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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786953/iatrogenic-botulism-outbreak-in-egypt-due-to-a-counterfeit-botulinum-toxin-a-preparation-a-descriptive-series-of-patient-features-and-outcome
#1
Eman Abdel Monaem Abdel Rashid, Nashwa Mohamed El-Mahdy, Huda Shehata Kharoub, Ahmed Salah Gouda, Naglaa Ahmed ElNabarawy, Bruno Mégarbane
Iatrogenic botulism resulting from the substantial increase in use of botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT-A) treatment is rarely reported. We aimed to describe a large iatrogenic botulism outbreak in Egypt in June-July 2017. Nine patients developed botulism after receiving intramuscular injections of BoNT-A (dose: 200-300 IU) to treat cerebral palsy (N=7), spastic dystonia (N=1), and hyperhidrosis (N=1). Detailed findings were available in 5/9 cases. Patients were admitted to the hospital 5-10 days after the BoNT-A injection...
May 22, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786673/fabrication-flexible-and-luminescent-nanofibrillated-cellulose-films-with-modified-sral%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-eu-dy-phosphors-via-nanoscale-silica-and-aminosilane
#2
Longfei Zhang, Shaoyi Lyu, Zhilin Chen, Siqun Wang
Flexible 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose (ONFC) films with long afterglow luminescence containing modified SrAl₂O₄: Eu2+ , Dy3+ (SAOED) phosphors were fabricated by a template method. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxy-silane (APTMS) were employed cooperatively to improve the water resistance and compatibility of the SAOED particles in the ONFC suspension. The structure and morphology after modification evidenced the formation of a superior SiO₂ layer and coarse amino-compounds on the surface of the phosphors...
May 22, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786658/melatonin-as-a-therapy-for-traumatic-brain-injury-a-review-of-published-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Nicole Osier, Emily McGreevy, Lan Pham, Ava Puccio, Dianxu Ren, Yvette P Conley, Sheila Alexander, C Edward Dixon
Melatonin (MEL) is a hormone that is produced in the brain and is known to bind to MEL-specific receptors on neuronal membranes in several brain regions. MEL's documented neuroprotective properties, low toxicity, and ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier have led to its evaluation for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), a condition for which there are currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapies. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarize the evidence surrounding the use of melatonin after TBI, as well as identify existing gaps and future directions...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786635/mechanical-behavior-optimization-of-chitosan-extracted-from-shrimp-shells-as-a-sustainable-material-for-shopping-bags
#4
Giacomo D'Angelo, Amal Elhussieny, Marwa Faisal, I S Fahim, Nicola M Everitt
The use of biodegradable materials for shopping bag production, and other products made from plastics, has recently been an object of intense research-with the aim of reducing the environmental burdens given by conventional materials. Chitosan is a potential material because of its biocompatibility, degradability, and non-toxicity. It is a semi-natural biopolymeric material produced by the deacetylation of chitin, which is the second most abundant natural biopolymer (after cellulose). Chitin is found in the exoskeleton of insects, marine crustaceans, and the cell walls of certain fungi and algae...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786579/operative-treatment-of-corrosive-esophageal-strictures
#5
Volodymyr O Shaprynskyi, Yevhen V Shaprynskyi, Yaroslav V Karyi, Serhii A Lysenko, Oleg O Vorovskyi, Andrii I Semenenko
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Nowadays operative treatment of corrosive esophageal strictures remains one of the difficult and unsolved problems in surgery. The level of postoperative complications such as anastomotic leak (develops in 7-30% of cases), infections, pneumonia, pleural empyema, mediastinitis, peritonitis, postoperative corrosive strictures is still rather high. The aim of our work was to improve the results of surgical treatment of patients with corrosive esophageal strictures by analyzing and refining on conservative therapy options as well as differentiated approach to each operative treatment method...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786431/ultrasonic-assisted-spin-coating-improved-junction-by-enhanced-permeation-of-coating-material-within-nanostructures
#6
Jong-Won Yun, Farman Ullah, Se-Jeong Jang, Do Hui Kim, Tri Khoa Nguyen, Ki Yeon Ryu, Shinuk Cho, Joon I Jang, Dooyong Lee, Sungkyun Park, Yong Soo Kim
Over the last decades, the spin coating (SC) technique has been widely used to prepare thin films of various materials in liquid phase on arbitrary substrates. The technique simply relies on centrifugal force to spread a coating solution radially outwards over the substrate. This mechanism works fairly well for solutions with low surface tension to form thin films of reasonable junctions on smooth substrates. Here, we present a modified SC technique, namely ultrasonic-assisted spin-coating (UASC), to form thin films of coating solution having high surface tension on rough substrates with excellent junctions...
