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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424602/assessing-the-driver-s-current-level-of-working-memory-load-with-high-density-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-a-realistic-driving-simulator-study
#1
Anirudh Unni, Klas Ihme, Meike Jipp, Jochem W Rieger
Cognitive overload or underload results in a decrease in human performance which may result in fatal incidents while driving. We envision that driver assistive systems which adapt their functionality to the driver's cognitive state could be a promising approach to reduce road accidents due to human errors. This research attempts to predict variations of cognitive working memory load levels in a natural driving scenario with multiple parallel tasks and to reveal predictive brain areas. We used a modified version of the n-back task to induce five different working memory load levels (from 0-back up to 4-back) forcing the participants to continuously update, memorize, and recall the previous 'n' speed sequences and adjust their speed accordingly while they drove for approximately 60 min on a highway with concurrent traffic in a virtual reality driving simulator...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421482/cost-effectiveness-of-stereotactic-radiosurgery-and-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-a-critical-review
#2
REVIEW
Nataniel H Lester-Coll, David J Sher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize and appraise published cost-effectiveness studies on stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). RECENT FINDINGS: We performed a Medline search of cost-effectiveness studies of SRS, SBRT, and other cancer treatment modalities such as surgery and systemic therapy from 2006 to 2016. We included studies that used both modeling and retrospective review techniques. We excluded studies of benign disease...
June 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391295/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-brain-metastases-from-solid-tumors-guidelines-from-the-european-association-of-neuro-oncology-eano
#3
Riccardo Soffietti, Ufuk Abacioglu, Brigitta Baumert, Stephanie E Combs, Sara Kinhult, Johan M Kros, Christine Marosi, Philippe Metellus, Alexander Radbruch, Salvador S Villa Freixa, Michael Brada, Carmine M Carapella, Matthias Preusser, Emilie Le Rhun, Roberta Rudà, Joerg C Tonn, Damien C Weber, Michael Weller
The management of patients with brain metastases has become a major issue due to the increasing frequency and complexity of the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In 2014, the European Association of Neuro-Oncology (EANO) created a multidisciplinary Task Force to draw evidence-based guidelines for patients with brain metastases from solid tumors. Here, we present these guidelines, which provide a consensus review of evidence and recommendations for diagnosis by neuroimaging and neuropathology, staging, prognostic factors, and different treatment options...
February 1, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387589/inhibition-of-pre-sma-by-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-leads-to-more-cautious-decision-making-and-more-efficient-sensory-evidence-integration
#4
Tuğçe Tosun, Dilara Berkay, Alexander T Sack, Yusuf Ö Çakmak, Fuat Balcı
Decisions are made based on the integration of available evidence. The noise in evidence accumulation leads to a particular speed-accuracy tradeoff in decision-making, which can be modulated and optimized by adaptive decision threshold setting. Given the effect of pre-SMA activity on striatal excitability, we hypothesized that the inhibition of pre-SMA would lead to higher decision thresholds and an increased accuracy bias. We used offline continuous theta burst stimulation to assess the effect of transient inhibition of the right pre-SMA on the decision processes in a free-response two-alternative forced-choice task within the drift diffusion model framework...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367834/electroencephalographic-identifiers-of-motor-adaptation-learning
#5
Ozan Ozdenizci, Mustafa Yalcin, Ahmetcan Erdogan, Volkan Patoglu, Moritz Grosse-Wentrup, Mujdat Cetin
OBJECTIVE: Recent brain-computer interface (BCI) assisted stroke rehabilitation protocols tend to focus on sensorimotor activity of the brain. Relying on evidence claiming that a variety of brain rhythms beyond sensorimotor areas are related to the extent of motor deficits, we propose to identify neural correlates of motor learning beyond sensorimotor areas spatially and spectrally for further use in novel BCI-assisted neurorehabilitation settings. APPROACH: Electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded from healthy subjects participating in a physical force-field adaptation task involving reaching movements through a robotic handle...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363436/brain-activity-associated-with-selective-attention-divided-attention-and-distraction
#6
Emma Salo, Viljami Salmela, Juha Salmi, Jussi Numminen, Kimmo Alho
Top-down controlled selective or divided attention to sounds and visual objects, as well as bottom-up triggered attention to auditory and visual distractors, has been widely investigated. However, no study has systematically compared brain activations related to all these types of attention. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity in participants performing a tone pitch or a foveal grating orientation discrimination task, or both, distracted by novel sounds not sharing frequencies with the tones or by extrafoveal visual textures...
