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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778304/postural-orthostatic-tachycardia-syndrome-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
REVIEW
Jeffrey R Boris
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) affects up to 3,000,000 people in the United States, with at least one-third of them developing POTS before the age of 18. POTS as a disorder is similar in adult and pediatric populations, but there are factors specific to pediatric patients that affect how it presents and how it is experienced that make pediatric POTS different. This review discusses the both the similarities in this population to their adult counterparts and the unique challenges faced by pediatric POTS patients, including management of schooling and education as well as the complex interactions between these pediatric patients and their parents...
May 12, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774765/-staying-safe-a-narrative-review-of-falls-prevention-in-people-with-parkinson-s-pdsafe
#2
Sophia Hulbert, Lynn Rochester, Alice Nieuwboer, Vicki Goodwin, Carolyn Fitton, Kim Chivers-Seymour, Ann Ashburn
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease demonstrates a spectrum of motor and non-motor symptoms. Falling is common and disabling. Current medical management shows minimal impact to reduce falls or fall-related risk factors, such as deficits in gait, strength, and postural instability. Despite evidence supporting rehabilitation in reducing fall risk factors, the most appropriate intervention to reduce overall fall rate remains inconclusive. This article aims to 1) synthesise current evidence and conceptual models of falls rehabilitation in Parkinson's in a narrative review; and based on this evidence, 2) introduce the treatment protocol used in the falls prevention and multi-centre clinical trial "PDSAFE"...
May 18, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773483/sleep-disorders-in-patients-with-postural-tachycardia-syndrome-a-review-of-the-literature-and-guide-for-clinicians
#3
REVIEW
Mitchell G Miglis, Fiona Barwick
Fatigue is common in POTS, and patients often report unrefreshing sleep. These symptoms are directly correlated with a reduced quality of life, however the treatment of sleep disorders in this population remains a challenge. This article will review the current literature on the prevalence of sleep disorders in POTS, their association with the underlying pathophysiology of POTS, and current treatment paradigms.
May 8, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765889/amount-of-weight-bearing-during-tilt-table-inclination-with-neutral-and-unilateral-knee-flexion-postures
#4
Jung Hyun Yang, Tae Wan Kim, Sang Hun Kim, Byeong Ju Lee, Jin A Yoon, Nam Hoon Moon, Myung Jun Shin, Yong Beom Shin
Objective: To analyze the amount of weight-bearing during tilt table increments, with a review of neutral and unilateral knee flexion postures. Methods: There were 17 healthy participants enrolled in this study. The subjects were tilted from 10° to 90°, and their body weight was measured at each 10° increment. In the first test, both plantar pressures, with the subjects in neutral posture, were recorded. During the second and third tests, the angle of inclination was thus recorded and increased, with the subjects in unilateral knee flexion posture; flexion was maintained at 25° by attaching a cylindrical support to the tilt table at the level of the popliteal fossa...
April 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765190/evaluating-equilibrium-in-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#5
REVIEW
Forough Ferdowsi, Zahra Sadat Rezaeian
[Purpose] The purpose of this review was to summarize available methods and equipment which are administered to evaluate the balance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] A literature search was performed and reviewed using the narrative approach. This study reviewed English articles concerning balance assessment methods in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction subjects from 1985 to 2015 using the following key words: Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury, Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction, Postural Control, Equilibrium, Balance and Stability...
May 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758954/the-use-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-evaluate-cortical-excitability-of-lower-limb-musculature-challenges-and-opportunities
#6
Trisha M Kesar, James W Stinear, Steven L Wolf
Neuroplasticity is a fundamental yet relatively unexplored process that can impact rehabilitation of lower extremity (LE) movements. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has gained widespread application as a non-invasive brain stimulation technique for evaluating neuroplasticity of the corticospinal pathway. However, a majority of TMS studies have been performed on hand muscles, with a paucity of TMS investigations focused on LE muscles. This perspective review paper proposes that there are unique methodological challenges associated with using TMS to evaluate corticospinal excitability of lower limb muscles...
