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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142759/forced-migrants-involved-in-setting-the-agenda-and-designing-research-to-reduce-impacts-of-complex-emergencies-combining-swarm-with-patient-and-public-involvement
#1
Julii Suzanne Brainard, Enana Al Assaf, Judith Omasete, Steve Leach, Charlotte C Hammer, Paul R Hunter
Plain English summary: The UK's National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Protection Research Unit in Emergency Preparedness and Response was asked to undertake research on how to reduce the impact of complex national/international emergencies on public health. How to focus the research and decide on priority topics was challenging, given the nature of complex events. Using a type of structured brain-storming, the researchers identified the ongoing UK, European and international migration crisis as both complex and worthy of deeper research...
2017: Res Involv Engagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136539/an-examination-of-lower-limb-asymmetry-in-ankle-isometric-force-control
#2
Sheng-Che Yen, Laura C Olsavsky, Caitlin M Cloonan, Amelia R Llanos, Kara J Dwyer, Mohsen Nabian, Amir Bahador Farjadian
While asymmetries have been observed between the dominant and non-dominant legs, it is unclear whether they have different abilities in isometric force control (IFC). The purpose of this study was to compare ankle IFC between the legs. IFC is important for stabilization rather than object manipulation, and people typically use their non-dominant leg for stabilization tasks. Additionally, studies suggested that a limb can better acquire a motor task when the control mechanism of the task is related to what the limb is specialized for...
November 11, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118194/optimal-use-of-limb-mechanics-distributes-control-during-bimanual-tasks
#3
David Córdova Bulens, Frédéric Crevecoeur, Jean-Louis Thonnard, Philippe Lefèvre
Bimanual tasks involve the coordination of both arms, which often offers redundancy in the ways a task can be completed. The distribution of control across limbs is often considered from the perspective of handedness. In this context, although there are differences across dominant and non-dominant arms during reaching control (Sainburg 2002), previous studies have shown that the brain tends to favor the dominant arm when performing bimanual tasks (Salimpour and Shadmehr 2014). However, biomechanical factors known to influence planning and control in unimanual tasks may also generate limb asymmetries in force generation, but their influence on bimanual control has remained unexplored...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115485/effect-of-willed-movement-training-on-neurorehabilitation-after-focal-cerebral-ischemia-and-on-the-neural-plasticity-associated-signaling-pathway
#4
Zhi-Wen Zhou, Qi-Dong Yang, Qing-Ping Tang, Jie Yang, Rong-Jing Guo, Wen Jiang
Neurorehabilitation training is a therapeutic intervention for the loss of neural function induced by focal cerebral ischemia, however, the effect varies depending on the neurorehabilitation exercises. Willed movement (WM) training is defined as task‑oriented training, which increases enthusiasm of patients to accomplish a specific task. The current study was performed to the evaluate effect of WM training on neurorehabilitation following focal cerebral ischemia, and further investigate the influence on neural plasticity‑associated signaling pathway...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107662/methylphenidate-alters-brain-connectivity-after-enhanced-physical-performance
#5
Michael King, Keelyn Van Breda, Laurie H Rauch, Samantha J Brooks, Dan J Stein, Jonathan Ipser
Muscle fatigue is a disturbed homeostatic state characterized by a temporary inability to maintain force output and has lasting effects on the brain in the period immediately after exercise, such as decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC). Stimulants that increase dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmission can enhance performance during muscle fatiguing exercise (i.e. are ergogenic). We recently demonstrated that methylphenidate (MPH) increased force output and increased FC between the insular (IC) and hand motor cortex during a fatiguing handgrip task...