March 28, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356066/effectiveness-of-conservative-interventions-for-sickness-and-pain-behaviors-induced-by-a-high-repetition-high-force-upper-extremity-task
#7
D L Xin, J Hadrévi, M E Elliott, M Amin, M Y Harris, A E Barr-Gillespie, M F Barbe
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation is known to induce sickness behaviors, including decreased social interaction and pain. We have reported increased serum inflammatory cytokines in a rat model of repetitive strain injury (rats perform an upper extremity reaching task for prolonged periods). Here, we sought to determine if sickness behaviors are induced in this model and the effectiveness of conservative treatments. METHODS: Experimental rats underwent initial training to learn a high force reaching task (10 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks), with or without ibuprofen treatment (TRHF vs...
March 29, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337941/lesion-symptom-map-of-cognitive-postural-interference-in-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Serena Ruggieri, Fulvia Fanelli, Letizia Castelli, Nikolaos Petsas, Laura De Giglio, Luca Prosperini
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the disease-altered structure-function relationship underlying the cognitive-postural interference (CPI) phenomenon in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We measured postural sway of 96 patients and 48 sex-/age-matched healthy controls by force platform in quiet standing (single-task (ST)) while performing the Stroop test (dual-task (DT)) to estimate the dual-task cost (DTC) of balance. In patient group, binary T2 and T1 lesion masks and their corresponding lesion volumes were obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain...
March 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329361/sex-hormones-affect-outcome-in-arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-cardiomyopathy-dysplasia-from-a-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocyte-based-model-to-clinical-biomarkers-of-disease-outcome
#9
Deniz Akdis, Ardan M Saguner, Khooshbu Shah, Chuanyu Wei, Argelia Medeiros-Domingo, Arnold von Eckardstein, Thomas F Lüscher, Corinna Brunckhorst, H S Vincent Chen, Firat Duru
Aims: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) is characterized by fibrofatty infiltration of the myocardium and ventricular arrhythmias that may lead to sudden cardiac death. It has been observed that male patients develop the disease earlier and present with more severe phenotypes as compared to females. Thus, we hypothesized that serum levels of sex hormones may contribute to major arrhythmic cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with ARVC/D. Methods and results: The serum levels of five sex hormones, sex hormone-binding globulin, high sensitivity troponin T, pro-brain natriuretic peptide, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose were measured in 54 ARVC/D patients (72% male)...
