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mechanical bowel preparation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702022/preparing-the-gut-with-antibiotics-enhances-gut-microbiota-reprogramming-efficiency-by-promoting-xenomicrobiota-colonization
#1
Shou K Ji, Hui Yan, Tao Jiang, Chun Y Guo, Jing J Liu, Shuang Z Dong, Kai L Yang, Ya J Wang, Zhi J Cao, Sheng L Li
Gut microbiota plays multiple important roles in intestinal and physiological homeostasis, and using fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to reprogram gut microbiota has demonstrated promise for redressing intestinal and physiological disorders. This study tested the alterations in reprogramming efficiency caused by different gut preparation procedures and explored the associated underlying mechanisms. We prepared the guts of mice for FMT by administering one of the three most-clinically used pretreatments [antibiotics, bowel cleansing (BC) solution, or no pretreatment], and we found that preparing the gut with antibiotics induced a more efficient modification of the gut bacterial community than was induced by either of the other two pretreatment types...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690206/combination-of-oral-antibiotics-and-mechanical-bowel-preparation-reduces-surgical-site-infection-in-colorectal-surgery
#2
Kerri A Ohman, Leping Wan, Tracey Guthrie, Bonnie Johnston, Jennifer A Leinicke, Sean C Glasgow, Steven R Hunt, Matthew G Mutch, Paul E Wise, Matthew L Silviera
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSI) are a common complication after colorectal surgery. An infection prevention bundle (IPB) was implemented to improve outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: A standardized IPB that included the administration of oral antibiotics with a mechanical bowel preparation, preoperative shower with chlorhexidine, hair removal and skin preparation in holding, antibiotic wound irrigation, and a "clean-closure" protocol was implemented in January 2013...
July 6, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650683/mechanical-bowel-preparation-for-laparoscopic-hysterectomy-is-it-really-necessary
#3
Kadir Bakay, Fatih Aytekin
In this prospective randomised single-blind case-controlled cohort study the aim was to compare the effects of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) on field of vision and surgical comfort during total laparoscopic hysterectomy procedures. The study group was made of 102 patients that had undergone total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH), between July 2012 and June 2014. Statistical comparison was made between the means of durations of operation between the two groups divided by visual indexing (VI). The patients with a VI score of less than 2 and those with VI score of 2 or higher were compared in terms of operation duration in regard to the criteria described above...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642706/toll-like-receptor-4-modulates-small-intestine-neuromuscular-function-through-nitrergic-and-purinergic-pathways
#4
Valentina Caputi, Ilaria Marsilio, Silvia Cerantola, Mona Roozfarakh, Isabella Lante, Francesca Galuppini, Massimo Rugge, Eleonora Napoli, Cecilia Giulivi, Genny Orso, Maria Cecilia Giron
Objective: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in the homeostatic microflora-host crosstalk. TLR4-mediated modulation of both motility and enteric neuronal survival has been reported mainly for colon with limited information on the role of TLR4 in tuning structural and functional integrity of enteric nervous system (ENS) and in controlling small bowel motility. Methods: Male TLR4 knockout (TLR4(-/-), 9 ± 1 weeks old) and sex- and age-matched wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice were used for the experiments...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634136/tongxie-formula-reduces-symptoms-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#5
Heng Fan, Liang Zheng, Yaoliang Lai, Weimin Lu, Zhixiang Yan, Qi Xiao, Baiwen Li, Min Tang, Dawei Huang, Yuanyuan Wang, Zhen Li, Yuwei Mei, Zhengyan Jiang, Xingxing Liu, Qing Tang, Dongmei Zuo, Jingyi Ye, Yongqiang Yang, Huisuo Huang, Zongxiang Tang, Jun Xiao
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common chronic gastrointestinal disorder, yet few drugs are effective in reducing symptoms. Approximately 50% of patients with IBS attempt herbal therapy at least once. We performed a randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacy of the herb formulation tongxie vs placebo or pinaverium (an antispasmodic agent) in reducing symptoms of IBS. METHODS: We performed a trial of 1044 adult patients with IBS (based on Rome III criteria) at 5 hospitals in China, from August 2012 through January 2015...
June 17, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594723/is-there-a-role-for-oral-antibiotic-preparation-alone-before-colorectal-surgery-acs-nsqip-analysis-by-coarsened-exact-matching
#6
Richard Garfinkle, Jad Abou-Khalil, Nancy Morin, Gabriela Ghitulescu, Carol-Ann Vasilevsky, Philip Gordon, Marie Demian, Marylise Boutros
BACKGROUND: Recent studies demonstrated reduced postoperative complications using combined mechanical bowel and oral antibiotic preparation before elective colorectal surgery. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of these 2 interventions on surgical site infections, anastomotic leak, ileus, major morbidity, and 30-day mortality in a large cohort of elective colectomies. DESIGN: This is a retrospective comparison of 30-day outcomes using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program colectomy-targeted database with coarsened exact matching...
