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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285537/milestone-clinical-trials-of-the-national-surgical-adjuvant-breast-and-bowel-project-nsabp
#1
REVIEW
Priya Rastogi, D Lawrence Wickerham, Charles E Geyer, Eleftherios P Mamounas, Thomas B Julian, Norman Wolmark
The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) has made significant contributions in reducing the extent of breast surgery and in improving outcomes of patients with early-stage breast cancer through the conduct of large randomized clinical trials evaluating local and systemic therapy. In 2014, the NSABP merged with two other US National Cancer Institute-funded cooperative groups, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) and the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG), to form NRG Oncology. The combined organization has 218 member institutions with more than 600 affiliate centers located throughout the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, and other international sites...
February 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284760/a-peer-review-process-as-part-of-the-implementation-of-clinical-pathways-in-radiation-oncology-does-it-improve-compliance
#2
Brian J Gebhardt, Dwight E Heron, Sushil Beriwal
PURPOSE: Clinical pathways are patient management plans that standardize evidence-based practices to ensure high-quality and cost-effective medical care. Implementation of a pathway is a collaborative process in our network, requiring the active involvement of physicians. This approach promotes acceptance of pathway recommendations, although a peer review process is necessary to ensure compliance and to capture and approve off-pathway selections. We investigated the peer review process and factors associated with time to completion of peer review...
January 19, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168936/dosimetric-comparison-of-real-time-mri-guided-tri-cobalt-60-versus-linear-accelerator-based-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-lung-cancer-plans
#3
Andrzej P Wojcieszynski, Patrick M Hill, Stephen A Rosenberg, Craig R Hullett, Zacariah E Labby, Bhudatt Paliwal, Mark W Geurts, R Adam Bayliss, John E Bayouth, Paul M Harari, Michael F Bassetti, Andrew M Baschnagel
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided radiation therapy has entered clinical practice at several major treatment centers. Treatment of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer with stereotactic body radiation therapy is one potential application of this modality, as some form of respiratory motion management is important to address. We hypothesize that magnetic resonance imaging-guided tri-cobalt-60 radiation therapy can be used to generate clinically acceptable stereotactic body radiation therapy treatment plans...
January 1, 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161894/mediator-of-dna-damage-checkpoint-protein-1-mdc1-as-a-prognostic-marker-for-patients-with-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#4
Jigna Harshadbhai Dave, Hemangini Hasit Vora, Nandita Radhabinod Ghosh, Trupti Indravadan Trivedi
BACKGROUND: The mediator of DNA damage checkpoint protein 1 (MDC1) is involved in the regulation of cell cycle check points and recruitment of several repair proteins to the site of DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs). The present study aims to correlate the expression of MDC1 protein with clinicopathological parameters and to evaluate its prognostic significance in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). METHODS: MDC1 protein expression was evaluated immunohistochemically from untreated 100 patients with OSCC using modified H-score method...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152762/ro-ils-radiation-oncology-incident-learning-system-data-trends-2014-2015
#5
Eric C Ford, Nadine L Eads, Ksenija Kapetanovic, Cindy Tomlinson
59 Background: Incident learning is one of the most effective ways to improve quality care. To facilitate patient safety improvement at a national level, American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) launched RO-ILS: Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System in June 2014. RO-ILS mission is to facilitate safer and higher quality care through a shared learning environment that is secure and non-punitive. METHODS: To ensure the security and protection of data, ASTRO contracted with Clarity PSO, a federally-certified patient safety organization that operates under the auspices of the Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047975/su-f-t-223-radiotherapy-incident-reporting-and-analysis-system-riras-early-experience
#6
R Kapoor, D Burkett, E Leidholdt, J Palta, M Hagan
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: RIRAS is a web-based information system deployed on the Veterans Health Administration intranet in early 2014 to collect adverse events and good catch data; analyze the causes and contributing factors; and find ways to prevent future occurrences. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Incident learning consists of a feedback loop which starts with reporting an event, followed by analysis of contributing factors, and culminates in the development of a patient safety work product (PSWP) to prevent recurrence...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047744/we-a-201-01-memorial-introduction
#7
C Marshall
Chris Marshall: Memorial Introduction Donald Edmonds Herbert Jr., or Don to his colleagues and friends, exemplified the "big tent" vision of medical physics, specializing in Applied Statistics and Dynamical Systems theory. He saw, more clearly than most, that "Making models is the difference between doing science and just fooling around [ref Woodworth, 2004]". Don developed an interest in chemistry at school by "reading a book" - a recurring theme in his story. He was awarded a Westinghouse Science scholarship and attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (later Carnegie Mellon University) where his interest turned to physics and led to a BS in Physics after transfer to Northwestern University...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047624/su-g-jep3-07-real-time-image-guided-radiation-therapy-for-heterotopic-ossification-in-patients-after-hip-replacement
