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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893591/neurosteroid-dehydroepiandrosterone-improves-active-avoidance-retrieval-and-induces-antidepressant-like-behavior-in-rats
#1
Janko Samardzic, Boris Hencic, Jasna Jancic, Dragana Jadzic, Milos Djuric, Dragan I Obradovic, Dubravka Svob Strac
Various studies reported beneficial effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate (DHEAS), the neurosteroids involved in various brain functions, on synaptic plasticity, neuronal survival, memory, learning and behavior. This study aimed to investigate the behavioral profile of acute DHEA treatment by using active avoidance (AA) task, primarily predictive of the effects on the retrieval-based learning, and by applying forced swim test (FST), for assessment of antidepressant-like potential. Adult male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of either DHEA (2, 10, 20mg/kg) or solvent, 30min prior to testing...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893295/a-brain-computer-interface-driven-by-imagining-different-force-loads-on-a-single-hand-an-online-feasibility-study
#2
Kun Wang, Zhongpeng Wang, Yi Guo, Feng He, Hongzhi Qi, Minpeng Xu, Dong Ming
BACKGROUND: Motor imagery (MI) induced EEG patterns are widely used as control signals for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Kinetic and kinematic factors have been proved to be able to change EEG patterns during motor execution and motor imagery. However, to our knowledge, there is still no literature reporting an effective online MI-BCI using kinetic factor regulated EEG oscillations. This study proposed a novel MI-BCI paradigm in which users can online output multiple commands by imagining clenching their right hand with different force loads...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892407/nonparametric-bootstrap-technique-for-calibrating-surgical-smartforceps-theory-and-application
#3
Parisa Azimaee, Mohammad Jafari Jozani, Yaser Maddahi, Kourosh Zareinia, Garnette R Sutherland
Knowledge of forces, exerted on the brain tissue during the performance of neurosurgical tasks, is critical for quality assurance, case rehearsal, and training purposes. Quantifying the interaction forces has been made possible by developing SmartForceps, a bipolar forceps retrofitted by a set of strain gauges. The forces are estimated using voltages read from strain gauges. We therefore need to quantify the force-voltage relationship to estimate the interaction forces during microsurgery. This problem has been addressed in the literature by following the physical and deterministic properties of the force-sensing strain gauges without obtaining the precision associated with each estimate...
September 11, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890315/subthalamic-neural-entropy-is-a-feature-of-freezing-of-gait-in-freely-moving-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Judy Syrkin-Nikolau, Mandy Miller Koop, Thomas Prieto, Chioma Anidi, Muhammad Furqan Afzal, Anca Velisar, Zack Blumenfeld, Talora Martin, Megan Trager, Helen Bronte-Stewart
The goal of this study was to investigate subthalamic (STN) neural features of Freezers and Non-Freezers with Parkinson's disease (PD), while freely walking without freezing of gait (FOG) and during periods of FOG, which were better elicited during a novel turning and barrier gait task than during forward walking. METHODS: Synchronous STN local field potentials (LFPs), shank angular velocities, and ground reaction forces were measured in fourteen PD subjects (eight Freezers) off medication, OFF deep brain stimulation (DBS), using an investigative, implanted, sensing neurostimulator (Activa® PC+S, Medtronic, Inc...
September 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889005/a-flexible-graphical-model-for-multi-modal-parcellation-of-the-cortex
#5
Sarah Parisot, Ben Glocker, Sofia Ira Ktena, Salim Arslan, Markus D Schirmer, Daniel Rueckert
Advances in neuroimaging have provided a tremendous amount of in-vivo information on the brain's organisation. Its anatomy and cortical organisation can be investigated from the point of view of several imaging modalities, many of which have been studied for mapping functionally specialised cortical areas. There is strong evidence that a single modality is not sufficient to fully identify the brain's cortical organisation. Combining multiple modalities in the same parcellation task has the potential to provide more accurate and robust subdivisions of the cortex...
