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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204862/effect-of-constant-predictable-and-unpredictable-motor-tasks-on-motor-performance-and-blood-markers-of-stress
#1
Laura Kyguoliene, Albertas Skurvydas, Nerijus Eimantas, Neringa Baranauskienė, Dalia Mickeviciene, Daiva Urboniene, Margarita Cernych, Marius Brazaitis
An unfamiliar or novel physical stimulus induces activation of dopaminergic neurons within the brain and greater activity in areas involved in emotion; considering this, we aimed to establish whether unpredictable prolonged (fatiguing) motor task (vs. constant vs. predictable) evokes greater dopaminergic activity, enhances neuromuscular performance, motor accuracy, and perception of effort, and delays overall central fatigue. Fifteen healthy male volunteers (aged 22 ± 4 years) were required to perform 1 of 3 exercise trials (at least 1 week apart) of 100 intermittent isometric contraction (IIC) tasks involving knee extensions at 60° flexion...
February 16, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193497/i-act-therefore-i-err-eeg-correlates-of-success-and-failure-in-a-virtual-throwing-game
#2
Boris Yazmir, Miriam Reiner
What are the neural responses to success and failure in a throwing task? To answer this question, we compared Event Related Potentials (ERPs) correlated with success and failure during a highly-ecological-virtual game. Participants played a tennis-like game in an immersive 3D virtual world, against a computer player, by controlling a virtual tennis racket with a force feedback robotic arm. Results showed that success, i.e. hitting the target, and failure, by missing the target, evoked ERP's that differ by peak, latencies, scalp signal distributions, sLORETA source estimation, and time-frequency patterns...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182105/neuroplastic-correlates-in-the-mpfc-underlying-the-impairment-of-stress-coping-ability-and-cognitive-flexibility-in-adult-rats-exposed-to-chronic-mild-stress-during-adolescence
#3
Yu Zhang, Feng Shao, Qiong Wang, Xi Xie, Weiwen Wang
Using a valid chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression, we found that adolescent (postnatal days [PND] 28-41) CMS induced transient alterations in anhedonia that did not persist into adulthood after a 3-week recovery period. Previously stressed adult rats exhibited more immobility/despair behaviors in the forced swimming test and a greater number of trials to reach criterion in the set-shifting task, suggesting the impaired ability to cope with stressors and the cognitive flexibility that allows adaptation to dynamic environments during adulthood...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168412/neuroprognostication-after-adult-cardiac-arrest-treated-with-targeted-temperature-management-task-force-for-belgian-recommendations
#4
Fabio Silvio Taccone, Ingrid Baar, Cathy De Deyne, Patrick Druwe, Benjamin Legros, Geert Meyfroidt, Michel Ossemann, Nicolas Gaspard
The prognosis of patients who are admitted to the hospital after cardiac arrest often relies on neurological examination, which could be significantly influenced by the use of sedative drugs or the implementation of targeted temperature management. The need for early and accurate prognostication is crucial as up to 15-20% of patients could be considered as having a poor outcome and may undergo withdrawal of life-sustaining therapies while a complete neurological recovery is still possible. As current practice in Belgium is still based on a very early assessment of neurological function in these patients, the Belgian Society of Intensive Care Medicine created a multidisciplinary Task Force to provide an optimal approach for monitoring and refine prognosis of CA survivors...
February 6, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137660/effects-of-moderate-treadmill-exercise-and-fluoxetine-on-behavioural-and-cognitive-deficits-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-dysfunction-and-alternations-in-hippocampal-bdnf-and-mrna-expression-of-apoptosis-related-proteins-in-a-rat-model-of-post-traumatic
#5
Sakineh Shafia, Abbas Ali Vafaei, Seyed Afshin Samaei, Ahmad Reza Bandegi, Alireza Rafiei, Reza Valadan, Zahra Hosseini-Khah, Raziyeh Mohammadkhani, Ali Rashidy-Pour
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition that develops after an individual has experienced a major trauma. Currently, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like fluoxetine are the first-line choice in PTSD drug treatment but their moderate response rates and side effects indicate an urgent need for the development of new treatment. Physical activity is known to improve symptoms of certain neuropsychiatric disorders. The present study investigated the effects of moderate treadmill exercise, the antidepressant fluoxetine and the combined treatment on behavioural deficits, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction...
January 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135704/implementation-of-a-new-upmc-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-quality-assurance-registry
#6
Ajay Niranjan, Denise Layne, Mark Briercheck, Svetlana Trofimova, Edward A Monaco Iii, Hideyuki Kano, L Dade Lunsford
OBJECT: In this report, we discuss the development of a new, comprehensive, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant electronic quality assurance (QA) registry for Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery patients. This registry can be used to query outcomes, link with current hospital electronic medical records, and share data with future corporate or national professional society registries under development. METHODS: A clinical task force comprising physicians and regulatory, legal, and information technology (IT) experts was created to define the nomenclature, regulatory requirements, hosting site, and required capabilities of the proposed system...