May 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786114/endothelium-dependent-vasodilation-in-the-cerebral-arterioles-of-rats-deteriorates-during-acute-hyperglycemia-and-then-is-restored-by-reducing-the-glucose-level
#7
Kazuhiro Kito, Kumiko Tanabe, Koji Sakata, Naokazu Fukuoka, Kiyoshi Nagase, Mami Iida, Hiroki Iida
PURPOSE: Acute hyperglycemia in patients with traumatic brain injury correlates with a poor neurological outcome. We investigated the endothelium function of rat cerebral arterioles during acute hyperglycemia and after reducing the glucose levels using insulin. We also examined whether or not oxidative stress was involved in the cerebral arteriole response to acute hyperglycemia. METHODS: In isoflurane-anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rats, we used closed cranial window preparation to measure the changes in the pial arteriolar diameter following the topical application of acetylcholine (ACh) or adenosine...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786083/attention-improves-memory-by-suppressing-spiking-neuron-activity-in-the-human-anterior-temporal-lobe
#8
John H Wittig, Anthony I Jang, John B Cocjin, Sara K Inati, Kareem A Zaghloul
We identify a memory-specific attention mechanism in the human anterior temporal lobe, an area implicated in semantic processing and episodic memory formation. Spiking neuron activity is suppressed and becomes more reliable in preparation for verbal memory formation. Intracranial electroencephalography signals implicate this region as a source of executive control for attentional selection. Consistent with this interpretation, its surgical removal causes significant memory impairment for attended words relative to unattended words...
May 21, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785852/syntheses-of-gibberellins-a-15-and-a-24-the-key-metabolites-in-gibberellin-biosynthesis
#9
David J-Y D Bon, Lewis Norman Mander, Ping Lan
Gibberellins (GAs) are essential phytohormones involved in numerous aspects of plant growth and development. Notably, the biochemistry and genetics of GA biosynthesis which is associated with their endogenous regulation has been largely resolved, however, a crucial unsolved question remains: the precise mechanism of the stepwise oxidation and subsequent removal of C-20 from C20-precursors leading to bioactive C19 gibberellins is still unresolved. In order to satisfy numerous requests from biologists, practical preparations of certain GAs that were isolated in miniscule quantities are highly demanded...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785105/development-and-blood-compatibility-assessment-of-electrospun-polyvinyl-alcohol-blended-with-metallocene-polyethylene-and-plectranthus-amboinicus-pva-mpe-pa-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#10
Jie Qi, Huang Zhang, Yingzhou Wang, Mohan Prasath Mani, Saravana Kumar Jaganathan
Introduction: Currently, the design of extracellular matrix (ECM) with nanoscale properties in bone tissue engineering is challenging. For bone tissue engineering, the ECM must have certain properties such as being nontoxic, highly porous, and should not cause foreign body reactions. Materials and methods: In this study, the hybrid scaffold based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blended with metallocene polyethylene (mPE) and plectranthus amboinicus (PA) was fabricated for bone tissue engineering via electrospinning...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784272/design-and-synthesis-of-new-antitumor-agents-with-the-1-7-epoxycyclononane-framework-study-of-their-anticancer-action-mechanism-by-a-model-compound
#11
Ángel M Montaña, Julia Lorenzo, Stefano Ponzano, Maria-Filomena Sanasi
This article describes the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a new family of antitumor agents having the 1,7-epoxycyclononane framework. We have developed a versatile synthetic methodology that allows the preparation of a chemical library with structural diversity and in good yield. The synthetic methodology has been scaled up to the multigram level and can be developed in an enantioselective fashion. The study in vitro of a model compound, in front of the cancer cell lines HL-60 and MCF-7, showed a growth inhibitory effect better than that of cisplatin...
May 18, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783873/current-and-potential-treatment-options-for-hyperphosphatemia
#12
Fabio Carfagna, Lucia Del Vecchio, Giuseppe Pontoriero, Francesco Locatelli
Hyperphosphatemia is common in late stages of chronic kidney disease and is often associated with elevated parathormone levels, abnormal bone mineralization, extra-osseous calcification, and increased risk of cardiovascular events and death. Several classes of oral phosphate binders are available to help control plasma phosphorus levels. Although effective at lowering serum phosphorus, they all have safety, tolerability, and compliance issues that need to be considered when selecting which one to use. Areas covered: This paper reviews the most established treatment options for hyperphosphatemia, in patients with chronic kidney disease, focusing on the new inhibitors of active phosphate absorption...
May 21, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783734/void-formation-elimination-and-viscoelastic-response-of-polyphenylsilsesquioxane-monolith
#13
Yusuke Daiko, Yuki Oda, Sawao Honda, Yuji Iwamoto
Polyphenylsilsesquioxane (PhSiO3/2 ) particles as an organic-inorganic hybrid were prepared using sol-gel method, and monolithic samples were obtained via a warm-pressing. The reaction mechanism of particles' polymerization and transformation to the monolith under the warm-press were investigated using solid state 29 Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer, thermal gravimetric-differential thermal analyzer (TG-DTA), mass spectrometer (MS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Transparent and void-free monoliths are successfully obtained by warm-pressing above 180 °C...
May 19, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783719/in-vitro-estrogenic-and-breast-cancer-inhibitory-activities-of-chemical-constituents-isolated-from-rheum-undulatum-l
#14
Dahae Lee, SeonJu Park, Sungyoul Choi, Seung Hyun Kim, Ki Sung Kang
We investigated the estrogenic and breast cancer inhibitory activities of chemical constituents isolated from Rhei undulati Rhizoma (roots of Rheum undulatum L.), which is used as a laxative, an anti-inflammatory, and an anti-blood stagnation agent. Estrogen-like activity was studied using the well characterized E-screen assay in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 cells. The mechanism underlying the breast cancer inhibitory activity of the compounds was studied using human ER-negative MDA-MB-231 and ER-positive MCF-7 cells...
