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mechanical preparation

Hong Gun Kim, Yong Sun Kim, Lee Ku Kwac, Su-Hyeong Chae, Hye Kyoung Shin
Carbon foams were prepared by carbonization of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/waste artificial marble powder (WAMP) composites obtained via electron beam irradiation (EBI); these composites were prepared by mixing eco-friendly CMC with WAMP as the fillers for improved their poor mechanical strength. Gel fractions of the CMC/WAMP composites obtained at various EBI doses were investigated, and it was found that the CMC/WAMP composites obtained at an EBI dose of 80 kGy showed the highest gel fraction (95%); hence, the composite prepared at this dose was selected for preparing the carbon foam...
March 22, 2018: Materials
Fatemeh Nasiri, Saeed Ajeli, Dariush Semnani, Mohsen Jahanshahi, Rahmatollah Emadi
The present work is investigated mechanical properties of tubular carbon/Kevlar® composite coated with poly methyl methacrylate/Graphene nanoplates as used in internal fixation of bones. Carbon fibers are good candidates for developing high-strength biomaterials and due to better stress transfer and electrical properties, they can enhance tissue formation. In order to improve carbon brittleness, ductile Kevlar® was added to the composite. The tubular carbon/ Kevlar® composites have been prepared with tailorable braiding technology by changing fiber pattern and angle in composite structure and number of composite layers...
March 22, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Yijin Wu, Yucheng Wang, Ruixiang Wang, Pengfang Zhang, Xiaodong Yang, Huijuan Yang, Jun-Tao Li, Yao Zhou, Zhi-You Zhou, Shi-Gang Sun
The Fe/N/C catalysts of reasonable design and synthsis, one of most promising non-precious metal catalysts of oxygen reduction reaction in acidic medium for developing efficient polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Herein, we developed a highly active MOFs-derived S-doped Fe/N/C catalyst (S-Fe/Z8/2-AT) prepared by heating a precursors mixture in Ar atomsphere. The S-Fe/Z8/2-AT catalyst shows uniform S doping in the carbonaceous framework and a 3D network porous structure which has macro-meso-micro hierarchical porosity...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiaobin Mo, Timothy D R Morgan, Hwee Ting Ang, Dennis G Hall
Catalytic activation of hydroxyl functionalities is of great interest for the production of pharmaceuticals and commodity chemicals. Here, 2-alkoxycarbonyl- and 2-phenoxycarbonyl-phenylboronic acid were identified as efficient catalysts for the direct and chemoselective activation of oxime N-OH bonds in the Beckmann rearrangement. This classical organic reaction provides a unique approach to prepare functionalized amide products that may be difficult to access using traditional amide coupling between carboxylic acids and amines...
March 22, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Mingchun Gao, Rongxuan Ye, Weijia Shen, Bin Xu
Copper has been explored as an ideal candidate for replacing noble metals in organic synthesis, especially for practical large scale preparation. Recent decades have witnessed the renaissance and improvement of copper-catalyzed and copper-mediated organic reactions. Copper nitrate is a common inorganic copper salt which has been proved to be a ubiquitous reactant in organic synthesis due to its commercial availability, stability, inexpensiveness and environmentally benign nature. Copper nitrate could be used as a nitration reagent, oxidant, catalyst or promoter, and Lewis acid as well...
March 22, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Ming-Yen Lu, Shang-Chi Wu, Hsiang-Chen Wang, Ming-Pei Lu
As the feature sizes of devices decrease to the nanoscale, electron microscopy and lithography will become increasingly essential techniques for fabrication and inspection. In this study, we probed the memory effects of MoS2 field-effect transistors (FETs) subjected to electron beam (e-beam) irradiation; after fabricating the devices on 300 nm SiO2/Si substrates, we irradiated the MoS2 FETs with various doses of irradiation from a 30 kV e-beam. The threshold voltage shifted to the negative side and the mobility increased-a so-called memory effect-upon increasing the e-beam dose...