October 28, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105075/methodological-standards-for-in%C3%A2-vitro-models-of-epilepsy-and-epileptic-seizures-a-task1-wg4-report-of-the-aes-ilae-translational-task-force-of-the-ilae
#6
Joseph V Raimondo, Uwe Heinemann, Marco de Curtis, Howard P Goodkin, Chris G Dulla, Damir Janigro, Akio Ikeda, Chou-Ching K Lin, Premysl Jiruska, Aristea S Galanopoulou, Christophe Bernard
In vitro preparations are a powerful tool to explore the mechanisms and processes underlying epileptogenesis and ictogenesis. In this review, we critically review the numerous in vitro methodologies utilized in epilepsy research. We provide support for the inclusion of detailed descriptions of techniques, including often ignored parameters with unpredictable yet significant effects on study reproducibility and outcomes. In addition, we explore how recent developments in brain slice preparation relate to their use as models of epileptic activity...
November 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105073/methodological-standards-and-interpretation-of-video-electroencephalography-in-adult-control-rodents-a%C3%A2-task1-wg1-report-of-the-aes-ilae-translational-task%C3%A2-force-of-the-ilae
#7
Shilpa D Kadam, Raimondo D'Ambrosio, Venceslas Duveau, Corinne Roucard, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Akio Ikeda, Marco de Curtis, Aristea S Galanopoulou, Kevin M Kelly
In vivo electrophysiological recordings are widely used in neuroscience research, and video-electroencephalography (vEEG) has become a mainstay of preclinical neuroscience research, including studies of epilepsy and cognition. Studies utilizing vEEG typically involve comparison of measurements obtained from different experimental groups, or from the same experimental group at different times, in which one set of measurements serves as "control" and the others as "test" of the variables of interest. Thus, controls provide mainly a reference measurement for the experimental test...
November 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101820/extending-the-limits-of-force-endurance-stimulation-of-the-motor-or-the-frontal-cortex
#8
Rémi Radel, Gavin Tempest, Gauthier Denis, Pierre Besson, Raphael Zory
Previous findings indicate that facilitation of primary motor cortex (PMC) activity using trans-cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could improve resistance to physical fatigue. However, studies have failed to consistently replicate these results. Using non-focal-tDCS during a fatiguing task, recent work showed no enhancement of corticospinal excitability of the PMC despite a longer endurance time and suggested that contamination in other brain regions involved in motor command may have occurred. In accordance with recent evidence supporting the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in exercise maintenance, this double-blind sham-controlled crossover study (N = 22) compared the effect of high definition (HD)-tDCS of the PMC or the PFC on endurance time of a sustained contraction task of the elbow flexor...
October 9, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067961/genetic-and-clinical-advances-of-congenital-muscular-dystrophy
#9
REVIEW
Xiao-Na Fu, Hui Xiong
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to update the genetic and clinical advances of congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD), based on a systematic review of the literature from 1991 to 2017. DATA SOURCES: Articles in English published in PubMed from 1991 to 2017 English were searched. The terms used in the literature searches were CMD. STUDY SELECTION: The task force initially identified citations for 98 published articles. Of the 98 articles, 52 studies were selected after further detailed review...
