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Dominik Bents, Detlef Groth, Takashi Satake
Introduction : Body height is influenced by biological factors such as genetics, nutrition and health, but also by the social network, and environmental and economical factors. During centuries, the Japanese society has developed on islands. This setting provides ideal natural conditions for studying the influence of social networks on human height. Material and methods : We investigated body height of male Japanese students aged 17.5 years obtained in 47 prefectures, from the Japanese school health survey of the years 1955, 1975, 1995, and 2015...
April 18, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Antonis Matakos, James M Balter, Yue Cao
We developed an optimized and robust method to estimate liver B0 field inhomogeneity for monitoring and correcting susceptibility-induced geometric distortion in magnetic resonance images for precision therapy. A triple-gradient-echo acquisition was optimized for the whole liver B0 field estimation within a single-exhale breath-hold scan on a 3 T scanner. To eliminate chemical-shift artifacts, fat signals were chosen in-phase between 2 echoes with an echo time difference (ΔTE) of 2.3 milliseconds. To avoid phase-wrapping, other 2 echoes provided a large field dynamic range (1/ΔTE) to cover the B0 field inhomogeneity...
June 2017: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
Laura Fuente-Soro, Elisa Lopez-Varela, Orvalho Augusto, Charfudin Sacoor, Ariel Nhacolo, Nely Honwana, Esmeralda Karajeanes, Paula Vaz, Denise Naniche
INTRODUCTION: Awareness of HIV-infection goes beyond diagnosis, and encompasses understanding, acceptance, disclosure and initiation of the HIV-care. We aimed to characterize the HIV-positive population that underwent repeat HIV-testing without disclosing their serostatus and the impact on estimates of the first UNAIDS 90 target. METHODS: This analysis was nested in a prospective cohort established in southern Mozambique which conducted three HIV-testing modalities: voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), provider-initiated counselling and testing (PICT) and home-based testing (HBT)...
April 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Shinichi Sakamoto, Katsuhito Miyazawa, Takahiro Yasui, Taro Iguchi, Misuzu Fujita, Hiroaki Nishimatsu, Takuro Masaki, Toru Hasegawa, Hatsuki Hibi, Takashi Arakawa, Ryosuke Ando, Yoshinari Kato, Noritaka Ishito, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Ryoji Takazawa, Masao Tsujihata, Tadashi Matsuda, Koichiro Akakura, Akira Hata, Tomohiko Ichikawa
OBJECTIVES: To assess epidemiological and chronological trends of upper urinary tract stones in Japan in 2015. METHODS: Patients with a first episode of upper urinary tract stones in 2015 were enrolled in this nationwide survey. The study included all hospitals approved by the Japanese Board of Urology, therefore covering most of the hospitals where urologists practice in Japan. The annual incidence and composition of urolithiasis were evaluated by age and sex. These results were compared with the previous results of the nationwide surveys from 1965 to 2005 to analyze temporal trends...
April 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Yi-Quan Xiong, Yan-Xia Chen, Ming-Ji Cheng, Wen-Qiao He, Qing Chen
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted virus in males and females worldwide; yet its impact upon male fertility remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential impact of HPV infection in semen on male fertility abnormality. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library database for relevant publications up to May 6, 2017. The odds ratio (OR), and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI), was selected to represent the effect size...
April 3, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
Ronald E Goans, Richard E Toohey, Carol J Iddins, Stacey L McComish, Sergei Y Tolmachev, Nicholas Dainiak
Recently, the pseudo-Pelger Huët anomaly in peripheral blood neutrophils has been described as a new radiation-induced, stable biomarker. In this study, pseudo-Pelger Huët anomaly was examined in peripheral blood slides from a cohort of 166 former radium dial painters and ancillary personnel in the radium dial industry, 35 of whom had a marrow dose of zero above background. Members of the radium dial painter cohort ingested Ra and Ra at an early age (average age 20.6 ± 5.4 y; range 13-40 y) during the years 1914-1955...