September 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885740/preferential-encoding-of-movement-amplitude-and-speed-in-the-primary-motor-cortex-and-cerebellum
#6
Alit Stark-Inbar, Eran Dayan
Voluntary movements require control of multiple kinematic parameters, a task carried out by a distributed brain architecture. However, it remains unclear whether regions along the motor system encode single, or rather a mixture of, kinematic parameters during action execution. Here, rapid event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to differentiate brain activity along the motor system during the encoding of movement amplitude, duration, and speed. We present cumulative evidence supporting preferential encoding of kinematic parameters along the motor system, based on blood-oxygenation-level dependent signal recorded in a well-controlled single-joint wrist-flexion task...
September 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884750/brain-imaging-tests-for-chronic-pain-medical-legal-and-ethical-issues-and-recommendations
#7
REVIEW
Karen D Davis, Herta Flor, Henry T Greely, Gian Domenico Iannetti, Sean Mackey, Markus Ploner, Amanda Pustilnik, Irene Tracey, Rolf-Detlef Treede, Tor D Wager
Chronic pain is the greatest source of disability globally and claims related to chronic pain feature in many insurance and medico-legal cases. Brain imaging (for example, functional MRI, PET, EEG and magnetoencephalography) is widely considered to have potential for diagnosis, prognostication, and prediction of treatment outcome in patients with chronic pain. In this Consensus Statement, a presidential task force of the International Association for the Study of Pain examines the capabilities of brain imaging in the diagnosis of chronic pain, and the ethical and legal implications of its use in this way...
September 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882191/effects-of-sustained-i-c-v-infusion-of-lupus-csf-and-autoantibodies-on-behavioral-phenotype-and-neuronal-calcium-signaling
#8
Minesh Kapadia, Dunja Bijelić, Hui Zhao, Donglai Ma, Ljudmila Stojanovich, Milena Milošević, Pavle Andjus, Boris Šakić
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a potentially fatal autoimmune disease that is often accompanied by brain atrophy and diverse neuropsychiatric manifestations of unknown origin. More recently, it was observed that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients and lupus-prone mice can be neurotoxic and that acute administration of specific brain-reactive autoantibodies (BRAs) can induce deficits in isolated behavioral tasks. Given the chronic and complex nature of CNS SLE, the current study examines broad behavioral performance and neuronal Ca(2+) signaling in mice receiving a sustained infusion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from CNS SLE patients and putative BRAs (anti-NR2A, anti-ribosomal P, and anti-α-tubulin)...
September 7, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879510/examining-impairment-of-adaptive-compensation-for-stabilizing-motor-repetitions-in-stroke-survivors
#9
Yushin Kim, Kyung Koh, BumChul Yoon, Woo-Sub Kim, Joon-Ho Shin, Hyung-Soon Park, Jae Kun Shim
The hand, one of the most versatile but mechanically redundant parts of the human body, suffers more and longer than other body parts after stroke. One of the rehabilitation paradigms, task-oriented rehabilitation, encourages motor repeatability, the ability to produce similar motor performance over repetitions through compensatory strategies while taking advantage of the motor system's redundancy. The previous studies showed that stroke survivors inconsistently performed a given motor task with limited motor solutions...
September 6, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877482/high-yield-methods-for-accurate-two-alternative-visual-psychophysics-in-head-fixed-mice
#10
Christopher P Burgess, Armin Lak, Nicholas A Steinmetz, Peter Zatka-Haas, Charu Bai Reddy, Elina A K Jacobs, Jennifer F Linden, Joseph J Paton, Adam Ranson, Sylvia Schröder, Sofia Soares, Miles J Wells, Lauren E Wool, Kenneth D Harris, Matteo Carandini
Research in neuroscience increasingly relies on the mouse, a mammalian species that affords unparalleled genetic tractability and brain atlases. Here, we introduce high-yield methods for probing mouse visual decisions. Mice are head-fixed, facilitating repeatable visual stimulation, eye tracking, and brain access. They turn a steering wheel to make two alternative choices, forced or unforced. Learning is rapid thanks to intuitive coupling of stimuli to wheel position. The mouse decisions deliver high-quality psychometric curves for detection and discrimination and conform to the predictions of a simple probabilistic observer model...
September 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873168/vision-screening-in-children-aged-6-months-to-5-years-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#11
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Maureen G Phipps, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: One of the most important causes of vision abnormalities in children is amblyopia (also known as "lazy eye"). Amblyopia is an alteration in the visual neural pathway in a child's developing brain that can lead to permanent vision loss in the affected eye. Among children younger than 6 years, 1% to 6% have amblyopia or its risk factors (strabismus, anisometropia, or both). Early identification of vision abnormalities could prevent the development of amblyopia. Subpopulation Considerations: Studies show that screening rates among children vary by race/ethnicity and family income...