February 18, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328129/the-phenotypic-spectrum-of-congenital-zika-syndrome
#10
Miguel Del Campo, Ian M L Feitosa, Erlane M Ribeiro, Dafne D G Horovitz, André L S Pessoa, Giovanny V A França, Alfredo García-Alix, Maria J R Doriqui, Hector Y C Wanderley, Maria V T Sanseverino, João I C F Neri, João M Pina-Neto, Emerson S Santos, Islane Verçosa, Mirlene C S P Cernach, Paula F V Medeiros, Saile C Kerbage, André A Silva, Vanessa van der Linden, Celina M T Martelli, Marli T Cordeiro, Rafael Dhalia, Fernanda S L Vianna, Cesar G Victora, Denise P Cavalcanti, Lavinia Schuler-Faccini
In October 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MoH). In response, the Brazilian Society of Medical Genetics established a task force (SBGM-ZETF) to study the phenotype of infants born with microcephaly due to ZIKV congenital infection and delineate the phenotypic spectrum of this newly recognized teratogen. This study was based on the clinical evaluation and neuroimaging of 83 infants born during the period from July, 2015 to March, 2016 and registered by the SBGM-ZETF. All 83 infants had significant findings on neuroimaging consistent with ZIKV congenital infection and 12 had confirmed ZIKV IgM in CSF...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317651/clinical-validity-of-presynaptic-dopaminergic-imaging-with%C3%A2-123-i-ioflupane%C3%A2-and-noradrenergic-imaging-with-123-i-mibg-in-the-differential-diagnosis-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-in-the-context-of-a-structured-5-phase-development
#11
REVIEW
Ida Sonni, Osman Ratib, Marina Boccardi, Agnese Picco, Karl Herholz, Flavio Nobili, Andrea Varrone
The use of biomarkers (BMs) for accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been proposed by recent diagnostic criteria; however, their maturity is not sufficient to grant implementation in the clinical routine. A proper diagnostic process requires not only confirmation of the disease but also the exclusion of similar disorders entering differential diagnosis, like dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). This review is aimed at evaluating the clinical validity of (123)I-ioflupane brain single photon emission tomography and (123)I-MIBG cardiac scintigraphy as imaging BMs for DLB...
April 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317648/clinical-validity-of-brain-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-as-a-biomarker-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-context-of-a-structured-5-phase-development-framework
#12
REVIEW
Valentina Garibotto, Karl Herholz, Marina Boccardi, Agnese Picco, Andrea Varrone, Agneta Nordberg, Flavio Nobili, Osman Ratib
The use of Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers is supported in diagnostic criteria, but their maturity for clinical routine is still debated. Here, we evaluate brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET), a measure of cerebral glucose metabolism, as a biomarker to identify clinical and prodromal AD according to the framework suggested for biomarkers in oncology, using homogenous criteria with other biomarkers addressed in parallel reviews. FDG PET has fully achieved phase 1 (rational for use) and most of phase 2 (ability to discriminate AD subjects from healthy controls or other forms of dementia) aims...
April 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317643/biomarkers-for-the-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-clinical-practice-an-italian-intersocietal-roadmap
#13
Giovanni B Frisoni, Daniela Perani, Stefano Bastianello, Gaetano Bernardi, Corinna Porteri, Marina Boccardi, Stefano F Cappa, Marco Trabucchi, Alessandro Padovani
Biomarkers of brain amyloidosis and neurodegeneration/synaptic dysfunction are featured in recent diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease. Several gaps in our knowledge, however, need to be filled before they can be adopted clinically. The aim of this article is to describe a roadmap, developed by a multidisciplinary task force, to rationally implement biomarkers for Italian Memory Clinics. This roadmap is based on a framework comprising 5 sequential phases: identification of leads for potentially useful biomarkers; development of clinical assays for clinical disease; evaluation of detection of early stages; definition of operating characteristics in relevant populations; and estimation of reducing disease-associated mortality, morbidity, and disability...
April 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315756/interleukin-4-is-a-participant-in-the-regulation-of-depressive-like-behavior
#14
Simone Wachholz, Alexandra Knorr, Leonie Mengert, Jennifer Plümper, Rainer Sommer, Georg Juckel, Astrid Friebe
Inflammatory immune activation has been frequently associated with the development of major depression. Microglia might serve as an important interface in this immune system-to-brain communication. Interleukin-4, the major Th2 type cytokine, might be protective against depression due to its ability to counter-regulate inflammation and to inhibit serotonin transporter activity. By using an Interferon-α mouse model, we show that a decreased IL-4 responsiveness of microglia was specifically related to the development of depressive-like behavior...
March 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277403/methylphenidate-enhances-grip-force-and-alters-brain-connectivity
#15
Michael King, Laurie H Rauch, Samantha J Brooks, Dan J Stein, Kai Lutz
INTRODUCTION: A central fatigue theory proposes that force output during fatiguing exercise is limited to maintain homeostasis. The self-awareness of the body's homeostatic state is known as interoception. Brain regions thought to play a role in interoception, such as the insular and orbital frontal cortex, have been proposed as sites for the upstream regulation of fatiguing exercise. Methylphenidate (MPH) can improve force output during exercise and may alter central processes during fatiguing exercise...