November 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060757/haptic-fmri-reliability-and-performance-of-electromagnetic-haptic-interfaces-for-motion-and-force-neuroimaging-experiments
#10
Samir Menon, Jack Zhu, Deeksha Goyal, Oussama Khatib
Haptic interfaces compatible with functional magnetic resonance imaging (Haptic fMRI) promise to enable rich motor neuroscience experiments that study how humans perform complex manipulation tasks. Here, we present a large-scale study (176 scans runs, 33 scan sessions) that characterizes the reliability and performance of one such electromagnetically actuated device, Haptic fMRI Interface 3 (HFI-3). We outline engineering advances that ensured HFI-3 did not interfere with fMRI measurements. Observed fMRI temporal noise levels with HFI-3 operating were at the fMRI baseline (0...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021739/effect-of-error-augmentation-on-brain-activation-and-motor-learning-of-a-complex-locomotor-task
#11
Laura Marchal-Crespo, Lars Michels, Lukas Jaeger, Jorge López-Olóriz, Robert Riener
Up to date, the functional gains obtained after robot-aided gait rehabilitation training are limited. Error augmenting strategies have a great potential to enhance motor learning of simple motor tasks. However, little is known about the effect of these error modulating strategies on complex tasks, such as relearning to walk after a neurologic accident. Additionally, neuroimaging evaluation of brain regions involved in learning processes could provide valuable information on behavioral outcomes. We investigated the effect of robotic training strategies that augment errors-error amplification and random force disturbance-and training without perturbations on brain activation and motor learning of a complex locomotor task...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020410/the-requirement-of-l-type-voltage-dependent-calcium-channel-l-vdcc-in-the-rapid-acting-antidepressant-like-effects-of-scopolamine-in-mice
#12
Hanjie Yu, Mengmeng Li, Xinbei Shen, Dan Lv, Xin Sun, Jinting Wang, Xinmei Gu, Jingning Hu, Chuang Wang
Background: Previous studies have shown that a low dose of scopolamine produces rapid-acting antidepressant-like actions in rodents. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this effect and the dose-dependent variations of drug responses remains an important task. L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (L-VDCC) were found to mediate rapid-acting antidepressant effects of certain medications (e.g., ketamine). Therefore, it is of great interest to determine the involvement of L-VDCC in the action of scopolamine...
August 25, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951736/classification-of-hand-grasp-kinetics-and-types-using-movement-related-cortical-potentials-and-eeg-rhythms
#13
Mads Jochumsen, Cecilie Rovsing, Helene Rovsing, Imran Khan Niazi, Kim Dremstrup, Ernest Nlandu Kamavuako
Detection of single-trial movement intentions from EEG is paramount for brain-computer interfacing in neurorehabilitation. These movement intentions contain task-related information and if this is decoded, the neurorehabilitation could potentially be optimized. The aim of this study was to classify single-trial movement intentions associated with two levels of force and speed and three different grasp types using EEG rhythms and components of the movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) as features. The feature importance was used to estimate encoding of discriminative information...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951449/meg-insight-into-the-spectral-dynamics-underlying-steady-isometric-muscle-contraction
#14
Mathieu Bourguignon, Harri Piitulainen, Eero Smeds, Guangyu Zhou, Veikko Jousmäki, Riitta Hari
To gain fundamental knowledge on how the brain controls motor actions, we studied in detail the interplay between MEG signals from the primary sensorimotor (SM1) cortex and the contraction force of 17 healthy adult humans (7 females, 10 males). SM1 activity was coherent at ∼20 Hz with surface electromyogram (as already extensively reported) but also with contraction force. In both cases, the effective coupling was dominant in the efferent direction. Across subjects, the level of ∼20 Hz coherence between cortex and periphery positively correlated with the "burstiness" of ∼20 Hz SM1 (Pearson r ≈ 0...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945152/correlations-between-hysteretic-categorical-and-continuous-judgments-of-perceptual-stimuli-supporting-a-unified-dynamical-systems-approach-to-perception
#15
S Kim, T D Frank
We report from two variants of a figure-ground experiment that is known in the literature to involve a bistable perceptual domain. The first variant was conducted as a two-alternative forced-choice experiment and in doing so tested participants on a categorical measurement scale. The second variant involved a Likert scale measure that was considered to represent a continuous measurement scale. The two variants were conducted as a single within-subjects experiment. Measures of bistability operationalized in terms of hysteresis size scores showed significant positive correlations across the two response conditions...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931410/lentivirus-mediated-interleukin-1%C3%AE-il-1%C3%AE-knock-down-in-the-hippocampus-alleviates-lipopolysaccharide-lps-induced-memory-deficits-and-anxiety-and-depression-like-behaviors-in-mice
