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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047975/su-f-t-223-radiotherapy-incident-reporting-and-analysis-system-riras-early-experience
#1
R Kapoor, D Burkett, E Leidholdt, J Palta, M Hagan
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: RIRAS is a web-based information system deployed on the Veterans Health Administration intranet in early 2014 to collect adverse events and good catch data; analyze the causes and contributing factors; and find ways to prevent future occurrences. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Incident learning consists of a feedback loop which starts with reporting an event, followed by analysis of contributing factors, and culminates in the development of a patient safety work product (PSWP) to prevent recurrence...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047744/we-a-201-01-memorial-introduction
#2
C Marshall
: Chris Marshall: Memorial Introduction Donald Edmonds Herbert Jr., or Don to his colleagues and friends, exemplified the "big tent" vision of medical physics, specializing in Applied Statistics and Dynamical Systems theory. He saw, more clearly than most, that "Making models is the difference between doing science and just fooling around [ref Woodworth, 2004]". Don developed an interest in chemistry at school by "reading a book" - a recurring theme in his story. He was awarded a Westinghouse Science scholarship and attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (later Carnegie Mellon University) where his interest turned to physics and led to a BS in Physics after transfer to Northwestern University...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047624/su-g-jep3-07-real-time-image-guided-radiation-therapy-for-heterotopic-ossification-in-patients-after-hip-replacement
#3
A Le, S Jiang, R Timmerman, H Choy, A Pompos
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of using CBCT in a real-time image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for single fraction heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients after hip replacement. In this real-time procedure, all steps, from simulation, imaging, planning to treatment delivery, are performed at the treatment unit in one appointment time slot. This work promotes real-time treatment to create a paradigm shift in the single fraction radiation therapy. METHODS: An integrated real-time IGRT for HO was developed and tested for radiation treatment of heterotopic ossification for patient after hip replacement...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047091/we-a-201-02-modern-statistical-modeling
#4
A Niemierko
: Chris Marshall: Memorial Introduction Donald Edmonds Herbert Jr., or Don to his colleagues and friends, exemplified the "big tent" vision of medical physics, specializing in Applied Statistics and Dynamical Systems theory. He saw, more clearly than most, that "Making models is the difference between doing science and just fooling around [ref Woodworth, 2004]". Don developed an interest in chemistry at school by "reading a book" - a recurring theme in his story. He was awarded a Westinghouse Science scholarship and attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (later Carnegie Mellon University) where his interest turned to physics and led to a BS in Physics after transfer to Northwestern University...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046765/su-f-t-49-dosimetry-parameters-and-tps-commissioning-for-the-civasheet-directional-pd-103-brachytherapy-source
#5
M J Rivard
PURPOSE: The CivaSheet is a new LDR Pd-103 brachytherapy device offering directional-radiation for preferentially irradiating malignancies with healthy-tissue sparing. Observations are presented on dosimetric characterization, TPS commissioning, and evaluation of the dosesuperposition- principle for summing individual elements comprising a planar CivaSheet METHODS: The CivaSheet comprises individual sources (CivaDots, 0.05cm thick and 0.25cm diam.) inside a flexible bioabsorbable substrate with a 0...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046561/we-a-201-00-anne-and-donald-herbert-distinguished-lectureship-on-modern-statistical-modeling
#6
Joseph Deasy
: Chris Marshall: Memorial Introduction Donald Edmonds Herbert Jr., or Don to his colleagues and friends, exemplified the "big tent" vision of medical physics, specializing in Applied Statistics and Dynamical Systems theory. He saw, more clearly than most, that "Making models is the difference between doing science and just fooling around [ref Woodworth, 2004]". Don developed an interest in chemistry at school by "reading a book" - a recurring theme in his story. He was awarded a Westinghouse Science scholarship and attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (later Carnegie Mellon University) where his interest turned to physics and led to a BS in Physics after transfer to Northwestern University...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039011/a-directional-103-pd-brachytherapy-device-dosimetric-characterization-and-practical-aspects-for-clinical-use
#7
Mark J Rivard
PURPOSE: A brachytherapy (BT) device has been developed with shielding to provide directional BT for preferentially irradiating malignancies while sparing healthy tissues. The CivaSheet is a flexible low-dose-rate BT device containing CivaDots with (103)Pd shielded by a thin Au disk. This is the first report of a clinical dosimetric characterization of the CivaSheet device. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Radiation dose distributions near a CivaDot were estimated using the MCNP6 radiation transport code...
