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AMP-activated protein kinase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327709/fish-oil-supplementation-inhibits-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-improves-insulin-resistance-involvement-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#1
Wenqi Yang, Xu Chen, Ming Chen, Yanping Li, Qing Li, Xinwei Jiang, Yan Yang, Wenhua Ling
The beneficial effects of fish oil consumption on glucose metabolism have been generally reported. However, the mechanism underlying the fish oil-induced protective effects against insulin resistance remains unclear. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is recognized as an important contributor to insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether fish oil supplementation reduces ER stress and ameliorates insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice, and to investigate the molecular mechanism of fish oil-induced benefits on ER stress...
March 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325731/effects-of-genetic-deletion-of-soluble-5-nucleotidases-nt5c1a-and-nt5c2-on-ampk-activation-and-nucleotide-levels-in-contracting-mouse-skeletal-muscles
#2
Samanta Kviklyte, Didier Vertommen, Xavier Yerna, Harriet Andersén, Xiufeng Xu, Philippe Gailly, Mohammad Bohlooly-Y, Jan Oscarsson, Mark H Rider
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in energy homeostasis and is activated in response to contraction-induced ATP depletion in skeletal muscle via a rise in intracellular AMP/ADP concentrations. AMP can be deaminated by AMP-deaminase to IMP, which is hydrolysed to inosine by cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase-II (NT5C2). AMP can also be hydrolysed to adenosine by cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase-IA (NT5C1A). Previous gene silencing and overexpression studies indicated control of AMPK activation by NT5C enzymes...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323520/anti-proliferation-effect-of-guanosine-on-hct-116-cells-involves-mapk-and-ampk-pathways
#3
Wuen Yew Teoh, Norhanom Abdul Wahab, Kae Shin Sim
This study aims to investigate the mechanisms associated with the anti-proliferation effect of guanosine on human colon carcinoma HCT 116 cells. In this study, guanosine induced more drastic cell cycle arrest effect than cell death effect on HCT 116 cells. The cell cycle arrest effect of guanosine on HCT 116 cells appeared to be associated with the increased activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) such as ERK1/2, p38 and JNK. The decreased of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and cyclin D1 expression was also involved...
March 21, 2017: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322508/the-influence-of-ampk-subunit-alpha-2-prkaa2-genetic-polymorphisms-with-susceptibility-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-diabetic-nephropathy-in-chinese-population
#4
Qingchu Li, Cuilin Li, Haoyun Li, Liu Zeng, Zhiqiang Kang, Yu Mao, Xinyue Tang, Panpan Zheng, Li He, Fang Luo, Zhi Li
BACKGROUND: It has been well recognized that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key factor influencing the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2746342 in AMPK α2 subunit gene (PRKAA2) has been found to be associated with the susceptibility to T2DM in the Chinese Han population recently. This study further investigates the association of PRKAA2 genotypes with the susceptibility to T2DM and its complication disease, diabetic nephropathy...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321180/multiple-kinases-involved-in-the-nicotinic-modulation-of-gamma-oscillations-in-the-rat-hippocampal-ca3-area
#5
JianGang Wang, XiaoLong He, Fangli Guo, XiangLin Cheng, Yali Wang, XiaoFang Wang, ZhiWei Feng, Martin Vreugdenhil, ChengBiao Lu
Neuronal synchronization at gamma band frequency (20-80 Hz, γ oscillations) is closely associated with higher brain function, such as learning, memory and attention. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are highly expressed in the hippocampus, and modulate hippocampal γ oscillations, but the intracellular mechanism underlying such modulation remains elusive. We explored multiple kinases by which nicotine can modulate γ oscillations induced by kainate in rat hippocampal area CA3 in vitro. We found that inhibitors of cyclic AMP dependent kinase (protein kinase A, PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) receptors, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK), each individually could prevent the γ oscillation-enhancing effect of 1 μM nicotine, whereas none of them affected baseline γ oscillation strength...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320596/phillyrin-lowers-body-weight-in-obese-mice-via-the-modulation-of-ppar-beta-delta-angptl-4-pathway
#6
Hong-Bo Xiao, Guo-Guang Sui, Xiang-Yang Lu
OBJECTIVE: Previous investigations have shown that the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor beta/delta (PPAR<beta>/<delta>)-angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) pathways may be a new pharmacologic target for treatment of obesity. The present study was conducted to test the effect of phillyrin, ‎a glucoside, on obesity in mice. METHOD: Fifty mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10): control group (C57BL/6J mice), obese mice group, two groups of obese mice treated with phillyrin (15 or 45mg/kg/day), one group of obese mice treated with PPAR<beta>/<delta> agonist GW0742 (3mg/kg/day)...
March 17, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319830/anti-proliferative-effect-of-metformin-on-a-feline-injection-site-sarcoma-cell-line-independent-of-mtor-inhibition
#7
J Pierro, C Saba, K McLean, R Williams, E Karpuzoglu, R Prater, K Hoover, R Gogal
Metformin is an oral hypoglycemic drug that has been shown to inhibit cancer cell proliferation via up-regulation of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase), and possibly inhibition of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of metformin on a feline injection site sarcoma cell line. Cells from a feline injection site sarcoma cell line were treated with metformin at varied concentrations. A dose-dependent decrease in cell viability following metformin treatment was observed, with an IC50 of 8...
