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AMP-activated protein kinase

Liang Sun, Yizhou Yao, Guofeng Pan, Shenghua Zhan, Weiqiang Shi, Ting Lu, Jinfeng Yuan, Kangjun Tian, Linhua Jiang, Shiduo Song, Xinguo Zhu, Songbing He
Fatty acid synthase (FASN), the main enzyme involved in de novo lipogenesis, is overexpressed in several types of tumor tissues. In addition, it is associated with tumor cell proliferation, metastasis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and a poor prognosis. However, the precise functions and internal mechanisms of FASN with regard to the proliferation, metastasis and EMT in gastric cancer (GC) cells remain elusive. The present study investigated FASN protein expression in 18 randomly selected pairs of GC tumors and matched normal tissues by western blot analysis...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Darlene A Pena, Denise M V Pacheco, Paulo S L Oliveira, Maria J M Alves, Deborah Schechtman
The protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine/ threonine kinases has been shown to play active roles as either suppressors or promoters of carcinogenesis in different types of tumors. Using antibodies that preferentially recognize the active conformation of classical PKCs (cPKCs), we have previously shown that in breast cancer samples the expression levels of cPKCs were similar in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ ) as compared to triple-negative tumors; however, the levels of active cPKCs were different. Determining the activation status of PKCs and other kinases in tumors may thus aid therapeutic decisions...
June 2018: Current Protocols in Chemical Biology
Ming-Yue Liu, Ming-Jia Zhang, Ming-Jie Xie
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, is known as the "cellular energy regulator" and a key molecule to maintain the energy balance of cells and organism. Recent studies have shown that AMPK exerts anti-inflammatory effects mainly through activating SIRT1, PGC-1α, p53, FoxO3a and p300, and down-regulating the activity of various inflammatory related proteins such as NF-κB and AP-1. This article reviews the molecular mechanisms of the anti- inflammatory effects of AMPK, and provides some clues for the development of AMPK-targeted therapeutics to treat inflammation and related diseases...
June 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Ahlke Heydemann
The interactions between nutrition and metabolism and skeletal muscle have long been known. Muscle is the major metabolic organ—it consumes more calories than other organs—and therefore, there is a clear need to discuss these interactions and provide some direction for future research areas regarding muscle pathologies. In addition, new experiments and manuscripts continually reveal additional highly intricate, reciprocal interactions between metabolism and muscle. These reciprocal interactions include exercise, age, sex, diet, and pathologies including atrophy, hypoxia, obesity, diabetes, and muscle myopathies...
June 20, 2018: Nutrients
Shunshun Pan, Xuming Deng, Shili Sun, Xingfei Lai, Lingli Sun, Qiuhua Li, Limin Xiang, Lingzhi Zhang, Yahui Huang
The effects of certain tea components on the prevention of obesity in humans have been reported recently. However, whether Yinghong NO. 9 black tea consumption has beneficial effects on obesity are not known. Here, we obtained a Yinghong NO. 9 black tea infusion (Y9 BTI) and examined the anti-obesity effects of its oral administration. ICR mice were fed a standard diet supplemented with Y9 BTI at 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 g/kg body weight for two weeks, and the body weight were recorded. HE staining was used to evaluate the effect of Y9 BTI on mice liver...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Bin Li, Guo-Liang Wu, Wei Dai, Gang Wang, Hao-Yuan Su, Xue-Ping Shen, Rui Zhan, Jia-Ming Xie, Zhong Wang, Zheng-Hong Qin, Quan-Gen Gao, Gen-Hai Shen
Aescin, a natural mixture of triterpene saponins, has been reported to exert anticancer effect. Recent studies show that aescin increases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. However, whether the increased ROS play a role in the anticancer action of aescin remains to be explored. In this study, we demonstrated that aescin (20-80 μg/mL) dose-dependently induced apoptosis and activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-independent autophagy in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and colon carcinoma HCT 116 cells...
June 19, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Gaurav Agrahari, Shyam Kishor Sah, Tae-Yoon Kim
Therapeutic applications of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are limited due to their early death within the first few days of transplantation. Therefore, to improve the efficacy of cell-based therapies, it is necessary to manipulate MSCs so that they can resist various stresses imposed by the microenvironment. Moreover, the role of superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) in regulating such survival under different stress conditions remain elusive. In this study, we overexpressed SOD3 in MSCs (SOD3-MSCs) and evaluated its effect under serum starvation conditions...
