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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338016/ultrasound-mediated-delivery-and-distribution-of-polymeric-nanoparticles-in-the-normal-brain-parenchyma-of-a-metastatic-brain-tumour-model
#1
Habib Baghirov, Sofie Snipstad, Einar Sulheim, Sigrid Berg, Rune Hansen, Frits Thorsen, Yrr Mørch, Catharina de Lange Davies, Andreas K O Åslund
The treatment of brain diseases is hindered by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) preventing most drugs from entering the brain. Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles can open the BBB safely and reversibly. Systemic drug injection might induce toxicity, but encapsulation into nanoparticles reduces accumulation in normal tissue. Here we used a novel platform based on poly(2-ethyl-butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticle-stabilized microbubbles to permeabilize the BBB in a melanoma brain metastasis model. With a dual-frequency ultrasound transducer generating FUS at 1...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336348/optimizing-highly-noncoplanar-vmat-trajectories-the-novo-method
#2
Marco Langhans, Jan Unkelbach, Thomas Bortfeld, David Craft
We introduce a new method called NoVo (Noncoplanar VMAT Optimization) to produce volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plans with noncoplanar trajectories. While the use of noncoplanar beam arrangements for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and in particular high fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), is common, noncoplanar beam trajectories for VMAT are less common as the availability of treatment machines handling these is limited. For both IMRT and VMAT, the beam angle selection problem is highly nonconvex in nature, which is why automated beam angle selection procedures have not entered mainstream clinical usage...
January 16, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313134/the-effectiveness-of-zataria-extract-mouthwash-for-the-management-of-radiation-induced-oral-mucositis-in-patients-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-study
#3
Azar Aghamohammadi, Daryush Moslemi, Jafar Akbari, Arash Ghasemi, Mohammad Azadbakht, Askari Asgharpour, Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr
OBJECTIVES: Oral mucositis (OM) is a common debilitating complication of chemoradiotherapy treatment of head and neck cancers. This randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora (ZM) extract mouthwash in the prevention and reduction of OM related to local radiotherapy in the treatment of head and neck cancer patients. METHODS: Sixty-three patients with head and neck cancers, who underwent a conventional fractionated radiotherapy regimen, were entered into the study...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279868/uretero-arterio-enteric-fistula-formation-and-stent-thrombosis-after-endovascular-treatment-of-ureteroarterial-fistula-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#4
Hailiu Yang, Ricardo Rios, Joseph Lombardi, Dean Matthew Marella, Allen D Seftel
Background: Ureteroarterial fistulas (UAFs) are rare life-threatening complications of indwelling ureteral stents. Endovascular repair of these fistulas is now commonly used but the long-term outcomes are unknown. Case Presentation: We present a 51-year-old African American female with history of cervical cancer status after a hysterectomy and radiation. She has bilateral ureteral strictures that were managed with chronic, indwelling ureteral stents. She subsequently developed a right UAF and was treated with an endovascular stent to the external iliac artery...
2017: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274087/human-enteric-viruses-in-a-wastewater-treatment-plant-evaluation-of-activated-sludge-combined-with-uv-disinfection-process-reveals-different-removal-performances-for-viruses-with-different-features
#5
A Lizasoain, L F L Tort, M García, L Gillman, A Alberti, J P G Leite, M P Miagostovich, S A Pou, A Cagiao, A Razsap, J Huertas, M Berois, M Victoria, R Colina
This study assess the quality of wastewater through the detection and quantification of important causing gastroenteritis viruses at different stages of the wastewater treatment process in an activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant with ultraviolet disinfection. Ten sampling events were carried out in a campaign along a period of 18 months collecting wastewater samples from the influent, after the activated sludge treatment, and after the final disinfection with UV radiation. Samples were concentrated through ultracentrifugation and analyzed using retro-transcription, PCR and real time quantitative PCR protocols, for detection and quantification of Group A Rotavirus (RVA), Human Astrovirus (HAstV), Norovirus Genogroup II (NoV GII) and Human Adenovirus (HAdV)...