March 6, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319810/inhibitors-of-glut-slc2a-enhance-the-action-of-bcnu-and-temozolomide-against-high-grade-gliomas
#8
Alberto Azzalin, Giulia Nato, Elena Parmigiani, Francesca Garello, Annalisa Buffo, Lorenzo Magrassi
Glucose transport across glioblastoma membranes plays a crucial role in maintaining the enhanced glycolysis typical of high-grade gliomas and glioblastoma. We tested the ability of two inhibitors of the glucose transporters GLUT/SLC2A superfamily, indinavir (IDV) and ritonavir (RTV), and of one inhibitor of the Na/glucose antiporter type 2 (SGLT2/SLC5A2) superfamily, phlorizin (PHZ), in decreasing glucose consumption and cell proliferation of human and murine glioblastoma cells. We found in vitro that RTV, active on at least three different GLUT/SLC2A transporters, was more effective than IDV, a specific inhibitor of GLUT4/SLC2A4, both in decreasing glucose consumption and lactate production and in inhibiting growth of U87MG and Hu197 human glioblastoma cell lines and primary cultures of human glioblastoma...
March 17, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319060/the-anti-diabetic-drug-exenatide-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-counteracts-hepatocarcinogenesis-through-camp-pka-egfr-stat3-axis
#9
M Zhou, M T S Mok, H Sun, A W Chan, Y Huang, A S L Cheng, G Xu
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a close association of type 2 diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Exenatide (Ex-4), a potent diabetes drug targeting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), is protective against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the Ex-4 function and GLP-1R status have yet been explored in HCC. Herein we investigated the effect of Ex-4 in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-treated mice consuming control or high-fat high-carbohydrate diet. Administration of Ex-4 significantly improved obesity-induced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and reduced HCC multiplicity in obese DEN-treated mice, in which suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis were confined to tumor cells...
March 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317895/upregulation-of-skeletal-muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-through-the-elevation-of-cyclic-amp-levels-by-cyanidin-3-glucoside-enhances-exercise-performance
#10
Toshiya Matsukawa, Hideko Motojima, Yuki Sato, Shinya Takahashi, Myra O Villareal, Hiroko Isoda
Regular exercise and physical training enhance physiological capacity and improve metabolic diseases. Skeletal muscles require peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in the process of their adaptation to exercise owing to PGC-1α's ability to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, angiogenesis, and oxidative metabolism. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G) is a natural polyphenol and a nutraceutical factor, which has several beneficial effects on human health. Here, the effect of Cy3G on exercise performance and the underlying mechanisms involved were investigated...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315774/molecular-characterization-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-%C3%AE-2-from-herbivorous-fish-megalobrama-amblycephala-and-responsiveness-to-glucose-loading-and-dietary-carbohydrate-levels
#11
Chao Xu, Wen-Bin Liu, Ding-Dong Zhang, Kai-Zhou Wang, Si-Lei Xia, Xiang-Fei Li
This study aimed to characterize the full-length cDNA of AMPKα2 in Megalobrama amblycephala, and evaluate its potential role in glucose homeostasis and carbohydrate metabolism. The cDNA obtained covered 1942bp with an open reading frame of 1635bp encoding 545 amino acids. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis revealed a high homology (91-100%) among most fish and higher vertebrates. This AMPKα2 mRNA predominantly expressed in muscle, liver and brain, while little in gill and intestine. Then, the AMPKα2 expressions were determined in the muscle, liver and brain of fish subjected to a glucose load (injected intraperitoneally with 0, 1...
March 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315332/nuclear-ampk-regulated-carm1-stabilization-impacts-autophagy-in-aged-heart
#12
Chen Li, Lu Yu, Han Xue, Zheng Yang, Yue Yin, Bo Zhang, Mai Chen, Heng Ma
Senescence-associated autophagy downregulation leads to cardiomyocyte dysfunction. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) participates in many cellular processes, including autophagy in mammals. However, the effect of CARM1 in aging-related cardiac autophagy decline remains undefined. Moreover, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator in metabolism and autophagy, however, the role of nuclear AMPK in autophagy outcome in aged hearts still unclear. Hers we identify the correlation between nuclear AMPK and CARM1 in aging heart...
March 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302767/effect-of-different-%C3%AE-subunit-isoforms-on-the-regulation-of-ampk
#13
Robin Willows, Naveenan Navaratnam, Ana Lima, Jon Read, David Carling
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in integrating metabolic pathways in response to energy demand. AMPK activation results in a wide range of downstream responses, many of which are associated with improved metabolic outcome, making AMPK an attractive target for the treatment of metabolic diseases. AMPK is a heterotrimeric complex consisting of a catalytic subunit (α) and two regulatory subunits (β and γ). The γ subunit harbours the nucleotide binding sites and plays an important role in AMPK regulation in response to cellular energy levels...