March 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Avneet Kaur, Sharad Wakode, Dharam Pal Pathak, Vidushi Sharma, Ashok K Shakya
BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used for many years, but the chronic use of NSAID's leads to gastric side effects, ulceration and kidney problems. These side effects are due to non-selective inhibition of COX-2 along with COX-1. Therefore, it is imperative to develop novel and selective COX-2 inhibitors Objective: In this paper wehave synthesized a series of novel hybrids comprising of substituted-N-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-benzo[d]oxazole derivatives and screened for the treatment of inflammation...
March 21, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
Jobbe P L Leenen, Judith E K R Hentzen, Henrietta D L Ockhuijsen
It has been a standard practice to perform mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) prior to colorectal surgery to reduce the risk of colorectal anastomotic leakages (CAL). The latest Cochrane systematic review suggests there is no benefit for MBP in terms of decreasing CAL, but new studies have been published. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to update current evidence for the effectiveness of preoperative MBP on CAL in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Consequently, PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL and CINAHL were searched from 2010 to March 2017 for randomised controlled trials (RCT) that compared the effects of MBP in colorectal surgery on anastomotic leakages...
March 21, 2018: Updates in Surgery
Yuan Ou, Kai Chen, Hao Cai, Hu Zhang, Qiyong Gong, Jian Wang, Wei Chen, Kui Luo
In this study, to enhance the therapeutic function and reduce the side-effects of doxorubicin (DOX), a biodegradable N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) polymer-DOX conjugate has been prepared through reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and conjugation chemistry, and the anticancer agent DOX was covalently linked to the polymeric vehicle through a pH-responsive hydrazone bond. The cellular mechanisms of the conjugate were explored, and the therapeutic indexes were studied as well...
March 22, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Xiaoyun Wang, Weijiang Zhang, Xiwen Sun, Yan Lin, Wei Chen
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common malignant gynecological disease. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) serve an important role in the development and progression of EC through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The aim of the present study was to examine the association between CAFs and EMT, and the possible mechanisms of action. Firstly, the CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) were isolated and cultured, then an immunofluorescence assay was performed to analyze the purity and level of activation of CAFs and NFs, and then the conditional medium (CM) of CAFs and NFs was prepared...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Xingmei Duan, Minjie Mu, Junfeng Yan, Lan Bai, Lei Zhong, Yuxuan Zhu, Haixia Pan, Mei Zhang, Jianyou Shi
Background: The newly synthesized Aurora-A kinase inhibitor XY-4 is a potential anti-cancer agent, but its hydrophobicity and limited efficiency restrict further application. Nanotechnology based combined therapy provides an optimized strategy for solving these issues. Methods: In this study, the newly synthesized Aurora-A kinase inhibitor XY-4 and Bcl-xl targeted siRNA were co-delivered by cationic liposomes, creating an injectable co-delivery formulation. The anti-cancer ability and mechanisms of XY-4/Bcl-xl siRNA co-loaded cationic liposomes were studied both in vitro and in vivo...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Sheba R David, Nurafiqah Malek, Abdul Hanif Mahadi, Srikumar Chakravarthi, Rajan Rajabalaya
Background: Peritonitis is the most serious complication of peritoneal dialysis. Staphylococcus aureus infections could lead to peritonitis which causes reversal of peritoneal dialysis treatment back to hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to develop a controlled release silicone adhesive-based mupirocin patch for prophylactic effect and analyze its antibacterial effectiveness against S. aureus . Methods: The matrix patches were prepared by using different polymers, with and without silicone adhesive, dibutyl sebacate and mupirocin...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Xiaoguang Ma, Xiaoyu Li, Jianqiang Li, Cécile Genevois, Bingqian Ma, Auriane Etienne, Chunlei Wan, Emmanuel Véron, Zhijian Peng, Mathieu Allix
Transparent crystalline yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG; Y3 Al5 O12 ) is a dominant host material used in phosphors, scintillators, and solid state lasers. However, YAG single crystals and transparent ceramics face several technological limitations including complex, time-consuming, and costly synthetic approaches. Here we report facile elaboration of transparent YAG-based ceramics by pressureless nano-crystallization of Y2 O3 -Al2 O3 bulk glasses. The resulting ceramics present a nanostructuration composed of YAG nanocrystals (77 wt%) separated by small Al2 O3 crystalline domains (23 wt%)...
