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task force brain

Anand Tekriwal, Gidon Felsen, John A Thompson
BACKGROUND: Neurosurgical interventions that require active patient feedback, such as deep brain stimulation surgery, create an opportunity to conduct cognitive or behavioral experiments during the acquisition of invasive neurophysiology. Optimal design and implementation of intraoperative behavioral experiments require consideration of stimulus presentation, time and surgical constraints. We describe the use of a modular, inexpensive system that implements a decision-making paradigm, designed to overcome challenges associated with the operative environment...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Xin Xiong, Yunfa Fu, Xiabing Zhang, Song Li, Baolei Xu, Xuxian Yin
Multi-modal brain-computer interface and multi-modal brain function imaging are developing trends for the present and future. Aiming at multi-modal brain-computer interface based on electroencephalogram-near infrared spectroscopy (EEG-NIRS) and in order to simultaneously acquire the brain activity of motor area, an acquisition helmet by NIRS combined with EEG was designed and verified by the experiment. According to the 10-20 system or 10-20 extended system, the diameter and spacing of NIRS probe and EEG electrode, NIRS probes were aligned with C3 and C4 as the reference electrodes, and NIRS probes were placed in the middle position between EEG electrodes to simultaneously measure variations of NIRS and the corresponding variation of EEG in the same functional brain area...
April 1, 2018: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
Wenxiao Jia, Siyuan Shan, Jicong Zhang
Although attention plays an important role in cognitive and perception, there is no simple way to measure one's attention abilities. We identified that the strength of brain functional network in sustained attention task can be used as the physiological indicator to predict behavioral performance. Behavioral and electroencephalogram (EEG) data from 14 subjects during three force control tasks were collected in this paper. The reciprocal of the product of force tolerance and variance were used to calculate the score of behavioral performance...
April 1, 2018: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
Virginia Lopez-Alonso, Sook-Lei Liew, Miguel Fernández Del Olmo, Binith Cheeran, Marco Sandrini, Mitsunari Abe, Leonardo G Cohen
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been widely explored as a way to safely modulate brain activity and alter human performance for nearly three decades. Research using NIBS has grown exponentially within the last decade with promising results across a variety of clinical and healthy populations. However, recent work has shown high inter-individual variability and a lack of reproducibility of previous results. Here, we conducted a small preliminary study to explore the effects of three of the most commonly used excitatory NIBS paradigms over the primary motor cortex (M1) on motor learning (Sequential Visuomotor Isometric Pinch Force Tracking Task) and secondarily relate changes in motor learning to changes in cortical excitability (MEP amplitude and SICI)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Florian Monjo, Jonathan Shemmell, Nicolas Forestier
The origin of the sense of effort has been debated for several decades and there is still no consensus among researchers regarding the underlying neural mechanisms. Some advocate that effort perception mainly arises from an efference copy originating within the brain while others believe that it is predominantly carried by muscle afferent signals. To move the debate forward, we here tested the hypothesis that there is not one but several senses of effort which depend on the way it is evaluated. For this purpose, we used two different psychophysical tests designed to test effort perception in elbow flexors...
May 5, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
M Kilintari, R J Bufacchi, G Novembre, Y Guo, P Haggard, G D Iannetti
Salient and sudden sensory events generate a remarkably large response in the human brain, the vertex wave (VW) The VW is coupled with a modulation of a voluntarily-applied isometric force Here, we tested whether the VW is also related to executing high-precision movements The execution of a voluntary high-precision movement remains relatively independent of the brain activity reflected by the preceding VW The apparent relationship between the positive VW and the movement onset time is explained by goal-related but stimulus-independent neural activities These results highlight the need of considering such goal-related but stimulus-independent neural activities when attempting to relate ERP amplitude with perceptual and behavioural performance ABSTRACT: Salient and fast-rising sensory events generate a large biphasic vertex wave (VW) in the human electroencephalogram (EEG)...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Yuan Xue, Tao Xu, Han Zhang, L Rodney Long, Xiaolei Huang
Inspired by classic Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), we propose a novel end-to-end adversarial neural network, called SegAN, for the task of medical image segmentation. Since image segmentation requires dense, pixel-level labeling, the single scalar real/fake output of a classic GAN's discriminator may be ineffective in producing stable and sufficient gradient feedback to the networks. Instead, we use a fully convolutional neural network as the segmentor to generate segmentation label maps, and propose a novel adversarial critic network with a multi-scale L1 loss function to force the critic and segmentor to learn both global and local features that capture long- and short-range spatial relationships between pixels...