December 27, 2016: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024718/patterns-of-dysphagia-and-acute-toxicities-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer-undergoing-helical-imrt%C3%A2-concurrent-chemotherapy
#8
Laura B Moroney, Jennifer Helios, Elizabeth C Ward, Jane Crombie, Leesa F Wockner, Clare L Burns, Ann-Louise Spurgin, Claire Blake, Lizbeth Kenny, Brett G M Hughes
BACKGROUND: There is limited prospective data reporting the extent of treatment related toxicities associated with helical Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (H-IMRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). The study aim was to investigate severity, peak incidence and recovery patterns of dysphagia and related toxicities in patients undergoing H-IMRT±chemotherapy to examine when patients are experiencing symptoms requiring supportive clinical care. METHODS: Prospective study of 212 patients undergoing H-IMRT...
January 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993569/a-genome-based-model-for-adjusting-radiotherapy-dose-gard-a-retrospective-cohort-based-study
#9
Jacob G Scott, Anders Berglund, Michael J Schell, Ivaylo Mihaylov, William J Fulp, Binglin Yue, Eric Welsh, Jimmy J Caudell, Kamran Ahmed, Tobin S Strom, Eric Mellon, Puja Venkat, Peter Johnstone, John Foekens, Jae Lee, Eduardo Moros, William S Dalton, Steven A Eschrich, Howard McLeod, Louis B Harrison, Javier F Torres-Roca
BACKGROUND: Despite its common use in cancer treatment, radiotherapy has not yet entered the era of precision medicine, and there have been no approaches to adjust dose based on biological differences between or within tumours. We aimed to assess whether a patient-specific molecular signature of radiation sensitivity could be used to identify the optimum radiotherapy dose. METHODS: We used the gene-expression-based radiation-sensitivity index and the linear quadratic model to derive the genomic-adjusted radiation dose (GARD)...
December 18, 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986343/nation-scale-adoption-of-shorter-breast-radiation-therapy-schedules-can-increase-survival-in-resource-constrained-economies-results-from-a-markov-chain-analysis
#10
Atif J Khan, Raza Rafique, Waleed Zafar, Chirag Shah, Bruce G Haffty, Frank Vicini, Arif Jamshed, Yao Zhao
PURPOSE: Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) offer women options for shorter courses of breast radiation therapy. The impact of these shorter schedules on the breast cancer populations of emerging economies with limited radiation therapy resources is unknown. We hypothesized that adoption of these schedules would improve throughput in the system and, by allowing more women access to life-saving treatments, improve patient survival within the system...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808492/dual-targeting-magnetic-plga-nanoparticles-for-codelivery-of-paclitaxel-and-curcumin-for-brain-tumor-therapy
#11
Yanna Cui, Meng Zhang, Feng Zeng, Hongyue Jin, Qin Xu, Yongzhuo Huang
Chemotherapy is one of the most important strategies for glioma treatment. However, the "impermeability" of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) impedes most chemotherapeutics from entering the brain, thereby rendering very few drugs suitable for glioma therapy, letting alone application of a combination of chemotherapeutics. Thereby, there is a pressing need to overcome the obstacles. A dual-targeting strategy was developed by a combination of magnetic guidance and transferrin receptor-binding peptide T7-mediated active targeting delivery...
November 30, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806609/an-experimental-demonstration-of-a-new-type-of-proton-computed-tomography-using-a-novel-silicon-tracking-detector
#12
J T Taylor, G Poludniowski, T Price, C Waltham, P P Allport, G L Casse, M Esposito, P M Evans, S Green, S Manger, S Manolopoulos, J Nieto-Camero, D J Parker, J Symons, N M Allinson
PURPOSE: Radiography and tomography using proton beams promise benefit to image guidance and treatment planning for proton therapy. A novel proton tracking detector is described and experimental demonstrations at a therapy facility are reported. A new type of proton CT reconstructing relative "scattering power" rather than "stopping power" is also demonstrated. Notably, this new type of imaging does not require the measurement of the residual energies of the protons. METHODS: A large area, silicon microstrip tracker with high spatial and temporal resolution has been developed by the Proton Radiotherapy Verification and Dosimetry Applications consortium and commissioned using beams of protons at iThemba LABS, Medical Radiation Department, South Africa...
November 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751833/perineal-ultrasound-offers-useful-information-in-girls-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#13
J Lindert, O Hiort, L Tüshaus, K Tafazzoli-Lari, L Wünsch
A variable spectrum of urogenital malformations exists in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The vagina may enter the urethra at a variable level, and relations to the sphincter complex vary accordingly. Furthermore, an enlarged clitoris and variations in the bladder sphincter anatomy can be found. Endoscopy, genitography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are commonly used for the assessment of these anomalies, and to provide information for counselling and treatment. When surgery is planned, introitoplasty cosmetical reduction of the clitoris and labioplasty are discussed with the families; introitoplasty is the most demanding aspect...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667884/a-new-silicon-tracker-for-proton-imaging-and-dosimetry
#14
J T Taylor, C Waltham, T Price, N M Allinson, P P Allport, G L Casse, A Kacperek, S Manger, N A Smith, I Tsurin
For many years, silicon micro-strip detectors have been successfully used as tracking detectors for particle and nuclear physics experiments. A new application of this technology is to the field of particle therapy where radiotherapy is carried out by use of charged particles such as protons or carbon ions. Such a treatment has been shown to have advantages over standard x-ray radiotherapy and as a result of this, many new centres offering particle therapy are currently under construction around the world today...
