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radiation enteritis treatment

Yanna Cui, Meng Zhang, Feng Zeng, Hongyue Jin, Qin Xu, Yongzhuo Huang
Chemotherapy is one of the most important strategies for glioma treatment. However, the "impermeability" of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) impedes most chemotherapeutics to enter the brain, thereby rendering very few drugs suitable for glioma therapy, letting along application of combination of chemotherapeutics. Thereby, it is a pressing need to overcome the obstacles. A dual-targeting strategy was developed by combination of magnetic-guidance and the transferrin receptor-binding peptide T7-mediated active targeting delivery...
November 3, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
J T Taylor, G Poludniowski, T Price, C Waltham, P P Allport, G L Casse, M Esposito, P M Evans, S Green, S Manger, S Manolopoulos, J Nieto-Camero, D J Parker, J Symons, N M Allinson
PURPOSE: Radiography and tomography using proton beams promise benefit to image guidance and treatment planning for proton therapy. A novel proton tracking detector is described and experimental demonstrations at a therapy facility are reported. A new type of proton CT reconstructing relative "scattering power" rather than "stopping power" is also demonstrated. Notably, this new type of imaging does not require the measurement of the residual energies of the protons. METHODS: A large area, silicon microstrip tracker with high spatial and temporal resolution has been developed by the Proton Radiotherapy Verification and Dosimetry Applications consortium and commissioned using beams of protons at iThemba LABS, Medical Radiation Department, South Africa...
November 2016: Medical Physics
J Lindert, O Hiort, L Tüshaus, K Tafazzoli-Lari, L Wünsch
A variable spectrum of urogenital malformations exists in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The vagina may enter the urethra at a variable level, and relations to the sphincter complex vary accordingly. Furthermore, an enlarged clitoris and variations in the bladder sphincter anatomy can be found. Endoscopy, genitography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are commonly used for the assessment of these anomalies, and to provide information for counselling and treatment. When surgery is planned, introitoplasty cosmetical reduction of the clitoris and labioplasty are discussed with the families; introitoplasty is the most demanding aspect...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
J T Taylor, C Waltham, T Price, N M Allinson, P P Allport, G L Casse, A Kacperek, S Manger, N A Smith, I Tsurin
For many years, silicon micro-strip detectors have been successfully used as tracking detectors for particle and nuclear physics experiments. A new application of this technology is to the field of particle therapy where radiotherapy is carried out by use of charged particles such as protons or carbon ions. Such a treatment has been shown to have advantages over standard x-ray radiotherapy and as a result of this, many new centres offering particle therapy are currently under construction around the world today...
September 21, 2016: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Jing Liu, Stephen J Blake, Michelle C R Yong, Heidi Harjunpää, Shin Foong Ngiow, Kazuyoshi Takeda, Arabella Young, Jake S O'Donnell, Stacey Allen, Mark J Smyth, Michele W L Teng
: Immunotherapy has recently entered a renaissance phase with the approval of multiple agents for the treatment of cancer. Immunotherapy stands ready to join traditional modalities, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and hormone therapy, as a pillar of cancer treatment. Although immunotherapy has begun to have success in advanced cancer treatment, its scheduling and efficacy with surgery to treat earlier stages of cancer and prevent distant metastases have not been systematically examined...
December 2016: Cancer Discovery
Gerhard G Grabenbauer, Göbel Holger
Possible toxic effects following radiation and chemotherapy of gastrointestinal tumours may cause a depletion of the mucosal barrier within the radiation volumes with severe mucositis. Diarrhoea, nausea, emesis and severe malabsorption followed by infections with dehydration and electrolyte disorders have to be encountered. For prevention and treatment of oropharyngeal mucositis an oral care protocol, oral cryotherapy together with benzydamine mouthwash may be recommended. Lower gastrointestinal diarrhoea is best treated by Octreotide (>100 μg s...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Anna Gasinska
Marie Sklodowska-Curie, an extraordinary woman, a Polish scientist who lived and worked in France, led to the development of nuclear energy and the treatment of cancer. She was the laureate of two Nobel Prizes, the first woman in Europe who obtained the degree of Doctor of Science and opened the way for women to enter fields which had been previously reserved for men only. As a result of her determination and her love of freedom, she has become an icon for many female scientists active in radiation sciences...