June 20, 2018: BMB Reports
Ying Yang, Hui Fang, Gang Xu, Yanfeng Zhen, Yazhong Zhang, Jinli Tian, Dandan Zhang, Guyue Zhang, Jing Xu
Liraglutide is a type of glucagon‑like‑peptide 1 receptor agonist, which has been reported as a novel type of antidiabetic agent with numerous benefits, including cardiovascular and neuroprotective effects. To the best of our knowledge, few studies to date have reported the potential mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of liraglutide on rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective actions of liraglutide in diabetic rats and to determine the mechanisms underlying these effects...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Si-Yoon Han, Yun-Jeong Jeong, Yongsoo Choi, Soon-Kyung Hwang, Young-Seuk Bae, Young-Chae Chang
Mitochondria are well known for their important roles in oxidative phosphorylation, amino acid metabolism, fatty acid oxidation and ion homeostasis. Although the effects of mitochondrial dysfunction on tumorigenesis in various cancer cells have been reported, the correlation between mitochondrial dysfunction and epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer development and metastasis has not been well elucidated. In the present study, the effects of mitochondrial dysfunction on EMT and migration in lung cancer cells were investigated using inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration, oligomycin A and antimycin A...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Rishi Raj Chhipa, Qiang Fan, Jane Anderson, Ranjithmenon Muraleedharan, Yan Huang, Georgianne Ciraolo, Xiaoting Chen, Ronald Waclaw, Lionel M Chow, Zaza Khuchua, Matthew Kofron, Matthew T Weirauch, Ady Kendler, Christopher McPherson, Nancy Ratner, Ichiro Nakano, Nupur Dasgupta, Kakajan Komurov, Biplab Dasgupta
Stress is integral to tumour evolution, and cancer cell survival depends on stress management. We found that cancer-associated stress chronically activates the bioenergetic sensor AMP kinase (AMPK) and, to survive, tumour cells hijack an AMPK-regulated stress response pathway conserved in normal cells. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas data revealed that AMPK isoforms are highly expressed in the lethal human cancer glioblastoma (GBM). We show that AMPK inhibition reduces viability of patient-derived GBM stem cells (GSCs) and tumours...
June 18, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
Ismael González-García, Pablo Blanco, Ánxela Estévez-Salguero, Cristina Contreras, Amparo Romero-Picó, Johan Fernø, Rubén Nogueiras, Carlos Diéguez, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Sulay Tovar, Miguel López
Current evidence suggests that estradiol (E2), the main ovarian steroid, modulates energy balance by regulating both feeding and energy expenditure at the central level, through the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We hypothesized that the hypothalamic mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, a well-established nutrient sensor and modulator of appetite and puberty, could also mediate the anorectic effect of E2. Our data showed that, ovariectomy (OVX) elicited a marked downregulation of the mTOR signaling in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), an effect that was reversed by either E2 replacement or central estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) agonism...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Tsong-Min Chang, Ting-Ya Yang, Yu-Lin Niu, Huey-Chun Huang
Dictamni dasycarpus is a type of Chinese medicine made from the root bark of D. dasycarpus . It has been reported to show a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological effects, for example, it has been used widely for the treatment of rheumatism, nettle rash, itching, jaundice, chronic hepatitis and skin diseases. In the current study, D. dasycarpus extract was investigated for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as its capability to alleviate oxazolone-induced skin damage in mice. The possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of D...
June 15, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Soonwoong Jung, Hyeonwi Son, Chung Eun Hwang, Kye Man Cho, Sang Won Park, Hyun Joon Kim
Non-alcoholic steatosis is a common health problem worldwide due to altered food habits and life styles, and it is intimately linked with various metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of Ganoderma lucidum (GL) against the development of non-alcoholic steatosis using in vivo and in vitro settings. C57BL/6 mice fed with normal diet (ND) or high fat diet (HFD) were administered GL extract or vehicle for 16 weeks. HFD feeding increased serum alanine aminotransferase level and hepatic lipid droplet, but these increases were significantly attenuated by GL...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Aekkacha Moonwiriyakit, Panisara Wattanaphichet, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Chatchai Muanprasat
Tight junctions play key roles in the regulation of airway epithelial barrier function and promotion of tight junction integrity is beneficial to lung health. G-protein coupled receptor (GPR) 40 has been identified as a receptor of polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study aimed to investigate the function of GPR40 in regulating tight junction assembly in human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3 cells) using GW9508, a GPR40 agonist. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses showed that Calu-3 cells expressed both types of polyunsaturated fatty acid receptors including GPR40 and GPR120...