#8
A Le, S Jiang, R Timmerman, H Choy, A Pompos
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of using CBCT in a real-time image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for single fraction heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients after hip replacement. In this real-time procedure, all steps, from simulation, imaging, planning to treatment delivery, are performed at the treatment unit in one appointment time slot. This work promotes real-time treatment to create a paradigm shift in the single fraction radiation therapy. METHODS: An integrated real-time IGRT for HO was developed and tested for radiation treatment of heterotopic ossification for patient after hip replacement...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047091/we-a-201-02-modern-statistical-modeling
#9
A Niemierko
Chris Marshall: Memorial Introduction Donald Edmonds Herbert Jr., or Don to his colleagues and friends, exemplified the "big tent" vision of medical physics, specializing in Applied Statistics and Dynamical Systems theory. He saw, more clearly than most, that "Making models is the difference between doing science and just fooling around [ref Woodworth, 2004]". Don developed an interest in chemistry at school by "reading a book" - a recurring theme in his story. He was awarded a Westinghouse Science scholarship and attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (later Carnegie Mellon University) where his interest turned to physics and led to a BS in Physics after transfer to Northwestern University...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046765/su-f-t-49-dosimetry-parameters-and-tps-commissioning-for-the-civasheet-directional-pd-103-brachytherapy-source
#10
M J Rivard
PURPOSE: The CivaSheet is a new LDR Pd-103 brachytherapy device offering directional-radiation for preferentially irradiating malignancies with healthy-tissue sparing. Observations are presented on dosimetric characterization, TPS commissioning, and evaluation of the dosesuperposition- principle for summing individual elements comprising a planar CivaSheet METHODS: The CivaSheet comprises individual sources (CivaDots, 0.05cm thick and 0.25cm diam.) inside a flexible bioabsorbable substrate with a 0...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046561/we-a-201-00-anne-and-donald-herbert-distinguished-lectureship-on-modern-statistical-modeling
#11
Joseph Deasy
Chris Marshall: Memorial Introduction Donald Edmonds Herbert Jr., or Don to his colleagues and friends, exemplified the "big tent" vision of medical physics, specializing in Applied Statistics and Dynamical Systems theory. He saw, more clearly than most, that "Making models is the difference between doing science and just fooling around [ref Woodworth, 2004]". Don developed an interest in chemistry at school by "reading a book" - a recurring theme in his story. He was awarded a Westinghouse Science scholarship and attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (later Carnegie Mellon University) where his interest turned to physics and led to a BS in Physics after transfer to Northwestern University...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039011/a-directional-103-pd-brachytherapy-device-dosimetric-characterization-and-practical-aspects-for-clinical-use
#12
Mark J Rivard
PURPOSE: A brachytherapy (BT) device has been developed with shielding to provide directional BT for preferentially irradiating malignancies while sparing healthy tissues. The CivaSheet is a flexible low-dose-rate BT device containing CivaDots with (103)Pd shielded by a thin Au disk. This is the first report of a clinical dosimetric characterization of the CivaSheet device. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Radiation dose distributions near a CivaDot were estimated using the MCNP6 radiation transport code...
March 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024718/patterns-of-dysphagia-and-acute-toxicities-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer-undergoing-helical-imrt%C3%A2-concurrent-chemotherapy
#13
Laura B Moroney, Jennifer Helios, Elizabeth C Ward, Jane Crombie, Leesa F Wockner, Clare L Burns, Ann-Louise Spurgin, Claire Blake, Lizbeth Kenny, Brett G M Hughes
BACKGROUND: There is limited prospective data reporting the extent of treatment related toxicities associated with helical Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (H-IMRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). The study aim was to investigate severity, peak incidence and recovery patterns of dysphagia and related toxicities in patients undergoing H-IMRT±chemotherapy to examine when patients are experiencing symptoms requiring supportive clinical care. METHODS: Prospective study of 212 patients undergoing H-IMRT...
January 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993569/a-genome-based-model-for-adjusting-radiotherapy-dose-gard-a-retrospective-cohort-based-study
#14
Jacob G Scott, Anders Berglund, Michael J Schell, Ivaylo Mihaylov, William J Fulp, Binglin Yue, Eric Welsh, Jimmy J Caudell, Kamran Ahmed, Tobin S Strom, Eric Mellon, Puja Venkat, Peter Johnstone, John Foekens, Jae Lee, Eduardo Moros, William S Dalton, Steven A Eschrich, Howard McLeod, Louis B Harrison, Javier F Torres-Roca
BACKGROUND: Despite its common use in cancer treatment, radiotherapy has not yet entered the era of precision medicine, and there have been no approaches to adjust dose based on biological differences between or within tumours. We aimed to assess whether a patient-specific molecular signature of radiation sensitivity could be used to identify the optimum radiotherapy dose. METHODS: We used the gene-expression-based radiation-sensitivity index and the linear quadratic model to derive the genomic-adjusted radiation dose (GARD)...