March 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Santhi Iyer Kumar, Kathleen Doo, Julie Sottilo-Brammeier, Christianne Lane, Janice M Liebler
BACKGROUND: Studies exploring the effect of body mass index (BMI) on outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU) have yielded mixed results, with few studies assessing patients at the extremes of obesity. We sought to understand the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with super obesity (BMI > 50 kg/m2 ) as compared to morbid obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m2 ) and obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2 ). METHODS: A retrospective review of patients admitted to the Los Angeles County + University of Southern California medical intensive care unit (MICU) service between 2008 and 2013 was performed...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Taja Železnik Ramuta, Mateja Erdani Kreft
Human amniotic membrane (hAM) is the innermost layer of fetal membranes, which surrounds the developing fetus and forms the amniotic cavity. hAM and hAM-derived cells possess many properties that make them suitable for use in regenerative medicine, such as low immunogenicity, promotion of epithelization, anti-inflammatory properties, angiogenic and antiangiogenic properties, antifibrotic properties, antimicrobial properties, and anticancer properties. Many pathological conditions of the urinary tract lead to organ damage or complete loss of function...
January 2018: Cell Transplantation
Xinya Wang, Changfa Xiao, Hailiang Liu, Qinglin Huang, Junqiang Hao, Hao Fu
Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) porous membranes are fabricated via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) with mixed diluent (dibutyl phthalate (DBP)/dioctyl phthalate (DOP)). The effects of mixed diluent are discussed in detail in term of morphology, mean pore size, selective wettability, etc. The results show that the membrane structure changes from spherulitic to bicontinuous with the change of DBP/DOP ratio. It is also found that the degree of crystallization decreases with the decrease of DBP/DOP ratio in mixed diluent...
March 18, 2018: Materials
Dattatray G Deshmukh, Mukund N Bangal, Mukunda R Patekar, Vijay J Medhane, Vijayavitthal Thippannachar Mathad
The present work describes investigation of mechanistic pathway for trimethyl borate mediated amidation of (R)-mandelic acid (3) with 4-nitophenylethylamine (2) to provide (R)-2-hydroxy-N-[2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]-2-phenylacetamide (4) during mirabegron synthesis. Plausible reaction mechanism is proposed by isolating and elucidating the active α-hydroxy ester intermediate 16 from the reaction mass. Trimethyl borate mediated approach proved to be selective in providing 4 without disturbing α-hydroxyl group and stereochemistry of the chiral center, and is also a greener, more economic and production friendly over the reported methods...
March 2018: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Subhasis Das, Manideepa Sengupta, Arijit Bag, Mumtaj Shah, Ankur Bordoloi
A synergistic approach was made to develop a highly stable and carbon resistant catalyst system based on cobalt and nickel supported over modified mesoporous silica for the dry reforming of methane (DRM). Modified mesoporous silica is prepared by a hydrothermal method, and the total Co & Ni composition is taken at around 5% by using the deposition-precipitation technique. CO2 reforming with methane was performed at 400-800 °C under atmospheric pressure as well as at a pressure of 1 MPa, keeping the CH4/CO2 ratio equal to unity...
March 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Nobukazu Shirakawa, Toshio Iwata, Shinjiro Miyake, Takero Otuka, So Koizumi, Toshitugu Kawata
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the esthetics and frictional force of an orthodontic wire passed through a newly designed tube made of a polyether ether ketone (PEEK) resin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two types of standard PEEK tubes were prepared at 0.5 × 0.6ф and 0.8 × 0.9ф, and different archwires were passed through the tubes. Color values were determined according to brightness and hues. Friction was assessed with different bracket-wire combinations, and surface roughness was determined by stereomicroscopy before and after the application of friction...
March 21, 2018: Angle Orthodontist
Bayan Alemrayat, Abdelbary Elhissi, Husam M Younes
Letrozole (LTZ), an aromatase inhibitor used for the treatment of hormonally-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women, has poor water solubility, rapid metabolism and a range of side effects. In this study, polymer-based nanoparticles (NPs) incorporating the drug have been designed and characterized, aimed to control the release, potentially maximize the therapeutic efficiency and minimize the side effects of the drug. LTZ was incorporated into Poly (D, L-Lactide) (PDLLA) NPs by employing the emulsion-solvent evaporation technique using a range of drug concentrations...
March 21, 2018: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
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