May 2016: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Zhiming Wang, Li Liang, Yiyi Yu, Yan Wang, Rongyuan Zhuang, Yong Chen, Yuehong Cui, Yuhong Zhou, Tianshu Liu
BACKGROUND: The effect of primary tumour resection (PTR) among metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients remains controversial. Combination chemotherapy with bevacizumab could improve the clinical outcomes of these patients, which might change the importance of PTR in the multi-disciplinary treatment pattern. METHODS: We performed a non-randomized prospective controlled study of mCRC pts whose performance status (PS) scored ≤2 and who received bevacizumab combination chemotherapy (FOLFOX/XELOX/FOLFIRI) as a first-line therapy...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Xu Rui Zhang, Yong Ai Liu, Fang Sun, He Li, Su Wen Lei, Ju Fang Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of p21 in ionizing radiation-induced changes in protein levels during the G2/M transition and long-term G2 arrest. METHODS: Protein expression levels were assessed by western blot in the human uveal melanoma 92-1 cells after treatment with ionizing radiation. Depletion of p21 was carried out by employing the siRNA technique. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry combined with histone H3 phosphorylation at Ser28, an M-phase marker...
July 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
María Jesús Abeledo-Lameiro, Elvira Ares-Mazás, Hipólito Gómez-Couso
Cryptosporidium is a genus of enteric protozoan parasites of medical and veterinary importance, whose oocysts have been reported to occur in different types of water worldwide, offering a great resistant to the water treatment processes. Heterogeneous solar photocatalysis using titanium dioxide (TiO2) slurry was evaluated on inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water. Suspensions of TiO2 (0, 63, 100 and 200mg/L) in distilled water (DW) or simulated municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) effluent spiked with C...
October 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Kazuto Nosaka, Kiyosumi Shibata, Fumi Utsumi, Kosuke Yoshida, Kaoru Niimi, Ryuichiro Sekiya, Shiro Suzuki, Hiroaki Kajiyama, Fumitaka Kikkawa
BACKGROUND: Elderly patients with uterine cervical cancer reportedly have a poorer prognosis than younger patients. Until now, the benefit of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for elderly patients has been considered limited. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 49 women with cervical cancer aged >70 years primarily treated with radiotherapy (RT) or CCRT in our institute between 2003 and 2014. Treatment compliance, toxicity, and survival benefit were analyzed...
July 19, 2016: Tumori
Brigid E Hickey, Margot Lehman, Daniel P Francis, Adrienne M See
BACKGROUND: Breast-conserving therapy for women with breast cancer consists of local excision of the tumour (achieving clear margins) followed by radiotherapy (RT). RT is given to sterilize tumour cells that may remain after surgery to decrease the risk of local tumour recurrence. Most true recurrences occur in the same quadrant as the original tumour. Whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT) may not protect against the development of a new primary cancer developing in other quadrants of the breast...
July 18, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Asghar Hajiabbasi, Irandokht Shenavar Masooleh, Yousef Alizadeh, Amir Sadredin Banikarimi, Pooneh Ghavidel Parsa
UNLABELLED: Sjogren syndrome (SS) can occur alone, primary Sjogren syndrome, or in association with other rheumatic diseases, secondary Sjogren syndrome (sSS), such as Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The occurrence of Sjogren syndrome with RA makes it course worse and increases high morbidity and mortality of RA. In this exploratory study we aim to determine the prevalence of sSS (diagnosed based on the revised version of American-European consensus Group Classification Criteria: AUCG-criteria), sicca symptoms (dry eye, dry mouth), positive autoantibody tests (Anti RO or Anti-LA antibodies), UWSFR (Unstimulated Whole Salivary Flow Rate), Schirmer and Lissamine test...
July 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
Holly E Barker, Radhika Patel, Martin McLaughlin, Ulrike Schick, Shane Zaidi, Christopher M Nutting, Katie L Newbold, Shreerang Bhide, Kevin J Harrington
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths, with increasingly more cases arising due to high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy is a standard-of-care for locally advanced head and neck cancer but is frequently ineffective. Research into enhancing radiation responses as a means of improving treatment outcomes represents a high priority. Here, we evaluated a CHK1 inhibitor (CCT244747) as a radiosensitiser and investigated whether a mechanistically rational triple combination of radiation/paclitaxel/CHK1 inhibitor delivered according to an optimized schedule would provide added benefit...