December 18, 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986343/nation-scale-adoption-of-shorter-breast-radiation-therapy-schedules-can-increase-survival-in-resource-constrained-economies-results-from-a-markov-chain-analysis
#15
Atif J Khan, Raza Rafique, Waleed Zafar, Chirag Shah, Bruce G Haffty, Frank Vicini, Arif Jamshed, Yao Zhao
PURPOSE: Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) offer women options for shorter courses of breast radiation therapy. The impact of these shorter schedules on the breast cancer populations of emerging economies with limited radiation therapy resources is unknown. We hypothesized that adoption of these schedules would improve throughput in the system and, by allowing more women access to life-saving treatments, improve patient survival within the system...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808492/dual-targeting-magnetic-plga-nanoparticles-for-codelivery-of-paclitaxel-and-curcumin-for-brain-tumor-therapy
#16
Yanna Cui, Meng Zhang, Feng Zeng, Hongyue Jin, Qin Xu, Yongzhuo Huang
Chemotherapy is one of the most important strategies for glioma treatment. However, the "impermeability" of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) impedes most chemotherapeutics from entering the brain, thereby rendering very few drugs suitable for glioma therapy, letting alone application of a combination of chemotherapeutics. Thereby, there is a pressing need to overcome the obstacles. A dual-targeting strategy was developed by a combination of magnetic guidance and transferrin receptor-binding peptide T7-mediated active targeting delivery...
November 30, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806609/an-experimental-demonstration-of-a-new-type-of-proton-computed-tomography-using-a-novel-silicon-tracking-detector
#17
J T Taylor, G Poludniowski, T Price, C Waltham, P P Allport, G L Casse, M Esposito, P M Evans, S Green, S Manger, S Manolopoulos, J Nieto-Camero, D J Parker, J Symons, N M Allinson
PURPOSE: Radiography and tomography using proton beams promise benefit to image guidance and treatment planning for proton therapy. A novel proton tracking detector is described and experimental demonstrations at a therapy facility are reported. A new type of proton CT reconstructing relative "scattering power" rather than "stopping power" is also demonstrated. Notably, this new type of imaging does not require the measurement of the residual energies of the protons. METHODS: A large area, silicon microstrip tracker with high spatial and temporal resolution has been developed by the Proton Radiotherapy Verification and Dosimetry Applications consortium and commissioned using beams of protons at iThemba LABS, Medical Radiation Department, South Africa...
November 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751833/perineal-ultrasound-offers-useful-information-in-girls-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#18
J Lindert, O Hiort, L Tüshaus, K Tafazzoli-Lari, L Wünsch
A variable spectrum of urogenital malformations exists in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The vagina may enter the urethra at a variable level, and relations to the sphincter complex vary accordingly. Furthermore, an enlarged clitoris and variations in the bladder sphincter anatomy can be found. Endoscopy, genitography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are commonly used for the assessment of these anomalies, and to provide information for counselling and treatment. When surgery is planned, introitoplasty cosmetical reduction of the clitoris and labioplasty are discussed with the families; introitoplasty is the most demanding aspect...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667884/a-new-silicon-tracker-for-proton-imaging-and-dosimetry
#19
J T Taylor, C Waltham, T Price, N M Allinson, P P Allport, G L Casse, A Kacperek, S Manger, N A Smith, I Tsurin
For many years, silicon micro-strip detectors have been successfully used as tracking detectors for particle and nuclear physics experiments. A new application of this technology is to the field of particle therapy where radiotherapy is carried out by use of charged particles such as protons or carbon ions. Such a treatment has been shown to have advantages over standard x-ray radiotherapy and as a result of this, many new centres offering particle therapy are currently under construction around the world today...
September 21, 2016: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663893/improved-efficacy-of-neoadjuvant-compared-to-adjuvant-immunotherapy-to-eradicate-metastatic-disease
#20
Jing Liu, Stephen J Blake, Michelle C R Yong, Heidi Harjunpää, Shin Foong Ngiow, Kazuyoshi Takeda, Arabella Young, Jake S O'Donnell, Stacey Allen, Mark J Smyth, Michele W L Teng
Immunotherapy has recently entered a renaissance phase with the approval of multiple agents for the treatment of cancer. Immunotherapy stands ready to join traditional modalities, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and hormone therapy, as a pillar of cancer treatment. Although immunotherapy has begun to have success in advanced cancer treatment, its scheduling and efficacy with surgery to treat earlier stages of cancer and prevent distant metastases have not been systematically examined. Here, we have used two models of spontaneously metastatic breast cancers in mice to illustrate the significantly greater therapeutic power of neoadjuvant, compared with adjuvant, immunotherapies in the context of primary tumor resection...
December 2016: Cancer Discovery
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