March 28, 2018: Health Physics
Emmanuel Delille
Eric Wittkower founded McGill University's Transcultural Psychiatry Unit in 1955. One year later, he started the first international newsletter in this academic field: Transcultural Psychiatry. However, at the beginning of his career Wittkower gave no signs that he would be interested in social sciences and psychiatry. This paper describes the historical context of the post-war period, when Wittkower founded the research unit in Montréal. I focus on the history of scientific networks and the circulation of knowledge, and particularly on the exchanges between the French- and English-speaking academic cultures in North America and Europe...
March 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
Line Amalie Aarestrup Hellemose, Thomas Munk Laursen, Janne Tidselbak Larsen, Anita Toender
OBJECTIVES: Persons with schizophrenia have a shorter life expectancy by 15-20years compared to the background population, but little is known about deaths caused by accidents. We aimed to investigate the rates of accidental death among persons with schizophrenia and compare these rates with those of the background population. METHODS: We conducted a national register-based cohort study of all persons born in Denmark between 1955 and 2011. The cohort included 2,703,307 persons, representing 56,845,085 person years at risk...
March 23, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
David Andrew Griffiths
The medical 'management' of individuals with atypical sex characteristics, or intersex variations, has been under scrutiny since the beginnings of intersex activism in the 1990s. This article explores a history of intersex surgeries in Britain and the interaction with medical and popular discourses around 'sex-change' between 1930 and 1955. A focus on this period in Britain helps to critically elaborate on debates in intersex scholarship; provides historical context for the introduction of approaches and protocols based on John Money and colleagues' work in the USA in the mid-century; and analyses a long history of tension and intersection between trans and intersex experiences, treatments, politics and popular representations that continue into the present...
March 2018: Sexualities
S K Abdrakhmanov, S B Tyulegenov, F I Korennoy, A A Sultanov, I I Sytnik, K K Beisembaev, A A Bainiyazov, A E Munsey, A M Perez, K VanderWaal
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) poses a significant obstacle to international trade and economic development, and for that reason, FMD prevention, control and eradication are major goals guiding animal health policy in most countries. The purpose of this study was to conduct a retrospective spatiotemporal analysis of FMD outbreaks among livestock in the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK) from 1955 to 2013. During that time, several FMD control strategies were implemented in RK, which culminated with the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) recognition of RK as a country that is FMD-free with partial vaccination (2015)...
March 15, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Kimberly Garcia, Donna Dowling, Gretchen Mettler
INTRODUCTION: Guatemala's Maternal Mortality Rate is 65th highest in the world at 120 deaths per 100,000 births. Contributing to the problem is traditional birth attendants (TBAs) attend most births yet lack knowledge about obstetrical emergencies. Government trainings in existence since 1955 have not changed TBA knowledge. Government trainings are culturally insensitive because they are taught in Spanish with written material, even though most TBAs are illiterate and speak Mayan dialects...
February 17, 2018: Midwifery
Kristina A Carter, Claudia González-Vallejo
Current food labels include comprehensive nutritional information, but evaluations of their effects on judgments of nutritional quality and food choice are scarce. Building on previous empirical research that demonstrated that amount and complexity of information is negatively related to judgment accuracy, this study used an experimental design to evaluate nutritional information labels of varying complexity. Lens model analysis (Brunswik, 1952; Cooksey, 1996; Hammond, 1955; Stewart, 1976) was used to study the judgment process...
March 5, 2018: Appetite
A V Botello, F S Villanueva, R F Rivera, A L Velandia, G E de la Lanza
This study focused on dating of a sediment core from the Alvarado Lagoon System, Veracruz, Mexico, calculating the sedimentation rate by using210 Pb to determine the tendency towards pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorides, the metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and V, and organic matter content. The activity of total Pb and supported Pb in the samples was 83.1 and 29.5 Bq kg-1 , respectively, whereas the average estimated sedimentation rate was 0.48 ± 0.09 cm per year-1 . The organic matter values exhibited linear behavior throughout the historical profile, with values under 2...
