-the-proliferation-differentiation-balance-in-the-developing-brain
#2
Caitlin E Monaghan, Tamilla Nechiporuk, Sophia Jeng, Shannon K McWeeney, Jianxun Wang, Michael G Rosenfeld, Gail Mandel
The transcriptional events that lead to the cessation of neural proliferation, and therefore enable the production of proper numbers of differentiated neurons and glia, are still largely uncharacterized. Here, we report that the transcription factor Insulinoma-associated 1 (INSM1) forms complexes with RE1 Silencing Transcription factor (REST) corepressors RCOR1 and RCOR2 in progenitors in embryonic mouse brain. Mice lacking both RCOR1 and RCOR2 in developing brain die perinatally and generate an abnormally high number of neural progenitors at the expense of differentiated neurons and oligodendrocyte precursor cells...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025655/targets-and-probes-for-non-invasive-imaging-of-%C3%AE-cells
#3
REVIEW
Andreas Jodal, Roger Schibli, Martin Béhé
β-cells, located in the islets of the pancreas, are responsible for production and secretion of insulin and play a crucial role in blood sugar regulation. Pathologic β-cells often cause serious medical conditions affecting blood glucose level, which severely impact life quality and are life-threatening if untreated. With 347 million patients, diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases, and will continue to be one of the largest socioeconomic challenges in the future. The diagnosis still relies mainly on indirect methods like blood sugar measurements...
December 26, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008090/scaling-it-down-new-in-vitro-tools-to-get-the-balance-right
#4
Emma K Biggs, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann
Treatments for diabetes and obesity based on enteroendocrine hormones are a focus of research interest, partly due to the successes of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetic peptides in the treatment of diabetes and the correlation of altered enteroendocrine profiles with the positive metabolic outcomes of gastric bypass surgery. It is thought that simultaneous stimulation of more than one receptor might mimic the superior efficacy of the latter and dual or triple-agonist peptides are under investigation. An important step in developing multiple agonists is to establish the relative pharmacological potency and efficacy of new molecules at its different target receptors, and to optimise the balance of activities to achieve the desired treatment outcome...
January 1, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986169/hepatic-steatosis-etiology-patterns-and-quantification
#5
Ilkay S Idilman, Ilknur Ozdeniz, Musturay Karcaaltincaba
Hepatic steatosis can occur because of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholism, chemotherapy, and metabolic, toxic, and infectious causes. Pediatric hepatic steatosis is also becoming more frequent and can have distinctive features. The most common pattern is diffuse form; however, it can present in heterogenous, focal, multinodular, perilesional, perivascular, subcapsular, and lobar forms. Focal steatosis and fat sparing can occur because of the presence of veins of Sappey, pancreaticoduodenal vein, and aberrant right and left gastric veins, which drain into the liver as third inflow...
December 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984486/a-clinicopathological-study-of-malignant-insulinoma-in-a-contemporary-series
#6
Run Yu, Nicholas N Nissen, Andrew Hendifar, Laura Tang, Yu-Li Song, Yuan-Jia Chen, Xuemo Fan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to address the origin and natural history of malignant insulinoma. METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records of patients diagnosed with insulinoma at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center between 2000 and 2015 was conducted. Hormonal expression in tumor specimens was examined by immunostaining. RESULTS: All the 9 patients with malignant insulinoma (35% of 26 patients with insulinoma) already had liver metastasis at hypoglycemia presentation with bulky cumulative tumor burden...
January 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939242/ex4-stabilizes-and-activates-nrf2-via-pkc%C3%AE-contributing-to-the-prevention-of-oxidative-stress-induced-pancreatic-beta-cell-damage
#7
Mi-Hwi Kim, Eung-Hwi Kim, Hye Seung Jung, Dongki Yang, Eun-Young Park, Hee-Sook Jun
Oxidative stress in pancreatic beta cells can inhibit insulin secretion and promote apoptotic cell death. Exendin-4 (EX4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, can suppress beta cell apoptosis, improve beta cell function and protect against oxidative damage. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms for antioxidative effects of EX4 in pancreatic beta cells. INS-1 cells, a rat insulinoma cell line, were pretreated with EX4 and exposed to palmitate or H2O2. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and glutathione and insulin secretion were measured...
