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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140463/anatomic-investigation-of-the-trajectory-for-stereotactic-laser-amygdalohippocampectomy
#1
Vanessa M Holanda, Abuzer Gungor, Serhat Baydin, Erik H Middlebrooks, Shabbar F Danish
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) has emerged as a promising treatment for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Surgeons must understand the relevant anatomy that is traversed by the catheter and affected by ablation. OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomic structures crossed by the LITT catheter until it reaches the amygdala. METHODS: Three human cadaveric heads were implanted with catheters using a frameless stereotactic technique...
November 11, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105051/tumour-bed-boost-radiotherapy-for-women-after-breast-conserving-surgery
#2
REVIEW
Isabelle Kindts, Annouschka Laenen, Tom Depuydt, Caroline Weltens
BACKGROUND: Breast-conserving therapy, involving breast-conserving surgery followed by whole-breast irradiation and optionally a boost to the tumour bed, is a standard therapeutic option for women with early-stage breast cancer. A boost to the tumour bed means that an extra dose of radiation is applied that covers the initial tumour site. The rationale for a boost of radiotherapy to the tumour bed is that (i) local recurrence occurs mostly at the site of the primary tumour because remaining microscopic tumour cells are most likely situated there; and (ii) radiation can eliminate these causative microscopic tumour cells...
November 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991813/using-discrete-event-simulation-to-promote-quality-improvement-and-efficiency-in-a-radiation-oncology-treatment-center
#3
Robin M Famiglietti, Emily C Norboge, Valentine Boving, James R Langabeer, Thomas A Buchholz, Osama Mikhail
BACKGROUND: To meet demand for radiation oncology services and ensure patient-centered safe care, management in an academic radiation oncology department initiated quality improvement efforts using discrete-event simulation (DES). Although the long-term goal was testing and deploying solutions, the primary aim at the outset was characterizing and validating a computer simulation model of existing operations to identify targets for improvement. METHODS: The adoption and validation of a DES model of processes and procedures affecting patient flow and satisfaction, employee experience, and efficiency were undertaken in 2012-2013...
October 2017: Quality Management in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963700/enterocutaneous-fistulas-a-primer-for-radiologists-with-emphasis-on-ct-and-mri
#4
REVIEW
Massimo Tonolini, Paolo Magistrelli
Enterocutaneous fistulas (ECFs) represent abnormal communications between the gastrointestinal tract and the skin. Nowadays, the majority (~80%) of ECFs develops secondary to abdominal surgeries; alternative, less common causes include chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn's disease, tumours, and radiation enteritis in descending order of frequency. These rare disorders require thorough patient assessment and multidisciplinary management to limit the associated morbidity and mortality. This pictorial review includes an overview of causes, clinical manifestations, complications and management of ECFs...
September 29, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922698/survival-improvements-with-adjuvant-therapy-in-patients-with-glioblastoma
#5
Dasantha Jayamanne, Helen Wheeler, Raymond Cook, Charles Teo, David Brazier, Geoff Schembri, Marina Kastelan, Linxin Guo, Michael F Back
BACKGROUND: Evaluate survival of patients diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) managed with adjuvant intensity modulated radiation therapy and temozolomide since the introduction of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer and National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group (EORTC-NCIC) protocol. METHODS: All patients with GBM managed between May 2007 and December 2014 with EORTC-NCIC protocol were entered into a prospective database...
September 18, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867544/standardization-of-radiation-therapy-dose-for-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-through-changes-to-a-lung-cancer-clinical-pathway-in-a-large-integrated-comprehensive-cancer-center-network
#6
Pooja Karukonda, Brian J Gebhardt, Zachary D Horne, Dwight E Heron, Sushil Beriwal
PURPOSE: The results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0617, which randomized patients with stages IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to definitive chemoradiation therapy to 60 Gy versus 74 Gy, demonstrated a detrimental survival impact with high-dose radiation therapy. We evaluated the impact of changes to a provider-driven clinical pathway (CP) guiding management of NSCLC on practice throughout our cancer center network. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In 2001, we implemented a CP for management of stage IIIA/IIIB NSCLC with definitive chemoradiation therapy...