March 8, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269819/fast-and-robust-brain-tumor-segmentation-using-level-set-method-with-multiple-image-information
#16
Ka Hei Lok, Lin Shi, Xianlun Zhu, Defeng Wang
BACKGROUND: Brain tumor segmentation is a challenging task for its variation in intensity. The phenomenon is caused by the inhomogeneous content of tumor tissue and the choice of imaging modality. In 2010 Zhang developed the Selective Binary Gaussian Filtering Regularizing Level Set (SBGFRLS) model that combined the merits of edge-based and region-based segmentation. OBJECTIVE: To improve the SBGFRLS method by modifying the singed pressure force (SPF) term with multiple image information and demonstrate effectiveness of proposed method on clinical images...
2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268958/reward-value-is-encoded-in-primary-somatosensory-cortex-and-can-be-decoded-from-neural-activity-during-performance-of-a-psychophysical-task
#17
David B McNiel, John S Choi, John P Hessburg, Joseph T Francis
Encoding of reward valence has been shown in various brain regions, including deep structures such as the substantia nigra as well as cortical structures such as the orbitofrontal cortex. While the correlation between these signals and reward valence have been shown in aggregated data comprised of many trials, little work has been done investigating the feasibility of decoding reward valence on a single trial basis. Towards this goal, one non-human primate (macaca radiata) was trained to grip and hold a target level of force in order to earn zero, one, two, or three juice rewards...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261107/low-frequency-oscillations-and-control-of-the-motor-output
#18
REVIEW
Neha Lodha, Evangelos A Christou
A less precise force output impairs our ability to perform movements, learn new motor tasks, and use tools. Here we show that low-frequency oscillations in force are detrimental to force precision. We summarize the recent evidence that low-frequency oscillations in force output represent oscillations of the spinal motor neuron pool from the voluntary drive, and can be modulated by shifting power to higher frequencies. Further, force oscillations below 0.5 Hz impair force precision with increased voluntary drive, aging, and neurological disease...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246967/the-cognitive-role-of-the-globus-pallidus-interna-insights-from-disease-states
#19
M J Gillies, J A Hyam, A R Weiss, C A Antoniades, R Bogacz, J J Fitzgerald, T Z Aziz, M A Whittington, Alexander L Green
The motor symptoms of both Parkinson's disease and focal dystonia arise from dysfunction of the basal ganglia, and are improved by pallidotomy or deep brain stimulation of the Globus Pallidus interna (GPi). However, Parkinson's disease is associated with a greater degree of basal ganglia-dependent learning impairment than dystonia. We attempt to understand this observation in terms of a comparison of the electrophysiology of the output of the basal ganglia between the two conditions. We use the natural experiment offered by Deep Brain Stimulation to compare GPi local field potential responses in subjects with Parkinson's disease compared to subjects with dystonia performing a forced-choice decision-making task with sensory feedback...
May 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240422/cerebellar-lobules-and-dentate-nuclei-mirror-cortical-force-related-bold-responses-beyond-all-linear-expectations
#20
Adnan A S Alahmadi, Matteo Pardini, Rebecca S Samson, Karl J Friston, Ahmed T Toosy, Egidio D'Angelo, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott
The relationship between the BOLD response and an applied force was quantified in the cerebellum using a power grip task. To investigate whether the cerebellum responds in an on/off way to motor demands or contributes to motor responses in a parametric fashion, similarly to the cortex, five grip force levels were investigated under visual feedback. Functional MRI data were acquired in 13 healthy volunteers and their responses were analyzed using a cerebellum-optimized pipeline. This allowed us to evaluate, within the cerebellum, voxelwise linear and non-linear associations between cerebellar activations and forces...
February 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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