December 7, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933175/hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemia-associated-with-insulin-antibodies-caused-by-exogenous-insulin-analog
#8
Chih-Ting Su, Yi-Chun Lin
: Insulin antibodies (IA) associated with exogenous insulin administration seldom caused hypoglycemia and had different characteristics from insulin autoantibodies (IAA) found in insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS), which was first described by Dr Hirata in 1970. The characteristic of IAS is the presence of insulin-binding autoantibodies and related fasting or late postprandial hypoglycemia. Here, we report a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus under insulin glargine and insulin aspart treatment who developed recurrent spontaneous post-absorptive hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia with the cause probably being insulin antibodies induced by exogenous injected insulin...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929662/insulinoma-detection-with-mdct-is-there-a-role-for-whole-pancreas-perfusion
#9
Liang Zhu, Huadan Xue, Hao Sun, Xuan Wang, Wenming Wu, Zhengyu Jin, Yupei Zhao
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of whole-pancreas perfusion in detecting insulinomas with the use of MDCT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2011 to December 2011, a total of 70 consecutive patients (33 men and 37 women; mean age, 46 years; range, 17-73 years) who underwent biphasic contrast-enhanced CT and whole-pancreas CT perfusion for suspected insulinomas were identified retrospectively. Patients were monitored for at least 3 years...
December 8, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927723/coordinated-activation-of-mitochondrial-respiration-and-exocytosis-mediated-by-pkc-signaling-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#10
Jaime Santo-Domingo, Isabelle Chareyron, Loïc Dayon, Antonio Núñez Galindo, Ornella Cominetti, María Pilar Giner Giménez, Umberto De Marchi, Carles Canto, Martin Kussmann, Andreas Wiederkehr
Mitochondria play a central role in pancreatic β-cell nutrient sensing by coupling their metabolism to plasma membrane excitability and insulin granule exocytosis. Whether non-nutrient secretagogues stimulate mitochondria as part of the molecular mechanism to promote insulin secretion is not known. Here, we show that PKC signaling, which is employed by many non-nutrient secretagogues, augments mitochondrial respiration in INS-1E (rat insulinoma cell line clone 1E) and human pancreatic β-cells. The phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, accelerates mitochondrial respiration at both resting and stimulatory glucose concentrations...
December 7, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915035/hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemia-in-children-and-adults
#11
REVIEW
Pratik Shah, Sofia A Rahman, Huseyin Demirbilek, Maria Güemes, Khalid Hussain
Pancreatic β cells are functionally programmed to release insulin in response to changes in plasma glucose concentration. Insulin secretion is precisely regulated so that, under normal physiological conditions, fasting plasma glucose concentrations are kept within a narrow range of 3·5-5·5 mmol/L. In hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia, insulin secretion becomes dysregulated (ie, uncoupled from glucose metabolism) so that insulin secretion persists in the presence of low plasma glucose concentrations. Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia is the most common cause of severe and persistent hypoglycaemia in neonates and children...
November 30, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908529/a-new-marker-insulinoma-associated-protein-1-insm1-for-high-grade-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-uterine-cervix-analysis-of-37-cases
#12
Shiho Kuji, Reiko Watanabe, Yuichi Sato, Takashi Iwata, Yasuyuki Hirashima, Munetaka Takekuma, Ichiro Ito, Masato Abe, Ryo Nagashio, Katsuhiro Omae, Daisuke Aoki, Toru Kameya
OBJECTIVE: High-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of uterine cervix (HGNCUC) has been recognized as a highly malignant tumor. Therapeutic strategy specific to neuroendocrine (NE) tumors needs to be considered, but some cases wouldn't allow simple final diagnoses. Insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1), which is a zinc-finger transcription factor related to NE differentiation, is frequently expressed in NE tumors. We investigated the association between INSM1 and HGNCUC, and the possibility of INSM1 as a useful NE marker...
November 28, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905047/endoscopic-ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspiration-biopsy-eus-fna-in-insulinomas-indications-and-clinical-relevance-in-a-single-investigator-cohort-of-47-patients
#13
Peter Herbert Kann, Roland Moll, Detlef Bartsch, Andreas Pfützner, Thomas Forst, Gianluca Tamagno, Joachim N Goebel, Verena Fourkiotis, Simona Raluca Bergmann, Maike Collienne
PURPOSE: This study was aimed to investigate the role and relevance of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnostic work-up of insulinomas. METHODS: We have analysed the frequency, clinical indications, success rate (obtaining diagnostic tissue), diagnostic accuracy (in comparison to the pathological diagnosis after surgery), complications, and tolerability of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy and the localization and size of the lesions in 47 consecutive patients (29 females, 18 males; 46 ± 15 years) who had surgery for insulinoma following fasting test and were explored by single investigator EUS 1994-2015...
November 30, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890288/ferret-oncology-diseases-diagnostics-and-therapeutics
#14
REVIEW
Nico J Schoemaker
Neoplastic disease is common in ferrets. Approximately half of all tumors diagnosed in ferrets are located in the endocrine or hemolymphatic system. Many factors may influence the choice of treatment. Medical management of adrenal tumors has a greater disease-free period compared to adrenalectomy. In ferrets with an insulinoma, no difference is seen in the mean survival time of medically and surgically treated patients. Aside from medical and surgical treatment modalities, chemotherapy and radiation therapy have also been described in ferrets in other types of tumors...
