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Beta cells Proliferation AND glp-1

Aine M McKillop, Brian M Moran, Yasser H A Abdel-Wahab, Noella M Gormley, Peter R Flatt
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Abnormal cannabidiol (Abn-CBD) and AS-1269574 are potent selective agonists for GPR55 and GPR119, respectively. The present study evaluated the actions and ability of these small-molecule agonists to counteract experimental diabetes in mice. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in NIH Swiss mice by five consecutive daily intraperitoneal injections of 40 mg/(kg body weight) streptozotocin. Diabetic mice received daily oral administration of Abn-CBD or AS-1269574 (0...
September 27, 2016: Diabetologia
Dawood Khan, Srividya Vasu, R Charlotte Moffett, Nigel Irwin, Peter R Flatt
Recent evidence suggests that the classic gut peptide, Peptide YY (PYY), could play a fundamental role in endocrine pancreatic function. In the present study expression of PYY and its NPY receptors on mouse islets and immortalised rodent and human beta-cells was examined together with the effects of both major circulating forms of PYY, namely PYY(1-36) and PYY(3-36), on beta-cell function, murine islet adaptions to insulin deficiency/resistance, as well as direct effects on cultured beta-cell proliferation and apoptosis...
November 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Anna L Gillespie, Brian D Green
Previous studies suggest that casein exerts various anti-diabetic effects. However, it is not known which casein proteins are bioactive, nor their effects on enteroendocrine cells. This study evaluated the effects of intact whole casein, intact individual proteins (alpha, beta and kappa casein) and hydrolysates on an enteroendocrine cell line. High content analysis accurately monitored changes in cell health and intracellular glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) content. Cheese ripening duration and GLP-1 secretory responses were also considered...
November 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Allison L Brill, Jaclyn A Wisinski, Mark T Cadena, Mary F Thompson, Rachel J Fenske, Harpreet K Brar, Michael D Schaid, Renee L Pasker, Michelle E Kimple
A defining characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) pathophysiology is pancreatic β-cell death and dysfunction, resulting in insufficient insulin secretion to properly control blood glucose levels. Treatments that promote β-cell replication and survival, thus reversing the loss of β-cell mass, while also preserving β-cell function, could lead to a real cure for T1DM. The α-subunit of the heterotrimeric Gz protein, Gαz, is a tonic negative regulator of adenylate cyclase and downstream cAMP production...
May 2016: Molecular Endocrinology
Alastair D Green, Srividya Vasu, R Charlotte Moffett, Peter R Flatt
We investigated the direct effects on insulin releasing MIN6 cells of chronic exposure to GLP-1, glucagon or a combination of both peptides secreted from GLUTag L-cell and αTC1.9 alpha-cell lines in co-culture. MIN6, GLUTag and αTC1.9 cell lines exhibited high cellular hormone content and release of insulin, GLP-1 and glucagon, respectively. Co-culture of MIN6 cells with GLUTag cells significantly increased cellular insulin content, beta-cell proliferation, insulin secretory responses to a range of established secretogogues and afforded protection against exposure cytotoxic concentrations of glucose, lipid, streptozotocin or cytokines...
June 2016: Biochimie
Djordje S Popovic, Edita Stokic, Stevan L Popovic
Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is a disease characterized by autoimmune mediated destruction of the insulin producing beta cells of endocrine pancreas. Beside insulin deficiency, T1DM is also characterized by abnormal suppression of glucagon secretion in response to hyperglycemia. All these abnormalities are likely to leave patients dependent upon exogenous insulin administration for survival. GLP-1 is a hormone secreted by L-cells of distal small intestine and colon. GLP-1 exerts its effects through the interaction with GLP-1 receptor expressed in the pancreatic islets, lung, hypothalamus, stomach, heart and kidney...
2015: Current Pharmaceutical Design
XingChun Wang, Huan Liu, Jiaqi Chen, Yan Li, Shen Qu
The glucagon-like peptide-1 is secreted by intestinal L cells in response to nutrient ingestion. It regulates the secretion and sensitivity of insulin while suppressing glucagon secretion and decreasing postprandial glucose levels. It also improves beta-cell proliferation and prevents beta-cell apoptosis induced by cytotoxic agents. Additionally, glucagon-like peptide-1 delays gastric emptying and suppresses appetite. The impaired secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 has negative influence on diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance related diseases...