May 5, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757061/exercise-induced-laryngeal-obstruction-in-athletes-contributory-factors-and-treatment-implications
#7
Liv-Jorunn Kolnes, Trine Stensrud
Otherwise healthy adolescent athletes presenting with respiratory symptoms consistent with exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) are frequently encountered in clinical practice. The symptoms are often incorrectly considered to result from exercise-induced asthma, and may be wrongly treated as such. Given the potential implications for health and performance if EILO is left untreated, a more comprehensive understanding of contributory mechanisms is essential in order to create appropriate treatment procedures...
May 14, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755338/a-review-of-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Isobel T French, Kalai A Muthusamy
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is situated in the upper pons in the dorsolateral portion of the ponto-mesencephalic tegmentum. Its main mass is positioned at the trochlear nucleus level, and is part of the mesenphalic locomotor region (MLR) in the upper brainstem. The human PPN is divided into two subnuclei, the pars compacta (PPNc) and pars dissipatus (PPNd), and constitutes both cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons with afferent and efferent projections to the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia (BG), cerebellum, and spinal cord...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754321/chronic-low-back-pain-a-mini-review-on-pharmacological-management-and-pathophysiological-insights-from-clinical-and-pre-clinical-data
#9
REVIEW
Thomas S W Park, Andy Kuo, Maree T Smith
Globally, low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common health problems affecting humans. The lifetime prevalence of non-specific LBP is approximately 84%, with the chronic prevalence at about 23%. Chronic LBP in humans is defined as LBP that persists for more than 12 weeks without a significant pain improvement. Although there are numerous evidence-based guidelines on the management of acute LBP, this is not the case for chronic LBP, which is regarded as particularly difficult to treat. Research aimed at discovering new drug treatments for alleviation of chronic mechanical LBP is lacking due to the paucity of knowledge on the pathobiology of this condition, despite its high morbidity in the affected adult population...
May 12, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753556/pharmacotherapy-for-postural-tachycardia-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Amanda J Miller, Satish R Raj
Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a disorder characterized by the presence of orthostatic symptoms (including lightheadedness, palpitations, nausea, dyspnea, and tremulousness) as well as excessive upright tachycardia. POTS predominantly affects women of childbearing age. Treating POTS involves a multi-faceted approach using non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions. There are no pharmacological treatments that are currently United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for POTS due to lack of randomized controlled trials...
May 4, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748111/dat-spect-imaging-in-cases-of-drug-induced-parkinsonism-in-a-specialty-movement-disorders-practice
#11
Jacob Yomtoob, Kimberly Koloms, Danny Bega
OBJECTIVE: Compare clinical characteristics and outcomes in cases where DAT-SPECT imaging is used to distinguish Parkinson's disease from Drug-Induced Parkinsonsim. BACKGROUND: Clinical uncertainty in diagnosing Parkinson's disease is common when patients are on dopamine-blocking medications. DAT-SPECT imaging can improve diagnostic certainty but little data are available on clinical characteristics and outcomes associated with normal and abnormal scan results. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients seen at a movement disorders center between 2011 and 2017 where DAT-SPECT was ordered to distinguish Parkinson's disease from Drug-induced Parkinsonism...
May 5, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746896/insights-into-cerebellar-development-and-connectivity
#12
REVIEW
Jaclyn Beckinghausen, Roy V Sillitoe
The cerebellum has a well-established role in controlling motor functions such coordination, balance, posture, and skilled learning. There is mounting evidence that it might also play a critical role in non-motor functions such as cognition and emotion. It is therefore not surprising that cerebellar deficits are associated with a wide array of diseases including ataxia, dystonia tremor, schizophrenia, dyslexia, and autism spectrum disorder. What is intriguing is that a seemingly uniform circuit that is often described as being "simple" should carry out all of these behaviors...
May 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736230/towards-optimal-platform-based-robot-design-for-ankle-rehabilitation-the-state-of-the-art-and-future-prospects
#13
REVIEW
Qing Miao, Mingming Zhang, Congzhe Wang, Hongsheng Li
This review aims to compare existing robot-assisted ankle rehabilitation techniques in terms of robot design. Included studies mainly consist of selected papers in two published reviews involving a variety of robot-assisted ankle rehabilitation techniques. A free search was also made in Google Scholar and Scopus by using keywords "ankle∗ ," and "robot∗ ," and ("rehabilitat∗ " or "treat∗ "). The search is limited to English-language articles published between January 1980 and September 2016...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733699/ankle-positions-potentially-facilitating-greater-maximal-contraction-of-pelvic-floor-muscles-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Priya Kannan, Stanley Winser, Ravindra Goonetilleke, Gladys Cheing
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of ankle positions on pelvic floor muscles in women. METHODS: Multiple databases were searched from inception-July 2017. Study quality was rated using the grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation system and the "threats to validity tool". RESULTS: Four studies were eligible for inclusion. Meta-analysis revealed significantly greater resting activity of pelvic floor muscles in neutral ankle position (-1...