January 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887024/insulinoma-or-non-insulinoma-pancreatogenous-hypoglycemia-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#15
Blaire Anderson, Jordan Nostedt, Safwat Girgis, Tara Dixon, Veena Agrawal, Edward Wiebe, Peter A Senior, A M James Shapiro
Insulinoma is the most common cause of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in adults. An alternate etiology, non-insulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia (NIPH), is rare. Clinically, NIPH is characterized by postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, negative 72-h fasts, negative preoperative localization studies for insulinoma and positive selective arterial calcium infusion tests. Histologically, diffuse islet hyperplasia with increased number and size of islet cells is present and confirms the diagnosis...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882732/double-pancreatic-tumors-in-an-adolescent-imaging-features
#16
Shino Odagiri, Daisuke Tokuhara, Satsuki Nishigaki, Yuki Cho, Haruo Shintaku
Insulinoma is generally identified as a single tumor and seldom occurs in children or adolescents. A 14-year-old girl with difficulty in waking was found to have hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. On abdominal ultrasonography two hypoechoic masses (8 and 12 mm in diameter) were seen in the pancreatic body: the larger mass was hypervascular, whereas the smaller one was hypovascular. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed enhancement of the larger mass, but did not delineate the smaller mass. On fat-suppressed T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, the larger mass was hypointense, but the smaller mass was hyperintense...
November 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881117/novel-prokaryotic-expression-of-thioredoxin-fused-insulinoma-associated-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-2-ia-2-its-characterization-and-immunodiagnostic-application
#17
Luciano Lucas Guerra, Natalia Inés Faccinetti, Aldana Trabucchi, Bruno David Rovitto, Adriana Victoria Sabljic, Edgardo Poskus, Ruben Francisco Iacono, Silvina Noemí Valdez
BACKGROUND: The insulinoma associated protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (IA-2) is one of the immunodominant autoantigens involved in the autoimmune attack to the beta-cell in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. In this work we have developed a complete and original process for the production and recovery of the properly folded intracellular domain of IA-2 fused to thioredoxin (TrxIA-2ic) in Escherichia coli GI698 and GI724 strains. We have also carried out the biochemical and immunochemical characterization of TrxIA-2icand design variants of non-radiometric immunoassays for the efficient detection of IA-2 autoantibodies (IA-2A)...
November 24, 2016: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877081/p-selectin-mediated-lox-expression-promotes-insulinoma-growth-in-rip1-tag2-mice-by-increasing-tissue-stiffness
#18
Cuiling Qi, Jialin Li, Simei Guo, Mengshi Li, Yuanyuan Li, Jiangchao Li, Qianqian Zhang, Lingyun Zheng, Xiaodong He, Xiaoming Zheng, Yanli He, Lijing Wang, Bo Wei
P-selectin, a cell adhesion molecule, is an important member of the selectin family. Recent studies have shown that P-selectin deletion inhibits tumor growth in Rip1-Tag2 mice by suppressing platelet accumulation in tumor tissues. This study aimed to evaluate whether and how P-selectin affects tumor stiffness in Rip1-Tag2 mice. To explore the role of P-selectin in tissue stiffness, we demonstrated that tumor progression in Rip1-Tag2 mice was correlated with tissue stiffness using immunofluorescence and histological staining...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869295/-noninvasive-assessment-of-tissue-engineered-graft-viability-by-oxygen-17-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#19
Samuel A Einstein, Bradley P Weegman, Jennifer P Kitzmann, Klearchos K Papas, Michael Garwood
Transplantation of macroencapsulated tissue-engineered grafts (TEGs) is being investigated as a treatment for type 1 diabetes, but there is a critical need to measure TEG viability both in vitro and in vivo. Oxygen deficiency is the most critical issue preventing widespread implementation of TEG transplantation and delivery of supplemental oxygen (DSO) has been shown to enhance TEG survival and function in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate the first use of oxygen-17 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((17) O-MRS) to measure the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of TEGs and show that in addition to providing therapeutic benefits to TEGs, DSO with (17) O2 can also enable measurements of TEG viability...
November 21, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864816/giant-insulinoma-report-of-a-case-and-review-of-published-reports
#20
Kazumitsu Ueda, Tetsuro Taira, Hiroyuki Hakoda, Shoko Nakata, Shinya Okata, Takeshi Nagai, Shigeo Aoki, Hideyuki Mishima, Akihiko Sako, Tsunehiko Maruyama, Minoru Okumura
BACKGROUND: Larger insulinomas are reportedly more likely to be malignant; however, their biological behavior has not been clearly elucidated. We here report the characteristics and treatment of a giant insulinoma with local invasion and lymph node metastasis. We also review published reports concerning the clinical features of giant insulinomas and comparing their grading with that of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old man was referred to our hospital for investigation of persistent hypoglycemia...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
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