May 3, 2018: Neuroinformatics
Laura F Blair-West, Kate E Hoy, Phillip J Hall, Paul B Fitzgerald, Bernadette M Fitzgibbon
The right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) is thought to play an important role in social cognition and pro-social decision-making. One way to explore this link is through the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive brain stimulation method that is able to modulate cortical activity. The aim of this research was therefore to determine whether anodal tDCS to the rTPJ altered response to a social decision-making task. In this study, 34 healthy volunteers participated in a single-center, double-blinded, sham-controlled crossover design...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Flavio Nobili, Cristina Festari, Daniele Altomare, Federica Agosta, Stefania Orini, Koen Van Laere, Javier Arbizu, Femke Bouwman, Alexander Drzezga, Peter Nestor, Zuzana Walker, Marina Boccardi
PURPOSE: To review literature until November 2015 and reach a consensus on whether automatic semi-quantification of brain FDG-PET is useful in the clinical setting for neurodegenerative disorders. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar. Papers were selected with a lower limit of 30 patients (no limits with autopsy confirmation). Consensus recommendations were developed through a Delphi procedure, based on the expertise of panelists, who were also informed about the availability and quality of evidence, assessed by an independent methodology team...
May 2, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Federica Agosta, Daniele Altomare, Cristina Festari, Stefania Orini, Federica Gandolfo, Marina Boccardi, Javier Arbizu, Femke Bouwman, Alexander Drzezga, Peter Nestor, Flavio Nobili, Zuzana Walker, Marco Pagani
AIM: To evaluate the incremental value of FDG-PET over clinical tests in: (i) diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); (ii) picking early signs of neurodegeneration in patients with a genetic risk of Huntington's disease (HD); and detecting metabolic changes related to cognitive impairment in (iii) ALS and (iv) HD patients. METHODS: Four comprehensive literature searches were conducted using the PICO model to extract evidence from relevant studies. An expert panel then voted using the Delphi method on these four diagnostic scenarios...
May 1, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Zeev Groswasser, Israela Peled, Sharon Ross, Jean-Luc Truelle, Nicole Von Steinbüchel
BACKGROUND: The QOLIBRI - Quality of Life after Brain Injury questionnaire was developed by the QOLIBRI Task Force (QTF). Our goal was to investigate the applicability, validity and reliability of the QOLIBRI in Israel. METHODS: Validation of the Hebrew questionnaire was performed after it had been administered to 128 adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI), who were between 3 months' and 15 years' post-discharge from rehabilitation. RESULTS: The internal consistency of the QOLIBRI subscales with the QOLIBRI Total scale was high (Cronbach's α = 0...
April 24, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Guangheng Dong, Ziliang Wang, Yifan Wang, Xiaoxia Du, Marc N Potenza
BACKGROUND: Although males more frequently develop Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as compared with females, few studies have examined gender-related neurocognitive differences in IGD. TASK AND DESIGN: fMRI and subjective data were collected from 119 subjects (IGD, male 29, female 25; recreational game use (RGU), male 34, female 31) when they were actively playing games and during a forced mandatory break. Analyses investigating effects of group (IGD, RGU) and gender (male, female) on the functional connectivity (FC) of executive control and reward systems linked to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and striatum, respectively, were performed...
April 20, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Timothy R Rice, Lesha D Shah, Pilar Trelles, Shih-Ku Lin, Dinne Skjærlund Christensen, Andreas Walther, Leo Sher
BACKGROUND: Male adolescents and young men benefit when their mental health care is specialized to match their unique gendered and developmental needs. Sensitivity to the social circumstances of this population is important; additionally, the emerging ability to tailor care through knowledge gleaned from the intersection of psychiatry, neurology, and endocrinology informs care. DATA SOURCES: This article summarized the views of six experts in the area of the adolescent and young adult male mental health...