July 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573182/cecum-intubation-rate-as-quality-indicator-in-clinical-versus-screening-colonoscopy
#7
Geir Hoff, Øyvind Holme, Michael Bretthauer, Per Sandvei, Ole Darre-Næss, Asbjørn Stallemo, Håvard Wiig, Ole Høie, Geir Noraberg, Volker Moritz, Thomas de Lange
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS : Some guidelines recommend a minimum standard of 90 % cecal intubation rate (CIR) in routine clinics and 95 % in screening colonoscopy, while others have not made this distinction - both with limited evidence to support either view. This study questions the rationale for making such differentiation. PATIENTS AND METHODS:  We assessed cecum intubation rates amongst colonoscopies recorded in the Norwegian national quality register Gastronet by 35 endoscopists performing both clinical and screening colonoscopies...
June 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448616/abundance-profiling-of-specific-gene-groups-using-precomputed-gut-metagenomes-yields-novel-biological-hypotheses
#8
Konstantin Yarygin, Alexander Tyakht, Andrey Larin, Elena Kostryukova, Sergei Kolchenko, Vilgelm Bitner, Dmitry Alexeev
The gut microbiota is essentially a multifunctional bioreactor within a human being. The exploration of its enormous metabolic potential provides insights into the mechanisms underlying microbial ecology and interactions with the host. The data obtained using "shotgun" metagenomics capture information about the whole spectrum of microbial functions. However, each new study presenting new sequencing data tends to extract only a little of the information concerning the metabolic potential and often omits specific functions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448598/a-low-volume-polyethylene-glycol-solution-was-associated-with-an-increased-suboptimal-bowel-preparation-rate-but-had-similar-recommendations-for-an-early-repeat-colonoscopy-procedure-times-and-adenoma-detection-rates
#9
Sam C Hankins, Bryan B Brimhall, Vineel Kankanala, Gregory L Austin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Low-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG) bowel preparations are better tolerated by patients than high-volume preparations and may achieve similar preparation quality. However, there is little data comparing their effects on a recommendation for an early repeat colonoscopy (because of a suboptimal preparation), procedure times, adenoma detection rate (ADR), and advanced adenoma detection rate (AADR). METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of outpatient colonoscopies performed during a one-year period at a single academic medical center in which low-volume MoviPrep® (n = 1841) or high-volume Colyte® (n = 1337) was used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446926/are-we-ready-for-the-eras-protocol-in-colorectal-surgery
#10
Michał Kisielewski, Mateusz Rubinkiewicz, Michał Pędziwiatr, Magdalena Pisarska, Marcin Migaczewski, Marcin Dembiński, Piotr Major, Kazimierz Rembiasz, Andrzej Budzyński
INTRODUCTION: Modern perioperative care principles in elective colorectal surgery have already been established by international surgical authorities. Nevertheless, barriers to the introduction of routine evidence-based clinical care and changing dogmas still exist. One of the factors is the surgeon. AIM: To assess perioperative care trends in elective colorectal surgery among general surgery consultants in surgical departments in Malopolska Voivodeship, Poland...
2017: Wideochirurgia i Inne Techniki Mało Inwazyjne, Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437458/isomalto-oligosaccharides-ameliorate-visceral-hyperalgesia-with-repair-damage-of-ileal-epithelial-ultrastructure-in-rats
#11
Weida Wang, Haiwei Xin, Xiucai Fang, Hongtao Dou, Fangyi Liu, Dan Huang, Shaomei Han, Guijun Fei, Liming Zhu, Shenghua Zha, Hong Zhang, Meiyun Ke
BACKGROUND: Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with probiotics has achieved effectiveness to a certain extent. Whether prebiotics will work is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of the prebiotic isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) on visceral hypersensitivity (VHS) in rats and to explore potential mechanism. METHODS: Water avoidance stress (WAS) was used to induce VHS in rats. The score for the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) was determined while colorectal distension and compared between VHS group and control group in order to validate VHS preparation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436176/does-bowel-preparation-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-surgery-matter
#12
C Shwaartz, A C Fields, M Sobrero, C M Divino
AIM: The purpose of this study is to determine if bowel preparation influences outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease patients undergoing surgery. METHODS: The American College Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, Procedure Targeted Colectomy databases from 2012-2014 were analyzed. Inflammatory bowel disease patients undergoing colorectal resection with or without bowel preparation were included in the study. RESULTS: There were 3,679 patients with inflammatory bowel disease identified...