January 28, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113285/overcoming-long-term-variability-in-local-field-potentials-using-an-adaptive-decoder
#7
Vijay Aditya Tadipatri, Ahmed Tewfik, Guiseppe Pellizzer, James Ashe
Long-term variability remains one of the major hurdles in using intra-cortical recordings like local field potentials for brain computer interfaces (BCI). Practical neural decoders need to overcome time instability of neural signals to estimate subject behavior accurately and faithfully over the long-term. This paper presents a novel decoder that a) characterizes each behavioral task (i.e. different movement directions under different force conditions) with multiple neural patterns and; b) adapts to the long-term variations in neural features by identifying the stable neural patterns...
April 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094283/adolescent-chronic-unpredictable-stress-exposure-is-a-sensitive-window-for-long-term-changes-in-adult-behavior-in-mice
#8
Nicole L Yohn, Julie A Blendy
Adolescence is a time period in development when the brain undergoes substantial remodeling in response to the environment. To determine whether a stressful experience during adolescence affects adult behavior, we exposed adolescent male and female C57BL/6J mice to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) for 12 days starting at postnatal day 28 (PND28). We also exposed adult male and female mice to CUS for 12 days beginning at PND70 to determine whether adolescence is a sensitive time period when stress can have long-lasting effects on behavior...
February 1, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093359/fmri-characterisation-of-widespread-brain-networks-relevant-for-behavioural-variability-in-fine-hand-motor-control-with-and-without-visual-feedback
#9
Stephen D Mayhew, Camillo Porcaro, Franca Tecchio, Andrew P Bagshaw
A bilateral visuo-parietal-motor network is responsible for fine control of hand movements. However, the sub-regions which are devoted to maintenance of contraction stability and how these processes fluctuate with trial-quality of task execution and in the presence/absence of visual feedback remains unclear. We addressed this by integrating behavioural and fMRI measurements during right-hand isometric compression of a compliant rubber bulb, at 10% and 30% of maximum voluntary contraction, both with and without visual feedback of the applied force...
January 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060211/service-delivery-in-the-healthcare-and-educational-systems-for-children-following-traumatic-brain-injury-gaps-in-care
#10
Juliet Haarbauer-Krupa, Angela Ciccia, Jonathan Dodd, Deborah Ettel, Brad Kurowski, Angela Lumba-Brown, Stacy Suskauer
OBJECTIVE: To provide a review of evidence and consensus-based description of healthcare and educational service delivery and related recommendations for children with traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Literature review and group discussion of best practices in management of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) was performed to facilitate consensus-based recommendations from the American Congress on Rehabilitation Medicine's Pediatric and Adolescent Task Force on Brain Injury...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031978/translational-research-needs-us-to-go-back-to-basics-and-collaborate-interview-with-lars-sundstrom
#11
Lars Sundstrom
Lars Sundstrom is Director of Enterprise and Translation at the West of England Academic Health Sciences Network [1] (UK), a Professor of Practice in Translational Medicine and Co-Director of the Elizabeth Blackwell Institute for Health Research at Bristol University [2] (UK), and an honorary Professor of Medicine at Cardiff University (UK). He has extensive experience in translational medicine and clinical neurosciences, holding positions at several eminent universities. He has also held executive and board-level positions at several SMEs, developing new therapeutics for neurological conditions and tools for drug discovery...
September 2016: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004637/task-space-separation-principle-a-force-field-approach-to-motion-planning-for-redundant-manipulators
#12
Paolo Tommasino, Domenico Campolo
In this work, we address human-like motor planning in redundant manipulators. Specifically, we want to capture postural synergies such as Donders' law, experimentally observed in humans during kinematically redundant tasks, and infer a minimal set of parameters to implement similar postural synergies in a kinematic model. For the model itself, although the focus of this paper is to solve redundancy by implementing postural strategies derived from experimental data, we also want to ensure that such postural control strategies do not interfere with other possible forms of motion control (in the task-space), i...
February 3, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004070/-effect-of-opioid-receptors-on-acute-stress-induced-changes-in-recognition-memory
#13
Ying Liu, Yu-Wei Wu, Zhao-Qiang Qian, Cai-Fang Yan, Ka-Min Fan, Jin-Hui Xu, Xiao Li, Zhi-Qiang Liu
Although ample evidence has shown that acute stress impairs memory, the influences of acute stress on different phases of memory, such as acquisition, consolidation and retrieval, are different. Experimental data from both human and animals support that endogenous opioid system plays a role in stress, as endogenous opioid release is increased and opioid receptors are activated during stress experience. On the other hand, endogenous opioid system mediates learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute forced swimming stress on recognition memory of C57 mice and the role of opioid receptors in this process by using a three-day pattern of new object recognition task...