September 5, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860104/valsalva-induced-elevation-of-intracranial-pressure-selectively-decouples-deoxygenated-hemoglobin-concentration-from-neuronal-activation-and-functional-brain-imaging-capability
#12
Martin Knauth, Marcus Heldmann, Thomas F Münte, Georg Royl
During neuronal activation, neurovascular coupling leads to a local decrease of deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (deoxy-Hb) and thus forms the basis of many functional brain mapping methods. In animals, an elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) can attenuate or even reverse this deoxy-Hb signaling. To study the effect of an elevated ICP on functional brain imaging in humans, we used different breathing tasks to modify ICP and analyzed the resulting effect on neurovascular coupling in the motor cortex. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was performed on 45 subjects during alternating conditions of finger tapping and resting state combined with four different breathing maneuvers (normal breathing (NB), breath holding without Valsalva maneuver (BH), Valsalva maneuver with 15 mm Hg forced expiratory pressure against resistance (V15) and Valsalva maneuver with 35 mm Hg forced expiratory pressure against resistance (V35)) in randomized order...
August 30, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844812/antidepressant-like-effects-of-3-carboxamido-seco-nalmefene-3cs-nalmefene-a-novel-opioid-receptor-modulator-in-a-rat-ifn-%C3%AE-induced-depression-model
#13
Charlotte K Callaghan, Jennifer Rouine, Reginald L Dean, Brian I Knapp, Jean M Bidlack, Daniel R Deaver, Shane M O'Mara
Patients receiving the cytokine immunotherapy, interferon-alpha (IFN-α) frequently present with neuropsychiatric consequences and cognitive impairments. Patients (25-80%) report symptoms of depression, including, anhedonia, irritability, fatigue and impaired motivation. Our lab has previously demonstrated treatment (170,000IU/kg sc, 3 times per week for 4weeks) of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IFN-α, induced a depressive phenotype in rats in the forced swim test (FST). Here, we examine the biological mechanisms underlying behavioral changes induced by IFN-α, which may be reflective of mechanisms underlying inflammation associated depression...
August 24, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833746/a-tug-of-war-antagonistic-effective-connectivity-patterns-over-the-motor-cortex-and-the-severity-of-motor-symptoms-in-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#14
Laura Zapparoli, Marco Tettamanti, Mauro Porta, Alberto Zerbi, Domenico Servello, Giuseppe Banfi, Eraldo Paulesu
We tested the hypothesis that Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is characterized by perturbed connectivity within cortico-subcortical motor networks. To this end, we performed a dynamic causal modelling (DCM) analysis of fMRI data collected during a finger opposition task in 24 normal controls and 24 GTS patients. The DCM analysis allowed us to assess whether any GTS-specific patterns of brain activity were related to intrinsic and/or to task-dependent connectivity. While no abnormalities were found for task-dependent connectivity, intrinsic connectivity was abnormally increased in the premotor network, with stronger connections from the supplementary motor area (SMA), from the dorsolateral premotor cortex and from the putamen to the right superior frontal gyrus, an area where GTS showed over-activation in a previous univariate analysis...
August 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822460/-french-society-for-biological-psychiatry-and-neuropsychopharmacology-and-fondation-fondamental-task-force-formal-consensus-for-the-management-of-treatment-resistant-depression
#15
T Charpeaud, J-B Genty, S Destouches, A Yrondi, S Lancrenon, N Alaïli, F Bellivier, D Bennabi, T Bougerol, V Camus, T D'amato, O Doumy, F Haesebaert, J Holtzmann, C Lançon, M Lefebvre, F Moliere, I Nieto, R Richieri, L Schmitt, F Stephan, G Vaiva, M Walter, M Leboyer, W El-Hage, E Haffen, P-M Llorca, P Courtet, B Aouizerate
Major depression represents among the most frequent psychiatric disorders in the general population with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 16-17%. It is characterized by high levels of comorbidities with other psychiatric conditions or somatic diseases as well as a recurrent or chronic course in 50 to 80% of the cases leading to negative repercussions on the daily functioning, with an impaired quality of life, and to severe direct/indirect costs. Large cohort studies have supported that failure of a first-line antidepressant treatment is observed in more than 60% of patients...