2015: International Journal of Endocrinology
Anna L Gillespie, Danielle Calderwood, Laura Hobson, Brian D Green
Whey protein has been indicated to curb diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and delay the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here the effects of intact crude whey, intact individual whey proteins and beta-lactoglobulin hydrolysates on an enteroendocrine (EE) cell model were examined. STC-1 pGIP/neo cells were incubated with several concentrations of yogurt whey (YW), cheese whey (CW), beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), alpha-lactalbumin (ALA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The findings demonstrate that BLG stimulates EE cell proliferation, and also GLP-1 secretion (an effect which is lost following hydrolysis with chymotrypsin or trypsin)...
December 15, 2015: Food Chemistry
Kanako Tamura, Kohtaro Minami, Maya Kudo, Keisuke Iemoto, Harumi Takahashi, Susumu Seino
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists potentiate glucose-induced insulin secretion. In addition, they have been reported to increase pancreatic beta cell mass in diabetic rodents. However, the precise mode of action of GLP-1 receptor agonists still needs to be elucidated. Here we clarify the effects of the human GLP-1 analog liraglutide on beta cell fate and function by using an inducible Cre/loxP-based pancreatic beta cell tracing system and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Liraglutide was subcutaneously administered once daily for 30 days...
2015: PloS One
Lihua Ye, Morgan A Robertson, Daniel Hesselson, Didier Y R Stainier, Ryan M Anderson
The interconversion of cell lineages via transdifferentiation is an adaptive mode of tissue regeneration and an appealing therapeutic target. However, its clinical exploitation is contingent upon the discovery of contextual regulators of cell fate acquisition and maintenance. In murine models of diabetes, glucagon-secreting alpha cells transdifferentiate into insulin-secreting beta cells following targeted beta cell depletion, regenerating the form and function of the pancreatic islet. However, the molecular triggers of this mode of regeneration are unknown...
April 15, 2015: Development
R Charlotte Moffett, Srividya Vasu, Peter R Flatt
BACKGROUND: Consumption of high fat diet and insulin resistance induce significant changes in pancreatic islet morphology and function essential for maintenance of normal glucose homeostasis. We have used incretin receptor null mice to evaluate the role of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) in this adaptive response. METHODS: C57BL/6 and GIPRKO mice were fed high fat diet for 45 weeks from weaning. Changes of pancreatic islet morphology were assessed by immunohistochemistry...
June 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Gladys Teitelman, Mamdouh Kedees
We used cre-lox technology to test whether the inducible expression of Cre minimize the deleterious effect of the enzyme on beta cell function. We studied mice in which Cre is linked to a modified estrogen receptor (ER), and its expression is controlled by the rat insulin promoter (RIP). Following the injection of tamoxifen (TM), CreER- migrates to the nucleus and promotes the appearance of a reporter protein, enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP), in cells. Immunocytochemical analysis indicated that 46...
February 6, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jimmy Masjkur, Carina Arps-Forker, Steven W Poser, Polyxeni Nikolakopoulou, Louiza Toutouna, Ramu Chenna, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Antonios Chatzigeorgiou, Lan-Sun Chen, Anna Dubrovska, Pratik Choudhary, Ingo Uphues, Michael Mark, Stefan R Bornstein, Andreas Androutsellis-Theotokis
The transcription factor Hes3 is a component of a signaling pathway that supports the growth of neural stem cells with profound consequences in neurodegenerative disease models. Here we explored whether Hes3 also regulates pancreatic islet cells. We showed that Hes3 is expressed in human and rodent pancreatic islets. In mouse islets it co-localizes with alpha and beta cell markers. We employed the mouse insulinoma cell line MIN6 to perform in vitro characterization and functional studies in conditions known to modulate Hes3 based upon our previous work using neural stem cell cultures...