May 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783656/aging-resistant-functionalized-ldh%C3%A2-sas-nitrile-butadiene-rubber-composites-preparation-and-study-of-aging-kinetics-anti-aging-mechanism
#15
Tianxiang Li, Zhengren Shi, Xianru He, Ping Jiang, Xiaobin Lu, Rui Zhang, Xin Wang
With the aim of improving the anti-aging properties of nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), a functional organic filler, namely LDH⁻SAS, prepared by intercalating 4-amino-benzenesulfonic acid monosodium salt (SAS) into layered double hydroxides (LDHs) through anion exchange, was added to nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), giving the NBR/LDH⁻SAS composites. Successful preparation of LDH⁻SAS was confirmed by XRD, TGA and FTIR. LDH⁻SAS was well dispersed in the NBR matrix, owing to its strong interaction with the nitrile group of NBR...
May 18, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783651/effect-of-microwave-radiation-power-on-the-size-of-aggregates-of-zno-nps-prepared-using-microwave-solvothermal-synthesis
#16
Jacek Wojnarowicz, Tadeusz Chudoba, Stanisław Gierlotka, Witold Lojkowski
This paper reports the possibility of changing the size of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) aggregates through a change of synthesis parameters. The effect of the changed power of microwave heating on the properties of ZnO NPs obtained by the microwave solvothermal synthesis from zinc acetate dissolved in ethylene glycol was tested for the first time. It was found that the size of ZnO aggregates ranged from 60 to 120 nm depending on the power of microwave radiation used in the synthesis of ZnO NPs. The increase in the microwave radiation power resulted in the reduction of the total synthesis time with simultaneous preservation of the constant size and shape of single ZnO NPs, which were synthesized at a pressure of 4 bar...
May 18, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783203/mechanical-characterization-and-ion-release-of-bioactive-dental-composites-containing-calcium-phosphate-particles
#17
Livia C Natale, Marcela C Rodrigues, Yvette Alania, Marina D S Chiari, Leticia C C Boaro, Marycel Cotrim, Oscar Vega, Roberto R Braga
OBJECTIVE: to verify the effect of the addition of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) particles functionalized with di- or triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (DEGDMA or TEGDMA) on the degree of conversion (DC), post-gel shrinkage (PS), mechanical properties, and ion release of experimental composites. METHODS: Four composites were prepared containing a BisGMA/TEGDMA matrix and 60 vol% of fillers. The positive control contained only barium glass fillers, while in the other composites 15 vol% of the barium was replaced by DCPD...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783141/graphene-oxide-and-carbon-nanodots-co-modified-biobr-nanocomposites-with-enhanced-photocatalytic-4-chlorophenol-degradation-and-mechanism-insight
#18
Songying Qu, Yuhan Xiong, Jun Zhang
Non-metallic graphene oxide (GO) and carbon nanodots (CDots) co-doped BiOBr ternary system (GO/CDots/BiOBr) were successfully synthesized via a simple one-step solvothermal process. The compositional characterization, optical and electrical properties of photocatalysts were investigated in detail. The prepared ternary photocatalysts possessed the excellent visible-light driven photocatalytic 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) degradation. Additionally, the 4-CP removal efficiencies decreased in the order of GO/CDots/BiOBr (88...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782987/chitin-silk-fibroin-tio-2-bio-nanocomposite-as-a-biocompatible-wound-dressing-bandage-with-strong-antimicrobial-activity
#19
Mojtaba Ghanbari Mehrabani, Ramin Karimian, Rasul Rakhshaei, Farzaneh Pakdel, Hosein Eslami, Vahid Fakhrzadeh, Mahdi Rahimi, Roya Salehi, Hossein Samadi Kafil
Interconnected microporous biodegradable and biocompatible chitin/silk fibroin/TiO2 nanocomposite wound dressing with high antibacterial, blood clotting and mechanical strength properties were synthesized using freeze-drying method. The prepared nanocomposite dressings were characterized using SEM, FTIR, and XRD analysis. The prepared nanocomposite dressings showed high porosity above 90% with well-defined interconnected porous construction. Swelling and water uptake of the dressing were 93%, which is great for wound dressing applications...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782978/a-potent-chitinase-from-bacillus-subtilis-for-the-efficient-bioconversion-of-chitin-containing-wastes
#20
Di Wang, Anjie Li, Hongyu Han, Tian Liu, Qing Yang
Bioconversion of chitin-containing waste to N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) is of economic interest. Highly efficient chitinases are thus desirable. Bacillus subtilis is a well-known microorganism for industrial protein production and biocontrol, however its chitinolytic enzyme has not been studied in detail. In this study, BsChi from B. subtilis was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized as a potent chitinase for degrading crystalline chitin substrates such as α-chitin, β-chitin and crab shells...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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