June 18, 2018: Tissue Barriers
Joshua T Atkinson, Alicia M Jones, Quan Zhou, Jonathan J Silberg
Deep mutational scanning has been used to create high-resolution DNA sequence maps that illustrate the functional consequences of large numbers of point mutations. However, this approach has not yet been applied to libraries of genes created by random circular permutation, an engineering strategy that is used to create open reading frames that express proteins with altered contact order. We describe a new method, termed circular permutation profiling with DNA sequencing (CPP-seq), which combines a one-step transposon mutagenesis protocol for creating libraries with a functional selection, deep sequencing and computational analysis to obtain unbiased insight into a protein's tolerance to circular permutation...
April 18, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Su-Juan Pei, Huai-Yuan Zhu, Jin-Hui Guo, Xin Zhang, Zhi-Jian Deng
Obesity and diabetes are associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, the pathogenesis of DCM is not fully understood. Cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) has been a drug target for the treatment of obesity. Here, we reported that CNR1 expression was increased in high fat diet (HFD)-induced heart of mice. Following, the wild type (CNR1+/+ ) and CNR1-knockout (CNR1-/- ) mice were employed and subjected to HFD treatments for 16 weeks to further investigate the effects of CNR1 on DCM. The results indicated that CNR1 knockout mice after HFD feeding exhibited a significant decrease of body weight and lipid accumulation in serum...
June 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Kalahe Hewage Iresha Nadeeka Madushani Herath, Jinhee Cho, Areum Kim, Tae Kil Eom, Ju-Sung Kim, Jae-Bum Kim, Yang Hoi Doh, Youngheun Jee
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai is an edible dwarf bamboo cultivated mainly in Jeju Island, South Korea and its leaf displays various health-promoting properties including antioxidant scavenging. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we aimed at elucidating its hepatoprotective effect against alcohol-induced fatty liver. METHODS: In in vitro study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity and hepatoprotective effect of different solvent fractions (aqua, butanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and hexane) of 80% EtOH extract of S...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ayumu Takeno, Ippei Kanazawa, Masakazu Notsu, Ken-Ichiro Tanaka, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
Phloretin, a glucose transporter (GLUT) inhibitor, has pleiotropic effects. The present study examined the effects of phloretin on the commitment of marrow stromal cells to adipocytes, using the mouse marrow stromal cell line ST2. Oil red O staining showed that treatment with phloretin 10⁻100 µM promoted lipid accumulation. Real-time PCR showed that phloretin significantly increased the expression of adipogenic markers, including PPARγ, C/EBPα, fatty acid synthase, fatty acid-binding protein 4, and adiponectin...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yanwei Li, Qian Gong, Wenjin Guo, Xingchi Kan, Dianwen Xu, He Ma, Shoupeng Fu, Juxiong Liu
Farrerol has been proved to have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effects of farrerol on mastitis have not been investigated. This study was aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of farrerol in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse mastitis and LPS-induced inflammatory response of mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMECs). In vivo, LPS were injected to the tetrad pair of nipples for establishing mouse mastitis, and then tested the effect of farrerol on histopathological changes, inflammatory response and activation degree of protein kinase B (AKT), nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65), p38, extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2)...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alicia M Salvi, Kris A DeMali
Throughout their lifetimes, all cells experience force. These forces are sensed by cell surface adhesion receptors, such as the cadherins and integrins. Much attention has focused on identifying how these adhesion receptors transmit force. In contrast, less is known regarding how these force-activated pathways are integrated with other cellular processes. In this review, we describe how cadherins and integrins transmit force, and discuss how these adhesion receptors are linked to cell metabolism. We focus on understanding this connection by highlighting how the cadherins and integrins interact with a master regulator of energy homeostasis, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its upstream activator, Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1)...
June 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
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