April 20, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Jacob Raber, Eileen Ruth S Torres, Tunde Akinyeke, Joanne Lee, Sydney J Weber Boutros, Mitchell S Turker, Amy Kronenberg
The space radiation environment includes helium (⁴He) ions that may impact brain function. As little is known about the effects of exposures to ⁴He ions on the brain, we assessed the behavioral and cognitive performance of C57BL/6J × DBA2/J F1 (B6D2F1) mice three months following irradiation with ⁴He ions (250 MeV/n; linear energy transfer (LET) = 1.6 keV/μm; 0, 21, 42 or 168 cGy). Sham-irradiated mice and mice irradiated with 21 or 168 cGy showed novel object recognition, but mice irradiated with 42 cGy did not...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Nathan Falk, Ariel Cole, T Jason Meredith
Dementia is a significant and costly health condition that affects 5 million adults and is the fifth leading cause of death among Americans older than 65 years. The prevalence of dementia will likely increase in the future because the number of Americans older than 65 years is expected to double by 2060. Risk factors for dementia include age; family history of dementia; personal history of cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, or midlife obesity; use of anticholinergic medications; apolipoprotein E4 genotype; and lower education level...
March 15, 2018: American Family Physician
Samuel C Colachis, Marcie A Bockbrader, Mingming Zhang, David A Friedenberg, Nicholas V Annetta, Michael A Schwemmer, Nicholas D Skomrock, Walter J Mysiw, Ali R Rezai, Herbert S Bresler, Gaurav Sharma
Individuals with tetraplegia identify restoration of hand function as a critical, unmet need to regain their independence and improve quality of life. Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)-controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) technology addresses this need by reconnecting the brain with paralyzed limbs to restore function. In this study, we quantified performance of an intuitive, cortically-controlled, transcutaneous FES system on standardized object manipulation tasks from the Grasp and Release Test (GRT)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Luca Marsili, Giovanni Rizzo, Carlo Colosimo
The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is based on clinical features and differently to the common opinion that detecting this condition is easy, seminal clinicopathological studies have shown that up one-fourth of patients diagnosed as PD during life has an alternative diagnosis at postmortem. The misdiagnosis is even higher when only the initial diagnosis is considered, since the diagnostic accuracy improves by time, during follow-up visits. Given that the confirmation of the diagnosis of PD can be only obtained through neuropathology, to improve and facilitate the diagnostic-therapeutic workup in PD, a number of criteria and guidelines have been introduced in the last three decades...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Mark D Bowren, Katie E Croft, Justin Reber, Daniel Tranel
OBJECTIVE: A well-documented effect of focal ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) damage is a deficit in real-world decision making. An important aspect of this deficit may be a deficiency in "internal consistency" during social decision making-that is, impaired congruence between expressed preferences versus actual behavioral choices. An example of low internal consistency would be if one expressed the desire to marry someone with impeccable moral character, yet proceeded to marry someone convicted of multiple felonies...
March 2018: Neuropsychology
Aamir Abbasi, Dorian Goueytes, Daniel E Shulz, Valerie Ego-Stengel, Luc Estebanez
OBJECTIVE: The development of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) brings a new perspective to patients with a loss of autonomy. By combining online recordings of brain activity with a decoding algorithm, patients can learn to control a robotic arm in order to perform simple actions. However, in contrast to the vast amounts of somatosensory information channeled by limbs to the brain, current BMIs are devoid of touch and force sensors. Patients must therefore rely solely on vision and audition, which are maladapted to the control of a prosthesis...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Ali Falaki, Hang Jin Jo, Mechelle M Lewis, Barbara O'Connell, Sol De Jesus, James McInerney, Xuemei Huang, Mark L Latash
OBJECTIVE: We explored effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) on the synergic control of fingers in a multi-finger force production task and of muscles in a task involving vertical posture. METHODS: The finger task involved the four fingers of a hand producing accurate total force followed by a targeted quick force pulse. The postural task involved releasing a load from extended arms. The analysis of synergies was performed within the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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