December 22, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246721/functional-outcomes-after-de-escalated-chemoradiation-therapy-for-human-papillomavirus-positive-oropharyngeal-cancer-secondary-analysis-of-a-phase-2-trial
#6
John V Hegde, Narek Shaverdian, Carol Felix, Pin-Chieh Wang, Darlene Veruttipong, Sophia Hsu, Jonathan W Riess, Shyam D Rao, Megan E Daly, Allen M Chen
PURPOSE: To analyze functional outcomes for patients treated on a phase 2 trial of de-escalated chemoradiation therapy for human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patient eligibility included p16-positive, stage III or IV oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and a Zubrod performance status of 0 to 1. Treatment was induction chemotherapy with paclitaxel, 175 mg/m2, and carboplatin, area under the curve (AUC) of 6 mg/ml/min, for 2 cycles every 21 days, followed by concurrent paclitaxel, 30 mg/m2, every 7 days with dose-reduced radiation therapy of 54 or 60 Gy...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245311/role-of-enteral-nutrition-in-pancreaticocolonic-fistulas-secondary-to-severe-acute-pancreatitis-a-case-report
#7
Binxin Cui, Lu Zhou, Samiullah Khan, Jianmin Cui, Wentian Liu
RATIONALE: Pancreaticocolonic fistula (PCF) is an exceedingly rare complication of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and has primarily been treated surgically, but a few reported cases are successfully treated with nonsurgical methods. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 32-year-old male presented to our hospital with chief complaints of sharp and persistent left upper quadrant abdominal pain radiating to the back. DIAGNOSES: Computed tomography showed a pancreatic pseudocyst replacing a majority of the pancreatic parenchyma and PCF that formed between the pancreas and the colon...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225923/experimental-adaptation-of-human-echovirus-11-to-ultraviolet-radiation-leads-to-resistance-to-disinfection-and-ribavirin
#8
Anna Carratalà, Hyunjin Shim, Qingxia Zhong, Virginie Bachmann, Jeffrey D Jensen, Tamar Kohn
Ultraviolet light in the UVC range is a commonly used disinfectant to control viruses in clinical settings and water treatment. However, it is currently unknown whether human viral pathogens may develop resistance to such stressor. Here, we investigate the adaptation of an enteric pathogen, human echovirus 11, to disinfection by UVC, and characterized the underlying phenotypic and genotypic changes. Repeated exposure to UVC lead to a reduction in the UVC inactivation rate of approximately 15 per cent compared to that of the wild-type and the control populations...
July 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225444/prevalence-and-correlates-of-major-depressive-symptoms-among-black-men-with-prostate-cancer
#9
Ballington L Kinlock, Lauren J Parker, Daniel L Howard, Janice V Bowie, Thomas A LaVeist, Roland J Thorpe
Objectives: The objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence of major depressive symptoms and identify factors that are associated with major depressive symptoms among Black men with prostate cancer (PCa). Design: This study consisted of 415 Black men aged 40-81 years that entered the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry during the years 2007-2008. The primary outcome variable was depressive symptoms (CES-D). Factors included age, income, education, insurance status, treatment received, time between diagnosis and treatment, Gleason score, medical mistrust and experience with racism/discrimination...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218267/radiomics-in-precision-medicine-for-lung-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Julie Constanzo, Lise Wei, Huan-Hsin Tseng, Issam El Naqa
With the improvement of external radiotherapy delivery accuracy, such as intensity-modulated and stereotactic body radiation therapy, radiation oncology has recently entered in the era of precision medicine. Despite these precise irradiation modalities, lung cancers remain one of the most aggressive human cancers worldwide, possibly because of diverse genotypic alterations that drive and maintain lung tumorigenesis. It has been long recognized that imaging could aid in the diagnosis, tumor delineation, and monitoring of lung cancer...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178091/-surgical-treatment-of-chronic-radiation-enteropathy
#11
Lei Wang, Qiyuan Qin, Binjie Huang
Chronic radiation enteropathy(CRE) represents a latent intestinal injury resulting from abdominal-pelvic radiotherapy. Severe complications like refractory bleeding, intestinal obstruction, perforation and fistula may occur during CRE progression. Surgical treatment is the most effective way to handle these complications. Since radiotherapy has become an important and common way to relieve or even cure many malignant tumors, the incidence of severe complications of CRE is likely to rise. Thus the value of surgical treatment in managing severe complications of CRE should gain more attention...
November 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140463/anatomic-investigation-of-the-trajectory-for-stereotactic-laser-amygdalohippocampectomy
#12
Vanessa M Holanda, Abuzer Gungor, Serhat Baydin, Erik H Middlebrooks, Shabbar F Danish
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) has emerged as a promising treatment for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Surgeons must understand the relevant anatomy that is traversed by the catheter and affected by ablation. OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomic structures crossed by the LITT catheter until it reaches the amygdala. METHODS: Three human cadaveric heads were implanted with catheters using a frameless stereotactic technique...
November 11, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105051/tumour-bed-boost-radiotherapy-for-women-after-breast-conserving-surgery
#13
REVIEW
Isabelle Kindts, Annouschka Laenen, Tom Depuydt, Caroline Weltens
BACKGROUND: Breast-conserving therapy, involving breast-conserving surgery followed by whole-breast irradiation and optionally a boost to the tumour bed, is a standard therapeutic option for women with early-stage breast cancer. A boost to the tumour bed means that an extra dose of radiation is applied that covers the initial tumour site. The rationale for a boost of radiotherapy to the tumour bed is that (i) local recurrence occurs mostly at the site of the primary tumour because remaining microscopic tumour cells are most likely situated there; and (ii) radiation can eliminate these causative microscopic tumour cells...