March 6, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Mikaell Alexandre Gouvea Faria, Bruna Basaglia, Vinicius Quintiliano Moutinho Nogueira, Tatiana Barros Gama Ferraz de Mendonca, Roberto Luiz Kaiser Junior, Idiberto Jose Zotarelli Filho, Luiz Gustavo de Quadros
The Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS) was first reported in 1955, since then more than 500 cases have been reported, indicating an estimated incidence of one case per 1 million inhabitants. The syndrome occurs predominantly in male, with a ratio of three males to two females. Because of the rarity of the syndrome, there are no evidence-based therapies and the treatments described include a combination of therapies, but none is consistently effective. Surgery is usually reserved for the treatment of complications...
February 2018: Gastroenterology Research
L Mark Hall, Dennis W Hill, Kelly Bugden, Shannon Marie Cawley, Lowell Hall, Ming-Hui Chen, David F Grant
The MolFind application has been developed as a non-targeted metabolomics chemometric tool to facilitate structure identification when HPLC biofluids analysis reveals a feature of interest. Here synthetic compounds are selected and measured to form the basis of a new, more accurate, HPLC retention index model for use with MolFind. We show that relatively inexpensive synthetic screening compounds with simple structures can be used to develop an artificial neural network model that is successful in making quality predictions for human metabolites...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Zongshan Zhao, Jiaojiao Jia, Jiaokai Wang, Aifeng Liu, Jing Lan, Hailong Zhang, Meixun Zhao
In order to study the pollution levels and spatiotemporal trend of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in the Southern Yellow Sea (SYS), thirty-two surface sediment samples and a sediment core have been analyzed, and our results have been compared with previous reports. DDTs contents in our samples ranged from below detection limit to 5.1ng/gdry weight (d.w.), which presented lower ecological risks in the SYS. Surface sediment results show a seaward increasing trend with high values in the northern region of the central basin of the SYS...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Romina Quercia, Carlo-Federico Perno, Justin Koteff, Katy Moore, Cynthia McCoig, Marty St Clair, Daniel Kuritzkes
Innovation in medicine is a dynamic, complex, and continuous process that cannot be isolated to a single moment in time. Anniversaries offer opportunities to commemorate crucial discoveries of modern medicine, such as penicillin (1928), polio vaccination (inactivated, 1955; oral, 1961), the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (1967), monoclonal antibodies (1975), and the first HIV antiretroviral drugs (zidovudine, 1987). The advent of antiretroviral drugs has had a profound effect on the progress of the epidemiology of HIV infection, transforming a terminal, irreversible disease that caused a global health crisis into a treatable but chronic disease...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Jennifer Nazareno
The U.S. government has a long tradition of providing direct care services to many of its most vulnerable citizens through market-based solutions and subsidized private entities. The privatized welfare state has led to the continued displacement of some of our most disenfranchised groups in need of long-term care. Situated after the U.S. deinstitutionalization era, this is the first study to examine how immigrant Filipino women emerged as owners of de facto mental health care facilities that cater to the displaced, impoverished, severely mentally ill population...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
Vatsal Khanna, Manikandan Rajan, Trishya Reddy, Naveen Alexander, Parmasivam Surendran
INTRODUCTION: Nodular Fasciitis, also known as infiltrative or pseudosarcomatous fasciitis, is a benign soft tissue tumour of fibroblastic/myofibroblastic differentiation, that was first described in 1955 by Konwaler et al. PRESENTATION OF CASE: This is a case report of a 27-year old male with complaints of a swelling in the right axilla for 2 and ½ years measuring 12 cm × 10 cm. Chest X-Ray was normal. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the right arm and chest showed an irregular mass in the axilla in the muscular-subcutaneous plane measuring 10...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Eugene Braunwald
In 1954-1955, the author served as a research fellow in the cardiopulmonary laboratory led by André Cournand at Bellevue Hospital in New York. Cournand was a pulmonary physiologist and a professor of medicine at Columbia University. In his quest to obtain mixed venous blood to calculate pulmonary blood flow, he catheterized the right atrium, right ventricle, and pulmonary artery in patients and also measured the pressures in these chambers. Cournand and his collaborators soon appreciated the enormous potential of cardiac catheterization in deepening the understanding of cardiovascular pathophysiology...
February 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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