#16
Mengmeng Li, Chenli Li, Hanjie Yu, Xiongxiong Cai, Xinbei Shen, Xin Sun, Jinting Wang, Yanhua Zhang, Chuang Wang
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence has suggested that peripheral inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) play an important role in neuropsychiatric dysfunction in rodents. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, has been proposed to be a key mediator in a variety of behavioral dysfunction induced by LPS in mice. Thus, inhibition of IL-1β may have a therapeutic benefit in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the precise underlying mechanism of knock-down of IL-1β in repairing behavioral changes by LPS remains unclear...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920903/brain-control-of-an-external-device-by-extracting-the-highest-force-related-contents-of-local-field-potentials-in-freely-moving-rats
#17
Abed Khorasani, Reza Foodeh, Vahid Shalchyan, Mohammad Reza Daliri
A local field potential (LFP) signal is an alternative source to neural action potentials for decoding kinematic and kinetic information from the brain. Here we demonstrate that better extraction of force-related features from multichannel LFPs improves the accuracy of force decoding. We propose that applying canonical correlation analysis (CCA) filter on the envelopes of separate frequency bands (band-specific CCA) seperates non- task related information from the LFPs. The decoding accuracy of the continuous force signal based on the proposed method were compared with three feature reduction methods: 1) Band-specific principal component analysis (bandspecific PCA) method that extract the components which leads to maximum variance from envelopes of different frequency bands, 2) Correlation coefficient-based (CC-based) feature reduction that selects the best features from the envelopes sorted based on the absolute correlation coefficient between each envelope and the target force signal and 3) Mutual information -based (MI-based) feature reduction that selects the best features from the envelopes sorted based on the mutual information between each envelope and output force signal...
September 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893591/neurosteroid-dehydroepiandrosterone-improves-active-avoidance-retrieval-and-induces-antidepressant-like-behavior-in-rats
#18
Janko Samardzic, Boris Hencic, Jasna Jancic, Dragana Jadzic, Milos Djuric, Dragan I Obradovic, Dubravka Svob Strac
Various studies reported beneficial effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate (DHEAS), the neurosteroids involved in various brain functions, on synaptic plasticity, neuronal survival, memory, learning and behavior. This study aimed to investigate the behavioral profile of acute DHEA treatment by using active avoidance (AA) task, primarily predictive of the effects on the retrieval-based learning, and by applying forced swim test (FST), for assessment of antidepressant-like potential. Adult male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of either DHEA (2, 10, 20mg/kg) or solvent, 30min prior to testing...
November 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893295/a-brain-computer-interface-driven-by-imagining-different-force-loads-on-a-single-hand-an-online-feasibility-study
#19
Kun Wang, Zhongpeng Wang, Yi Guo, Feng He, Hongzhi Qi, Minpeng Xu, Dong Ming
BACKGROUND: Motor imagery (MI) induced EEG patterns are widely used as control signals for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Kinetic and kinematic factors have been proved to be able to change EEG patterns during motor execution and motor imagery. However, to our knowledge, there is still no literature reporting an effective online MI-BCI using kinetic factor regulated EEG oscillations. This study proposed a novel MI-BCI paradigm in which users can online output multiple commands by imagining clenching their right hand with different force loads...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892407/nonparametric-bootstrap-technique-for-calibrating-surgical-smartforceps-theory-and-application
#20
Parisa Azimaee, Mohammad Jafari Jozani, Yaser Maddahi, Kourosh Zareinia, Garnette R Sutherland
Knowledge of forces, exerted on the brain tissue during the performance of neurosurgical tasks, is critical for quality assurance, case rehearsal, and training purposes. Quantifying the interaction forces has been made possible by developing SmartForceps, a bipolar forceps retrofitted by a set of strain gauges. The forces are estimated using voltages read from strain gauges. We therefore need to quantify the force-voltage relationship to estimate the interaction forces during microsurgery. This problem has been addressed in the literature by following the physical and deterministic properties of the force-sensing strain gauges without obtaining the precision associated with each estimate...
September 11, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
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