December 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999362/body-machine-interfaces-after-spinal-cord-injury-rehabilitation-and-brain-plasticity
#14
Ismael Seáñez-González, Camilla Pierella, Ali Farshchiansadegh, Elias B Thorp, Xue Wang, Todd Parrish, Ferdinando A Mussa-Ivaldi
The purpose of this study was to identify rehabilitative effects and changes in white matter microstructure in people with high-level spinal cord injury following bilateral upper-extremity motor skill training. Five subjects with high-level (C5-C6) spinal cord injury (SCI) performed five visuo-spatial motor training tasks over 12 sessions (2-3 sessions per week). Subjects controlled a two-dimensional cursor with bilateral simultaneous movements of the shoulders using a non-invasive inertial measurement unit-based body-machine interface...
December 19, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992510/noradrenaline-improves-behavioral-contrast-sensitivity-via-the-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor
#15
Ryo Mizuyama, Shogo Soma, Naofumi Suemastu, Satoshi Shimegi
Noradrenaline (NA) is released from the locus coeruleus in the brainstem to almost the whole brain depending on the physiological state or behavioral context. NA modulates various brain functions including vision, but many questions about the functional role of its effects and mechanisms remain unclear. To explore these matters, we focused on three questions, 1) whether NA improves detectability of a behavior-relevant visual stimulus, 2) which receptor subtypes contribute to the NA effects, and 3) whether the NA effects are specific for visual features such as spatial frequency (SF)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984100/air-puff-induced-vocalizations-a-novel-approach-to-detecting-negative-affective-state-following-concussion-in-rats
#16
Jenny R Browning, Ashley C Whiteman, Lai Yee Leung, Xi-Chun May Lu, Deborah A Shear
BACKGROUND: Negative emotional states resulting from concussion are of increasing concern. In the current study, we developed a model to investigate negative affect following concussion in the projectile concussive injury (PCI) model. High frequency ultrasonic vocalizations (22kHz USVs) are associated with negative affective stimuli in rats. Changes in negative affective state were examined following PCI using a mild air-puff stimulus to elicit 22kHz USVs. NEW METHOD: Forty-eight hours post-injury animals were placed into a clean acrylic box lined with bedding...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981752/the-effect-of-physical-fatigue-on-oscillatory-dynamics-of-the-sensorimotor-cortex
#17
A Fry, K J Mullinger, G C O'Neill, M J Brookes, J P Folland
AIM: While physical fatigue is known to arise in part from supraspinal mechanisms within the brain, exactly how brain activity is modulated during fatigue is not well understood. Therefore, this study examined how typical neural oscillatory responses to voluntary muscle contractions were affected by fatigue. METHODS: Eleven healthy adults (age 27 ± 4 years) completed two experimental sessions in a randomized crossover design. Both sessions first assessed baseline maximal voluntary isometric wrist-flexion force (MVFb )...
December 16, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943468/progression-of-subcortical-atrophy-in-mild-parkinson-s-disease-and-its-impact-on-cognition
#18
H Foo, E Mak, T T Yong, M C Wen, R J Chander, W L Au, Y Y Sitoh, L C S Tan, N Kandiah
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with pronounced grey matter atrophy in various brain regions. However, the association between atrophy patterns and progression from no cognitive impairment (NCI) to Parkinson's disease (PD)-MCI is not clearly known. We investigated the pattern and progression of atrophy in subcortical structures and its impact on cognition in patients with mild PD. METHODS: Sixty-five patients with mild PD with baseline and longitudinal clinical and neuropsychological assessments, and structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were studied...
February 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940499/the-effects-of-adolescent-methylphenidate-exposure-on-the-behavioral-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-response-to-nicotine
#19
Elizabeth D Cummins, Kristen K Leedy, John M Dose, Daniel J Peterson, Seth L Kirby, Liza J Hernandez, Russell W Brown
This study analyzed the interaction of adolescent methylphenidate on the behavioral response to nicotine and the effects of these drug treatments on brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were intraperitoneal administered 1 mg/kg methylphenidate or saline using a "school day" regimen (five days on, two days off) beginning on postnatal day (P)28 and throughout behavioral testing. In Experiment 1, animals were intraperitoneal administered 0...
January 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923635/novel-application-of-a-radial-water-tread-maze-can-distinguish-cognitive-deficits-in-mice-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Marcella M Cline, Josh Yumul, Lisa Hysa, Dalia Murra, Gregory G Garwin, David G Cook, Warren Ladiges, Satoshi Minoshima, Donna J Cross
INTRODUCTION: The use of forced-swim, rat-validated cognition tests in mouse models of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) raises methodological concerns; such models are vulnerable to a number of confounding factors including impaired motor function and stress-induced non-compliance (failure to swim). This study evaluated the ability of a Radial Water Tread (RWT) maze, designed specifically for mice, that requires no swimming to distinguish mice with controlled cortical impact (CCI) induced TBI and Sham controls...
December 3, 2016: Brain Research
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