November 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991813/using-discrete-event-simulation-to-promote-quality-improvement-and-efficiency-in-a-radiation-oncology-treatment-center
#14
Robin M Famiglietti, Emily C Norboge, Valentine Boving, James R Langabeer, Thomas A Buchholz, Osama Mikhail
BACKGROUND: To meet demand for radiation oncology services and ensure patient-centered safe care, management in an academic radiation oncology department initiated quality improvement efforts using discrete-event simulation (DES). Although the long-term goal was testing and deploying solutions, the primary aim at the outset was characterizing and validating a computer simulation model of existing operations to identify targets for improvement. METHODS: The adoption and validation of a DES model of processes and procedures affecting patient flow and satisfaction, employee experience, and efficiency were undertaken in 2012-2013...
October 2017: Quality Management in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963700/enterocutaneous-fistulas-a-primer-for-radiologists-with-emphasis-on-ct-and-mri
#15
REVIEW
Massimo Tonolini, Paolo Magistrelli
Enterocutaneous fistulas (ECFs) represent abnormal communications between the gastrointestinal tract and the skin. Nowadays, the majority (~80%) of ECFs develops secondary to abdominal surgeries; alternative, less common causes include chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn's disease, tumours, and radiation enteritis in descending order of frequency. These rare disorders require thorough patient assessment and multidisciplinary management to limit the associated morbidity and mortality. This pictorial review includes an overview of causes, clinical manifestations, complications and management of ECFs...
December 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922698/survival-improvements-with-adjuvant-therapy-in-patients-with-glioblastoma
#16
Dasantha Jayamanne, Helen Wheeler, Raymond Cook, Charles Teo, David Brazier, Geoff Schembri, Marina Kastelan, Linxin Guo, Michael F Back
BACKGROUND: Evaluate survival of patients diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) managed with adjuvant intensity modulated radiation therapy and temozolomide since the introduction of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer and National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group (EORTC-NCIC) protocol. METHODS: All patients with GBM managed between May 2007 and December 2014 with EORTC-NCIC protocol were entered into a prospective database...
September 18, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867544/standardization-of-radiation-therapy-dose-for-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-through-changes-to-a-lung-cancer-clinical-pathway-in-a-large-integrated-comprehensive-cancer-center-network
#17
Pooja Karukonda, Brian J Gebhardt, Zachary D Horne, Dwight E Heron, Sushil Beriwal
PURPOSE: The results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0617, which randomized patients with stages IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to definitive chemoradiation therapy to 60 Gy versus 74 Gy, demonstrated a detrimental survival impact with high-dose radiation therapy. We evaluated the impact of changes to a provider-driven clinical pathway (CP) guiding management of NSCLC on practice throughout our cancer center network. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In 2001, we implemented a CP for management of stage IIIA/IIIB NSCLC with definitive chemoradiation therapy...
July 8, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866546/understanding-the-relationship-between-interactive-optimisation-and-visual-analytics-in-the-context-of-prostate-brachytherapy
#18
Jie Liu, Tim Dwyer, Kim Marriott, Jeremy Millar, Annette Haworth
The fields of operations research and computer science have long sought to find automatic solver techniques that can find high-quality solutions to difficult real-world optimisation problems. The traditional workflow is to exactly model the problem and then enter this model into a general-purpose "black-box" solver. In practice, however, many problems cannot be solved completely automatically, but require a "human-in-the-loop" to iteratively refine the model and give hints to the solver. In this paper, we explore the parallels between this interactive optimisation workflow and the visual analytics sense-making loop...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835092/management-of-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-site-gastric-ulcer-in-a-patient-with-an-esophageal-stricture-and-hiatus-hernia
#19
Clement C H Wu, James W Li, Keng Sin Ng, Daphne S Ang
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is commonly performed for feeding difficulties, in patients suffering from complications of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and its treatment, namely radiotherapy and surgery. This case report describes the challenges in hemostasis and subsequent re-establishment of enteral access for feeding, in an elderly patient with a history of NPC, treated surgically, followed by radiotherapy, who presented with massive hematemesis following reinsertion of her PEG shortly after an accidental dislodgement...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832173/-radiation-necrosis-in-the-upper-cervical-spinal-cord-in-a-patient-treated-with-proton-therapy-after-radical-resection-of-the-fourth-ventricle-ependymoma
#20
J Mraček, J Mork, T Svoboda, J Ferda, V Přibáň
BACKGROUND: Radiation necrosis in eloquent areas of the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the most serious forms of toxicity from radiation therapy. The occurrence of radiation necrosis in the CNS is described in a wide range of 3 months to 13 years after radiation therapy. The incidence of this complication covers a wide range of 3-47%. The potential advantage of proton therapy is the ability to reduce dose to normal tissue and escalate tumor dose. Proton beams enter and pass through the tissue with minimal dose deposition until they reach the end of their paths, where the peak of dose, known as the Bragg peak, occurs...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
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