September 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813929/soft-brain-machine-interfaces-for-assistive-robotics-a-novel-control-approach
#16
Lucia Schiatti, Jacopo Tessadori, Giacinto Barresi, Leonardo S Mattos, Arash Ajoudani
Robotic systems offer the possibility of improving the life quality of people with severe motor disabilities, enhancing the individual's degree of independence and interaction with the external environment. In this direction, the operator's residual functions must be exploited for the control of the robot movements and the underlying dynamic interaction through intuitive and effective human-robot interfaces. Towards this end, this work aims at exploring the potential of a novel Soft Brain-Machine Interface (BMI), suitable for dynamic execution of remote manipulation tasks for a wide range of patients...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808866/activations-in-gray-and-white-matter-are-modulated-by-uni-manual-responses-during-within-and-inter-hemispheric-transfer-effects-of-response-hand-and-right-handedness
#17
Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Marcella Bellani, Asadur Chowdury, Silvia Savazzi, Cinzia Perlini, Veronica Marinelli, Giada Zoccatelli, Franco Alessandrini, Elisa Ciceri, Gianluca Rambaldelli, Mirella Ruggieri, A Carlo Altamura, Carlo A Marzi, Paolo Bambilla
Because the visual cortices are contra-laterally organized, inter-hemispheric transfer tasks have been used to behaviorally probe how information briefly presented to one hemisphere of the visual cortex is integrated with responses resulting from the ipsi- or contra-lateral motor cortex. By forcing rapid information exchange across diverse regions, these tasks robustly activate not only gray matter regions, but also white matter tracts. It is likely that the response hand itself (dominant or non-dominant) modulates gray and white matter activations during within and inter-hemispheric transfer...
August 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794465/the-mechanical-representation-of-temporal-delays
#18
Raz Leib, Amir Karniel, Ferdinando A Mussa-Ivaldi
When we knock on a door, we perceive the impact as a collection of simultaneous events, combining sound, sight, and tactile sensation. In reality, information from different modalities but from a single source is flowing inside the brain along different pathways, reaching processing centers at different times. Therefore, interpreting different sensory modalities which seem to occur simultaneously requires information processing that accounts for these different delays. As in a computer-based robotic system, does the brain use some explicit estimation of the time delay, to realign the sensory flows? Or does it compensate for temporal delays by representing them as changes in the body/environment mechanics? Using delayed-state or an approximation for delayed-state manipulations between visual and proprioceptive feedback during a tracking task, we show that tracking errors, grip forces, and learning curves are consistent with predictions of a representation that is based on approximation for delay, refuting an explicit delayed-state representation...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767646/a-model-of-human-motor-sequence-learning-explains-facilitation-and-interference-effects-based-on-spike-timing-dependent-plasticity
#19
Quan Wang, Constantin A Rothkopf, Jochen Triesch
The ability to learn sequential behaviors is a fundamental property of our brains. Yet a long stream of studies including recent experiments investigating motor sequence learning in adult human subjects have produced a number of puzzling and seemingly contradictory results. In particular, when subjects have to learn multiple action sequences, learning is sometimes impaired by proactive and retroactive interference effects. In other situations, however, learning is accelerated as reflected in facilitation and transfer effects...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762591/ean-consensus-review-on-prevention-diagnosis-and-management-of-tick-borne-encephalitis
#20
REVIEW
P Taba, E Schmutzhard, P Forsberg, I Lutsar, U Ljøstad, Å Mygland, I Levchenko, F Strle, I Steiner
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an infection of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and transmitted by ticks, with a variety of clinical manifestations. The incidence of TBE in Europe is increasing due to an extended season of the infection and the enlargement of endemic areas. Our objectives are to provide recommendations on the prevention, diagnosis and management of TBE, based on evidence or consensus decisions. METHODS: For systematic evaluation, the literature was searched from 1970 to 2015 (including early online publications of 2016), and recommendations were based on evidence or consensus decisions of the Task Force when evidence-based data were not available...
August 1, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
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