September 21, 2016: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663893/improved-efficacy-of-neoadjuvant-compared-to-adjuvant-immunotherapy-to-eradicate-metastatic-disease
#15
Jing Liu, Stephen J Blake, Michelle C R Yong, Heidi Harjunpää, Shin Foong Ngiow, Kazuyoshi Takeda, Arabella Young, Jake S O'Donnell, Stacey Allen, Mark J Smyth, Michele W L Teng
: Immunotherapy has recently entered a renaissance phase with the approval of multiple agents for the treatment of cancer. Immunotherapy stands ready to join traditional modalities, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and hormone therapy, as a pillar of cancer treatment. Although immunotherapy has begun to have success in advanced cancer treatment, its scheduling and efficacy with surgery to treat earlier stages of cancer and prevent distant metastases have not been systematically examined...
December 2016: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644912/management-of-radiation-and-chemotherapy-related-acute-toxicity-in-gastrointestinal-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Gerhard G Grabenbauer, Göbel Holger
Possible toxic effects following radiation and chemotherapy of gastrointestinal tumours may cause a depletion of the mucosal barrier within the radiation volumes with severe mucositis. Diarrhoea, nausea, emesis and severe malabsorption followed by infections with dehydration and electrolyte disorders have to be encountered. For prevention and treatment of oropharyngeal mucositis an oral care protocol, oral cryotherapy together with benzydamine mouthwash may be recommended. Lower gastrointestinal diarrhoea is best treated by Octreotide (>100 μg s...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601958/the-contribution-of-women-to-radiobiology-marie-curie-and-beyond
#17
REVIEW
Anna Gasinska
Marie Sklodowska-Curie, an extraordinary woman, a Polish scientist who lived and worked in France, led to the development of nuclear energy and the treatment of cancer. She was the laureate of two Nobel Prizes, the first woman in Europe who obtained the degree of Doctor of Science and opened the way for women to enter fields which had been previously reserved for men only. As a result of her determination and her love of freedom, she has become an icon for many female scientists active in radiation sciences...
May 2016: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595400/primary-tumour-resection-could-improve-the-survival-of-unresectable-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-patients-receiving-bevacizumab-containing-chemotherapy
#18
Zhiming Wang, Li Liang, Yiyi Yu, Yan Wang, Rongyuan Zhuang, Yong Chen, Yuehong Cui, Yuhong Zhou, Tianshu Liu
BACKGROUND: The effect of primary tumour resection (PTR) among metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients remains controversial. Combination chemotherapy with bevacizumab could improve the clinical outcomes of these patients, which might change the importance of PTR in the multi-disciplinary treatment pattern. METHODS: We performed a non-randomized prospective controlled study of mCRC pts whose performance status (PS) scored ≤2 and who received bevacizumab combination chemotherapy (FOLFOX/XELOX/FOLFIRI) as a first-line therapy...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554118/p21-is-responsible-for-ionizing-radiation-induced-bypass-of-mitosis
#19
Xu Rui Zhang, Yong Ai Liu, Fang Sun, He Li, Su Wen Lei, Ju Fang Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of p21 in ionizing radiation-induced changes in protein levels during the G2/M transition and long-term G2 arrest. METHODS: Protein expression levels were assessed by western blot in the human uveal melanoma 92-1 cells after treatment with ionizing radiation. Depletion of p21 was carried out by employing the siRNA technique. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry combined with histone H3 phosphorylation at Ser28, an M-phase marker...
July 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543761/evaluation-of-solar-photocatalysis-using-tio2-slurry-in-the-inactivation-of-cryptosporidium-parvum-oocysts-in-water
#20
María Jesús Abeledo-Lameiro, Elvira Ares-Mazás, Hipólito Gómez-Couso
Cryptosporidium is a genus of enteric protozoan parasites of medical and veterinary importance, whose oocysts have been reported to occur in different types of water worldwide, offering a great resistant to the water treatment processes. Heterogeneous solar photocatalysis using titanium dioxide (TiO2) slurry was evaluated on inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water. Suspensions of TiO2 (0, 63, 100 and 200mg/L) in distilled water (DW) or simulated municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) effluent spiked with C...
October 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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