July 8, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866546/understanding-the-relationship-between-interactive-optimisation-and-visual-analytics-in-the-context-of-prostate-brachytherapy
#7
Jie Liu, Tim Dwyer, Kim Marriott, Jeremy Millar, Annette Haworth
The fields of operations research and computer science have long sought to find automatic solver techniques that can find high-quality solutions to difficult real-world optimisation problems. The traditional workflow is to exactly model the problem and then enter this model into a general-purpose "black-box" solver. In practice, however, many problems cannot be solved completely automatically, but require a "human-in-the-loop" to iteratively refine the model and give hints to the solver. In this paper, we explore the parallels between this interactive optimisation workflow and the visual analytics sense-making loop...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835092/management-of-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-site-gastric-ulcer-in-a-patient-with-an-esophageal-stricture-and-hiatus-hernia
#8
Clement C H Wu, James W Li, Keng Sin Ng, Daphne S Ang
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is commonly performed for feeding difficulties, in patients suffering from complications of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and its treatment, namely radiotherapy and surgery. This case report describes the challenges in hemostasis and subsequent re-establishment of enteral access for feeding, in an elderly patient with a history of NPC, treated surgically, followed by radiotherapy, who presented with massive hematemesis following reinsertion of her PEG shortly after an accidental dislodgement...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832173/-radiation-necrosis-in-the-upper-cervical-spinal-cord-in-a-patient-treated-with-proton-therapy-after-radical-resection-of-the-fourth-ventricle-ependymoma
#9
J Mraček, J Mork, T Svoboda, J Ferda, V Přibáň
BACKGROUND: Radiation necrosis in eloquent areas of the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the most serious forms of toxicity from radiation therapy. The occurrence of radiation necrosis in the CNS is described in a wide range of 3 months to 13 years after radiation therapy. The incidence of this complication covers a wide range of 3-47%. The potential advantage of proton therapy is the ability to reduce dose to normal tissue and escalate tumor dose. Proton beams enter and pass through the tissue with minimal dose deposition until they reach the end of their paths, where the peak of dose, known as the Bragg peak, occurs...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818953/new-horizons-for-precision-medicine-in-biliary-tract-cancers
#10
REVIEW
Juan W Valle, Angela Lamarca, Lipika Goyal, Jorge Barriuso, Andrew X Zhu
Biliary tract cancers (BTC), including cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, are poor-prognosis and low-incidence cancers, although the incidence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is rising. A minority of patients present with resectable disease but relapse rates are high; benefit from adjuvant capecitabine chemotherapy has been demonstrated. Cisplatin/gemcitabine combination chemotherapy has emerged as the reference first-line treatment regimen; there is no standard second-line therapy. Selected patients may be suitable for liver-directed therapy (e...
September 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798812/clinical-epidemiological-and-therapeutic-profile-of-patients-with-a-retinoblastoma-diagnosis-experience-in-the-costa-rica-national-children-s-hospital-oncology-unit-from-january-2009-to-december-2015
#11
Jennie Chen Lo, Carlos Rodríguez, Rigoberto Monestel, Arnoldo Zúñiga
INTRODUCTION: Retinoblastoma represents only 3% of paediatric cancers, but it is the most prevalent intraocular tumour in this population. It develops in the retina as a primitive neuroectodermal tumour that affects development during gestation. The tumour presents in two different forms depending on whether or not it expresses a genetic modification. For patients diagnosed at preschool age, 75% are unilateral non-hereditary cases. While enucleation is the preferred treatment for advanced stages of the tumour, other modalities, such as systemic and intraocular chemotherapy, radiotherapy and local treatments with thermotherapy, cryotherapy, and brachytherapy can be used to try to preserve the eye...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751442/towards-precision-radiotherapy-for-use-with-immune-checkpoint-blockers
#12
Claire Vanpouille-Box, Silvia C Formenti, Sandra Demaria
The first evidence that radiation therapy (RT) enhances the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) was obtained a dozen years ago in a mouse model of metastatic carcinoma refractory to anti-CTLA-4 treatment. At the time, ICBs had just entered clinical testing, an endeavor that culminated in 2011 with the approval of the first anti-CTLA-4 antibody for use in metastatic melanoma patients (ipilimumab). Thereafter, some patients progressing on ipilimumab showed systemic responses only upon receiving radiation to one lesion, confirming clinically the pro-immunogenic effects of radiation...
July 27, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749742/computed-tomographic-evaluation-of-posttreatment-soft-tissue-changes-by-using-a-lymphedema-scoring-system-in-patients-with-oral-cancer
#13
Masaya Akashi, Shun Teraoka, Yasumasa Kakei, Junya Kusumoto, Takumi Hasegawa, Tsutomu Minamikawa, Kazunobu Hashikawa, Takahide Komori
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate posttreatment soft-tissue changes in patients with oral cancer with computed tomography (CT). To accomplish that purpose, a scoring system was established, referring to the criteria of lower leg lymphedema (LE). METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and six necks in 95 patients who underwent oral oncologic surgery with neck dissection (ND) were analyzed retrospectively using routine follow-up CT images. A two-point scoring system to evaluate soft-tissue changes (so-called "LE score") was established as follows: Necks with a "honeycombing" appearance were assigned 1 point...