May 7, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725318/could-wearable-and-mobile-technology-improve-the-management-of-essential-tremor
#15
Jean-Francois Daneault
Essential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder. Individuals exhibit postural and kinetic tremor that worsens over time and patients may also exhibit other motor and non-motor symptoms. While millions of people are affected by this disorder worldwide, several barriers impede an optimal clinical management of symptoms. In this paper, we discuss the impact of ET on patients and review major issues to the optimal management of ET; from the side-effects and limited efficacy of current medical treatments to the limited number of people who seek treatment for their tremor...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724604/pain-in-focal-dystonias-a-focused-review-to-address-an-important-component-of-the-disease
#16
REVIEW
Micol Avenali, R De Icco, M Tinazzi, G Defazio, L Tronconi, G Sandrini, C Tassorelli
Focal dystonia is characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that cause abnormal postures and/or twisting movements in a segment of the body. Motor symptoms have a major impact on disability in this condition, but the presence of pain represents an additional source of impairment and poor quality of life. Notwithstanding that pain occurs in up to 70% of patients with cervical dystonia and in a relevant proportion of subjects with focal dystonia of the limbs, it has received very little attention from researchers and controlled trials are scant...
April 27, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720936/the-effects-of-tai-chi-intervention-on-healthy-elderly-by-means-of-neuroimaging-and-eeg-a-systematic-review
#17
Zhujun Pan, Xiwen Su, Qun Fang, Lijuan Hou, Younghan Lee, Chih C Chen, John Lamberth, Mi-Lyang Kim
Aging is a process associated with a decline in cognitive and motor functions, which can be attributed to neurological changes in the brain. Tai Chi, a multimodal mind-body exercise, can be practiced by people across all ages. Previous research identified effects of Tai Chi practice on delaying cognitive and motor degeneration. Benefits in behavioral performance included improved fine and gross motor skills, postural control, muscle strength, and so forth. Neural plasticity remained in the aging brain implies that Tai Chi-associated benefits may not be limited to the behavioral level...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720934/reticulospinal-systems-for-tuning-motor-commands
#18
REVIEW
Robert M Brownstone, Jeremy W Chopek
The pontomedullary reticular formation (RF) is a key site responsible for integrating descending instructions to execute particular movements. The indiscrete nature of this region has led not only to some inconsistencies in nomenclature, but also to difficulties in understanding its role in the control of movement. In this review article, we first discuss nomenclature of the RF, and then examine the reticulospinal motor command system through evolution. These command neurons have direct monosynaptic connections with spinal interneurons and motoneurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718002/vertebral-artery-dissection-masquerading-as-concussion-in-an-adolescent
#19
Gogi Kumar, Bryan Ludwig, Vipul V Patel
OBJECTIVE: Educate providers about the clinical presentation and consequences of delaying diagnosis of traumatic vertebral artery dissection with thromboembolic ischemic strokes in the pediatric population. Vertebral artery dissection is often difficult to diagnose and can be a potentially devastating cause of ischemic stroke. METHODS: Review of the chart, peer review/discussion, and imaging interpretation. RESULTS: A 16-year-old boy was admitted with confusion after a head and neck trauma was sustained while wrestling...
May 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705463/modern-postural-yoga-as-a-mental-health-promoting-tool-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Rita B Domingues
Yoga has been gaining popularity as a complementary therapy for mental health conditions, but research on the efficacy of yoga is still in its beginnings. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the effects of modern postural yoga (strong focus on physical postures) on positive mental health (PMH) indicators in clinical and nonclinical populations. The most common PMH indicators were mindfulness, affect, resilience and well-being, followed by satisfaction with life, self-compassion, empathy and others...
May 2018: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
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