September 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Ciro Franzese, Luca Cozzi, Davide Franceschini, Giuseppe D'Agostino, Tiziana Comito, Fiorenza De Rose, Pierina Navarria, Pietro Mancosu, Stefano Tomatis, Antonella Fogliata, Marta Scorsetti
AIM: To study clinical outcome for oligometastatic patients (abdominal lymph-node metastases) treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one patients were studied retrospectively. Dose prescription was 45 Gy in six fractions. Clinical outcome was assessed with actuarial analysis. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 1.5 years; 45 patients (63.3%) had solitary metastasis, and 26 (36.6%) had multiple lesions...
August 8, 2016: Cancer Investigation
Hongqin Zhao, Lili Li, Huafang Su, Baochai Lin, Xuebang Zhang, Shengliu Xue, Zhenghua Fei, Lihao Zhao, Qintuo Pan, Xiance Jin, Congying Xie
A phase III randomized study on the efficacy and safety of consolidation chemotherapy with paclitaxel plus cisplatin following radical hysterectomy and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in the treatment of high risk early-stage cervical cancer were reported. 146 eligible patients were randomized to arm A receiving concurrent CRT or arm B receiving CRT plus consolidation chemotherapy, respectively. An interim analysis showed a trend of improvement on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in arm B with hazard ratios (HR) of 1...
July 6, 2016: Oncotarget
Robert C Miller, Daniel G Petereit, Jeff A Sloan, Heshan Liu, James A Martenson, James D Bearden, Ronald Sapiente, Grant R Seeger, Rex B Mowat, Ben Liem, Matthew J Iott, Charles L Loprinzi
PURPOSE: To provide confirmatory evidence on the use of sulfasalazine to reduce enteritis during pelvic radiation therapy (RT), following 2 prior single-institution trials suggestive that benefit existed. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A multi-institution, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial was designed to assess the efficacy of sulfasalazine versus placebo in the treatment of RT-related enteritis during RT including the posterior pelvis (45.0-53...
July 15, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
S Espenel, C Raffoux, A Vallard, M-A Garcia, J-B Guy, C Rancoule, M Ben Mrad, J Langrand-Escure, J-C Trone, G Pigne, P Diao, N Magné
Worldwide, more than a million people receive each year a curative radiotherapy. While local control and overall survival are steadily increasing, 5 to 15% of patients still develop above grade 2 late toxicities. Late toxicities treatments are complex. Hyperbaric oxygenation was shown to induce revascularization and healing of injured tissues, but indications are still debated. Through a literature review, we summarized the hyperbaric oxygenation indications in radiation-induced late toxicities. We also studied the knowledge and practice of French local radiation therapists...
July 2016: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Shengxian Fan, Yong Chen, Jian Wang, Wencheng Kong, Yousheng Li
Since its introduction as an alternative treatment technique, radiotherapy has been increasingly used as the medical treatment of choice for patients with malignant tumors. However, radiotherapy is associated with a number of common, well-described side effects, which may compromise the quality of life of the patients. Scrotal edema is an infrequent complication in patients who undergo pelvic irradiation, which is suspected to be due to lymphatic obstruction. An extensive literature search found no previous case report describing this complication in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy...
July 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Andreia I Pimenta, Duarte Guerreiro, Joana Madureira, Fernanda M A Margaça, Sandra Cabo Verde
UNLABELLED: Adenovirus is the most prevalent enteric virus in waters worldwide due to its environmental stability, which leads to public health concerns. Mitigation strategies are therefore required. The aim of this study was to assess the inactivation of human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5) by gamma radiation in aqueous environments. Various substrates with different organic loads, including domestic wastewater, were inoculated with HAdV-5 either individually or in a viral pool (with murine norovirus type 1 [MNV-1]) and were irradiated in a Cobalt-60 irradiator at several gamma radiation doses (0...
September 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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