March 16, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302504/mitochondrial-nudix-hydrolases-a-metabolic-link-between-nad-catabolism-gtp-and-mitochondrial-dynamics
#14
Aaron Long, Nina Klimova, Tibor Kristian
NAD(+) catabolism and mitochondrial dynamics are important parts of normal mitochondrial function and are both reported to be disrupted in aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and acute brain injury. While both processes have been extensively studied there has been little reported on how the mechanisms of these two processes are linked. This review focuses on how downstream NAD(+) catabolism via NUDIX hydrolases affects mitochondrial dynamics under pathologic conditions. Additionally, several potential targets in mitochondrial dysfunction and fragmentation are discussed, including the roles of mitochondrial poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1(mtPARP1), AMPK, AMP, and intra-mitochondrial GTP metabolism...
March 14, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300563/sestrin-2-induces-autophagy-and-attenuates-insulin-resistance-by-regulating-ampk-signaling-in-c2c12-myotubes
#15
Huige Li, Sujuan Liu, Hairui Yuan, Yanmei Niu, Li Fu
Impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle serves a critical role in the development of insulin resistance (IR), whereas the precise mechanism of the process remains unknown. Recently, the evolutionarily conserved, stress-inducible protein Sestrin2 (Sesn2) has been proposed to play a protective role against obesity-induced IR and diabetes. Activation of Sesn2 may activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) accompanied by suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which may ultimately lead to autophagy induction...
March 12, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299850/ethanol-extract-of-pinus-koraiensis-leaf-ameliorates-alcoholic-fatty-liver-via-the-activation-of-lkb1-ampk-signaling-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#16
Sang-Hyuk Hong, Hyemin Lee, Hyo-Jung Lee, Bonglee Kim, Min-Ho Nam, Bum-Sang Shim, Sung-Hoon Kim
Although Pinus koraiensis leaf (PKL) was reported for its anti-diabetes, anti-obesity and anticancer effects as a folk remedy, the inhibitory effect of PKL on alcoholic fatty liver has never been elucidated yet. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms of PKL on alcoholic fatty liver in HepG2 cells, Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and Imprinting Control Region (ICR) mice. Pinus koraiensis leaf increased phosphorylation of liver kinase B1 (LKB1)/AMP-activated protein kinase signaling, low-density lipoprotein receptor and decreased fatty acid biosynthesis-related proteins such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase in HepG2 cells...
March 16, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295428/atheroprotective-effects-and-molecular-targets-of-tanshinones-derived-from-herbal-medicine-danshen
#17
REVIEW
Jian Fang, Peter J Little, Suowen Xu
Medicinal plant-derived bioactive compounds modulate multiple therapeutic targets in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), rendering herb-derived phytochemicals effective against one of the major CVDs-atherosclerosis. Danshen (Salvia milthiorriza Bunge) is a Chinese medicine that has been used in cardio- and cerebro-vascular therapeutic remedies in Asian countries for many years. Emerging evidence from cellular, animal, and clinical studies suggests that major lipophilic tanshinones from Danshen can treat atherosclerotic CVDs...
February 16, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294062/warming-up-to-new-possibilities-with-the-capsaicin-receptor-trpv1-mtor-ampk-and-erythropoietin
#18
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a superfamily of ion channels termed after the trp gene in Drosophila that are diverse in structure and control a wide range of biological functions including cell development and growth, thermal regulation, and vascular physiology. Of significant interest is the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) receptor, also known as the capsaicin receptor and the vanilloid receptor 1, that is a non-selective cation channel sensitive to a host of external stimuli including capsaicin and camphor, venoms, acid/basic pH changes, and temperature...
March 13, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294049/in-silico-analysis-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-and-ligand-based-virtual-screening-for-identification-of-novel-ampk-activators
#19
Ammarah Ghaffar, Sidra Batool, Gohar Mushtaq, Muhammad Amjad Kamal
BACKGROUND: Adenosine-Monophosphate-Activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a conserved kinase that plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of cells. AMPK activation has a positive impact on treatment of diseases such as diabetes, obesity and cancer as well. This observation led to the development of AMPK activators. Certain naturally occurring compounds have also been known to activate AMPK. METHOD: In this study, we retrieved the AMPK activators that includes chemical drugs, xenobiotics and natural compounds and analyzed their interactions with AMPK via docking studies...
March 9, 2017: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290152/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-isoform-b-stimulates-neurovascular-repair-after-ischemic-stroke-by-promoting-the-function-of-pericytes-via-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-1
#20
Noëmie Jean LeBlanc, Revathy Guruswamy, Ayman ElAli
Ischemic stroke triggers endogenous angiogenic mechanisms, which correlates with longer survival in patients. As such, promoting angiogenesis appears to be a promising approach. Experimental studies investigated mostly the potent angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor isoform-A (VEGF-A). However, VEGF-A increases the risk of destabilizing the brain microvasculature, thus hindering the translation of its usage in clinics. An attractive alternative VEGF isoform-B (VEGF-B) was recently reported to act as a survival factor rather than a potent angiogenic factor...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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