December 19, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Honey Modi, Marion Cornu, Bernard Thorens
IGF2 is an autocrine ligand for the beta cell IGF1R receptor and GLP-1 increases the activity of this autocrine loop by enhancing IGF1R expression, a mechanism that mediates the trophic effects of GLP-1 on beta cell mass and function. Here, we investigated the regulation of IGF2 biosynthesis and secretion. We showed that glutamine rapidly and strongly induced IGF2 mRNA translation using reporter constructs transduced in MIN6 cells and primary islet cells. This was followed by rapid secretion of IGF2 via the regulated pathway, as revealed by the presence of mature IGF2 in insulin granule fractions and by inhibition of secretion by nimodipine and diazoxide...
November 14, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Rachel Charlotte Moffett, Steven Patterson, Nigel Irwin, Peter R Flatt
BACKGROUND: Stable glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetics, such as the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide, are approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 has a spectrum of anti-diabetic effects that are of possible utility in the treatment of more severe forms of diabetes. METHODS: The present study has evaluated the effect of once daily liraglutide injection (25 nmol/kg bw) for 15 days on metabolic control, islet architecture, and islet morphology in C57BL/KsJ db/db mice...
March 2015: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Erica P Cai, Cynthia T Luk, Xiaohong Wu, Stephanie A Schroer, Sally Yu Shi, Tharini Sivasubramaniyam, Jara J Brunt, Eldad Zacksenhaus, Minna Woo
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetes mellitus is characterised by beta cell loss and alpha cell expansion. Analogues of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are used therapeutically to antagonise these processes; thus, we hypothesised that the related cell cycle regulators retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and p107 were involved in GLP-1 action. METHODS: We used small interfering RNA and adenoviruses to manipulate Rb and p107 expression in insulinoma and alpha-TC cell lines. In vivo we examined pancreas-specific Rb knockout, whole-body p107 knockout and Rb/p107 double-knockout mice...
December 2014: Diabetologia
Yan-ju Wu, Xin Guo, Chun-jun Li, Dai-qing Li, Jie Zhang, Yiping Yang, Yan Kong, Hang Guo, De-min Liu, Li-ming Chen
AIMS: Vildagliptin promotes beta cell survival by inhibiting cell apoptosis. It has been suggested that chronic ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress triggers beta cell apoptosis. The objective of the study is to explore whether the pro-survival effect of vildagliptin is associated with attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum stress in islets of db/db mice. METHODS: Vildagliptin was orally administered to db/db mice for 6 weeks, followed by evaluation of beta cell apoptosis by caspase3 activity and TUNEL staining method...
February 2015: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Annette Plesner, Joris T Ten Holder, C Bruce Verchere
Islet alpha- and delta-cells are spared autoimmune destruction directed at beta-cells in type 1 diabetes resulting in an apparent increase of non-beta endocrine cells in the islet core. We determined how islet remodeling in autoimmune diabetes compares to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Islet cell mass, proliferation, and immune cell infiltration in pancreas sections from diabetic NOD mice and mice with STZ-induced diabetes was assessed using quantitative image analysis. Serial sections were stained for various beta-cell markers and Ngn3, typically restricted to embryonic tissue, was only upregulated in diabetic NOD mouse islets...
2014: PloS One
Shiying Shao, Mingbo Nie, Cai Chen, Xi Chen, Muxun Zhang, Gang Yuan, Xuefeng Yu, Yan Yang
Liraglutide, a modified form of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), has been found to improve beta cell function in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, the effect of liraglutide on beta cell function under lipotoxic stress and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 signaling in liraglutide-involved beta cell protection in high free fatty acids (FFAs) condition. The apoptosis, proliferation, and insulin secretion capability of MIN6 cells and islets from C57BL/6J mice were evaluated when exposed to FFAs with/without liraglutide...
June 2014: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Magalie A Ravier, Michele Leduc, Joy Richard, Nathalie Linck, Annie Varrault, Nelly Pirot, Morgane M Roussel, Joël Bockaert, Stéphane Dalle, Gyslaine Bertrand
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Beta cell failure due to progressive secretory dysfunction and limited expansion of beta cell mass is a key feature of type 2 diabetes. Beta cell function and mass are controlled by glucose and hormones/neurotransmitters that activate G protein-coupled receptors or receptor tyrosine kinases. We have investigated the role of β-arrestin (ARRB)2, a scaffold protein known to modulate such receptor signalling, in the modulation of beta cell function and mass, with a specific interest in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), muscarinic and insulin receptors...
March 2014: Diabetologia
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