July 27, 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740896/the-big-data-effort-in-radiation-oncology-data-mining-or-data-farming
#14
REVIEW
Charles S Mayo, Marc L Kessler, Avraham Eisbruch, Grant Weyburne, Mary Feng, James A Hayman, Shruti Jolly, Issam El Naqa, Jean M Moran, Martha M Matuszak, Carlos J Anderson, Lynn P Holevinski, Daniel L McShan, Sue M Merkel, Sherry L Machnak, Theodore S Lawrence, Randall K Ten Haken
Although large volumes of information are entered into our electronic health care records, radiation oncology information systems and treatment planning systems on a daily basis, the goal of extracting and using this big data has been slow to emerge. Development of strategies to meet this goal is aided by examining issues with a data farming instead of a data mining conceptualization. Using this model, a vision of key data elements, clinical process changes, technology issues and solutions, and role for professional societies is presented...
October 2016: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735719/treatment-with-chemotherapy-and-cognitive-functioning-in-older-adult-cancer-survivors
#15
Ruth T Morin, Elizabeth Midlarsky
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether treatment of cancer with chemotherapy, as compared with surgery and radiation, differentially affects cognitive functioning in older adults. DESIGN: Latent class growth analysis approach. SETTING: Health and Retirement Study. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults (N=403) with a new diagnosis of cancer who were still alive 4 years after their diagnosis. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable...
July 20, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714110/poly-vinylpyrollidone-and-selenocysteine-modified-bi2-se3-nanoparticles-enhance-radiotherapy-efficacy-in-tumors-and-promote-radioprotection-in-normal-tissues
#16
Jiangfeng Du, Zhanjun Gu, Liang Yan, Yuan Yong, Xuan Yi, Xiao Zhang, Jing Liu, Renfei Wu, Cuicui Ge, Chunying Chen, Yuliang Zhao
The development of a new generation of nanoscaled radiosensitizers that can not only enhance radiosensitization of tumor tissues, but also increase radioresistance of healthy tissue is highly desirable, but remains a great challenge. Here, this paper reports a new versatile theranostics based on poly(vinylpyrollidone)- and selenocysteine-modified Bi2 Se3 nanoparicles (PVP-Bi2 Se3 @Sec NPs) for simultaneously enhancing radiotherapeutic effects and reducing the side-effects of radiation. The as-prepared nanoparticles exhibit significantly enhanced free-radical generation upon X-ray radiation, and remarkable photothermal effects under 808 nm NIR laser irradiation because of their strong X-ray attenuation ability and high NIR absorption capability...
September 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699409/review-of-the-effectiveness-of-enteral-feeding-in-pediatric-oncology-patients-formula-see-text
#17
Kaleena Trimpe, Michele R Shaw, Marian Wilson, Mel R Haberman
Enteral supplementation for nutritional support in pediatric oncology patients remains nonstandardized across institutions and between providers. Pediatric oncology patients frequently fail to meet their growth curve percentiles, lose weight, and/or are malnourished due to both the oncologic process as well as side effects from chemotherapy and radiation treatments. Methods of increasing weight include enteral feeding (nasogastric, nasoduodenal/jejunal, or gastrostomy), parenteral intravenous feeding, and oral supplementation...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697385/quantitative-contamination-assessment-of-escherichia-coli-in-baby-spinach-primary-production-in-spain-effects-of-weather-conditions-and-agricultural-practices
#18
Ana Allende, Irene Castro-Ibáñez, Roland Lindqvist, María Isabel Gil, Mieke Uyttendaele, Liesbeth Jacxsens
A quantitative microbial contamination model of Escherichia coli during primary production of baby spinach was developed. The model included only systematic contamination routes (e.g. soil and irrigation water) and it was used to evaluate the potential impact of weather conditions, agricultural practices as well as bacterial fitness in soil on the E. coli levels present in the crop at harvest. The model can be used to estimate E. coli contamination of baby spinach via irrigation water, via soil splashing due to irrigation water or rain events, and also including the inactivation of E...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690422/detection-methods-for-stochastic-gravitational-wave-backgrounds-a-unified-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Joseph D Romano, Neil J Cornish
We review detection methods that are currently in use or have been proposed to search for a stochastic background of gravitational radiation. We consider both Bayesian and frequentist searches using ground-based and space-based laser interferometers, spacecraft Doppler tracking, and pulsar timing arrays; and we allow for anisotropy, non-Gaussianity, and non-standard polarization states. Our focus is on relevant data analysis issues, and not on the particular astrophysical or early Universe sources that might give rise to such backgrounds...
2017: Living Reviews in Relativity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681349/pharmacotherapy-of-glioblastoma-established-treatments-and-emerging-concepts
#20
REVIEW
Enrico Franceschi, Santino Minichillo, Alba A Brandes
Glioblastoma is the most frequent malignant brain tumor and is characterized by poor prognosis, increased invasiveness, and high recurrence rates. Standard treatment for glioblastoma includes maximal safe surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapy with temozolomide. Despite treatment advances, only 15-20% of glioblastoma patients survive to 5 years, and no therapies have demonstrated a durable survival benefit in recurrent disease. In the last 10 years, significant advances in knowledge of the biology and molecular pathology of the malignancy have opened the way to new treatment options...
August 2017: CNS Drugs
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