April 24, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433362/effect-of-preadmission-bowel-preparation-on-outcomes-of-elective-colorectal-procedures-in-young-children
#13
Guillermo J Ares, Irene Helenowski, Catherine J Hunter, Marybeth Madonna, Marleta Reynolds, Timothy Lautz
BACKGROUND: The utility of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) to minimize infectious complications in elective colorectal surgery is contentious. Though data is scarce in children, adult studies suggest a benefit to MBP when administered with oral antibiotics (OAB). METHODS: After IRB approval, the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) was queried for young children undergoing elective colon surgery from 2011 to 2014. Patients were divided into: no bowel preparation (Group 1), MBP (Group 2), and MBP plus OAB (Group 3)...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415434/design-and-development-of-a-hybrid-bioartificial-water-induced-shape-memory-polymeric-material-as-an-integral-component-for-the-anastomosis-of-human-hollow-organs
#14
Siriana Paonessa, Niccoletta Barbani, Elisa Cibrario Rocchietti, Claudia Giachino, Caterina Cristallini
A large number of pathologies require the resection of the bowel and anastomoses to rejoin the two remaining stumps to regain lumen patency. Various materials have been used to rejoin one bowel end to the other such as catgut, stainless steel, and absorbable sutures. The present method for anastomosis surgery uses an entero-entero anastomosis (EEA) circular stapler with only a staple line. This method can have some drawbacks, such as intracellular fluid leakage and local inflammations. The aim of this study is to design and develop a novel bioartificial polymer with a ring shape made of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and gelatin (80/20 ratio (w/w)) loaded both directly with acetylsalicylic acid and with nanoparticles incorporating the same drug to reduce local inflammation even for a prolonged period of time...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383453/predictors-of-anastomotic-leak-in-elderly-patients-after-colectomy-nomogram-based-assessment-from-the-american-college-of-surgeons-national-surgical-quality-program-procedure-targeted-cohort
#15
Ahmet Rencuzogullari, Cigdem Benlice, Michael Valente, Maher A Abbas, Feza H Remzi, Emre Gorgun
BACKGROUND: Elderly patients undergoing colorectal surgery have increasingly become under scrutiny by accounting for the largest fraction of geriatric postoperative deaths and a significant proportion of all postoperative complications, including anastomotic leak. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine predictors of anastomotic leak in elderly patients undergoing colectomy by creating a novel nomogram for simplistic prediction of anastomotic leak risk in a given patient...
May 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270910/american-society-for-enhanced-recovery-aser-and-perioperative-quality-initiative-poqi-joint-consensus-statement-on-prevention-of-postoperative-infection-within-an-enhanced-recovery-pathway-for-elective-colorectal-surgery
#16
Stefan D Holubar, Traci Hedrick, Ruchir Gupta, John Kellum, Mark Hamilton, Tong J Gan, Monty G Mythen, Andrew D Shaw, Timothy E Miller
BACKGROUND: Colorectal surgery (CRS) patients are an at-risk population who are particularly vulnerable to postoperative infectious complications. Infectious complications range from minor infections including simple cystitis and superficial wound infections to life-threatening situations such as lobar pneumonia or anastomotic leak with fecal peritonitis. Within an enhanced recovery pathway (ERP), there are multiple approaches that can be used to reduce the risk of postoperative infections...
2017: Perioperative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195032/ph-responsive-carriers-for-oral-drug-delivery-challenges-and-opportunities-of-current-platforms
#17
REVIEW
Lin Liu, WenDong Yao, YueFeng Rao, XiaoYang Lu, JianQing Gao
Oral administration is a desirable alternative of parenteral administration due to the convenience and increased compliance to patients, especially for chronic diseases that require frequent administration. The oral drug delivery is a dynamic research field despite the numerous challenges limiting their effective delivery, such as enzyme degradation, hydrolysis and low permeability of intestinal epithelium in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. pH-Responsive carriers offer excellent potential as oral therapeutic systems due to enhancing the stability of drug delivery in stomach and achieving controlled release in intestines...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153961/novel-insight-into-the-role-of-microbiota-in-colorectal-surgery
#18
REVIEW
Radu Bachmann, Daniel Leonard, Nathalie Delzenne, Alex Kartheuser, Patrice D Cani
Recent literature undeniably supports the idea that the microbiota has a strong influence on the healing process of an intestinal anastomosis. Understanding the mechanisms by which the bacterial community of the gut influences intestinal healing could open the door for new preventive and therapeutic approaches. Among the different mechanisms, data have shown that the production of specific reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activation of specific formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) regulate intestinal wound healing...
April 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153604/ectopic-expression-of-sigirr-in-the-colon-ameliorates-colitis-in-mice-by-downregulating-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-overactivation
#19
Jinlin Liu, Yanxia Chen, Dongsheng Liu, Wei Liu, Sijun Hu, Nanjin Zhou, Yong Xie
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by uncontrolled immune responses in inflamed mucosa, especially the TLR (Toll-like receptor) signaling pathway. Single Ig domain containing IL-1 receptor-related molecule (SIGIRR), a negative regulator of the TLR signaling pathway, whether had a therapeutic effect in a mouse model of IBD, and the underlying mechanism has not been investigated. METHODS: Coacervation was used to prepare chitosan/pUNO-SIGIRR nanoparticles...
March 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151800/comparative-effectiveness-and-risks-of-bowel-preparation-before-elective-colorectal-surgery
#20
Sarah E Koller, Katherine W Bauer, Brian L Egleston, Radhika Smith, Matthew M Philp, Howard M Ross, Nestor F Esnaola
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between bowel preparation and surgical site infections (SSIs), and also other postoperative complications, after elective colorectal surgery. BACKGROUND: SSI is a major source of postoperative morbidity/costs after colorectal surgery. The value of preoperative bowel preparation to prevent SSI remains controversial. METHODS: We analyzed 32,359 patients who underwent elective colorectal resections in the American College of Surgeons National Surgery Quality Improvement Program database from 2012 to 2014...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Surgery
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