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task force brain

Michael J Murray, Heidi DeBlock, Brian Erstad, Anthony Gray, Judi Jacobi, Che Jordan, William McGee, Claire McManus, Maureen Meade, Sean Nix, Andrew Patterson, M Karen Sands, Richard Pino, Ann Tescher, Richard Arbour, Bram Rochwerg, Catherine Friederich Murray, Sangeeta Mehta
OBJECTIVE: To update the 2002 version of "Clinical practice guidelines for sustained neuromuscular blockade in the adult critically ill patient." DESIGN: A Task Force comprising 17 members of the Society of Critical Medicine with particular expertise in the use of neuromuscular-blocking agents; a Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation expert; and a medical writer met via teleconference and three face-to-face meetings and communicated via e-mail to examine the evidence and develop these practice guidelines...
November 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Angelo Pirrone, Abigail Dickinson, Rosanna Gomez, Tom Stafford, Elizabeth Milne
Objective: Two-alternative forced-choice tasks are widely used to gain insight into specific areas of enhancement or impairment in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Data arising from these tasks have been used to support myriad theories regarding the integrity, or otherwise, of particular brain areas or cognitive processes in ASD. The drift diffusion model (DDM) provides an account of the underlying processes which give rise to accuracy and reaction time (RT) distributions, and parameterizes these processes in terms which have direct psychological interpretation...
October 10, 2016: Neuropsychology
Germain Sotoing Taiwe, Thierry Bang Tchoya, Joseph Renaud Menanga, Bernard Dabole, Michel De Waard
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaf extract of Crinum jagus L. (Amaryllidaceae) is widely used in traditional Cameroonian medicine as antiepileptic remedy and for the treatment of convulsion, depression and mood disorders associated with epilepsy. AIM OF THE STUDY: Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of an active fraction extracted from the leaves of Crinum jagus against seizures, depression-like behaviour and oxidative stress in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling in mice...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Mauricio P Cunha, Francis L Pazini, Vicente Lieberknecht, Josiane Budni, Ágatha Oliveira, Júlia M Rosa, Gianni Mancini, Leidiane Mazzardo, André R Colla, Marina C Leite, Adair R S Santos, Daniel F Martins, Andreza F de Bem, Carlos Alberto S Gonçalves, Marcelo Farina, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces motor and nonmotor dysfunctions resembling Parkinson's disease (PD); however, studies investigating the effects of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), an active oxidative product of MPTP, are scarce. This study investigated the behavioral and striatal neurochemical changes (related to oxidative damage, glial markers, and neurotrophic factors) 24 h after intracerebroventricular administration of MPP(+) (1.8-18 μg/mouse) in C57BL6 mice...
October 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
David Vauzour, Maria Camprubi-Robles, Sophie Miquel-Kergoat, Cristina Andres-Lacueva, Diána Bánáti, Pascale Barberger-Gateau, Gene L Bowman, Laura Caberlotto, Robert Clarke, Eef Hogervorst, Amanda J Kiliaan, Ugo Lucca, Claudine Manach, Anne-Marie Minihane, Ellen Siobhan Mitchell, Robert Perneczky, Hugh Perry, Anne-Marie Roussel, Jeroen Schuermans, John Sijben, Jeremy P E Spencer, Sandrine Thuret, Ondine van de Rest, Maurits Vandewoude, Keith Wesnes, Robert J Williams, Robin S B Williams, Maria Ramirez
As people age they become increasingly susceptible to chronic and extremely debilitating brain diseases. The precise cause of the neuronal degeneration underlying these disorders, and indeed normal brain ageing remains however elusive. Considering the limits of existing preventive methods, there is a desire to develop effective and safe strategies. Growing preclinical and clinical research in healthy individuals or at the early stage of cognitive decline has demonstrated the beneficial impact of nutrition on cognitive functions...
October 3, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
Stéphanie Dehem, Thierry Lejeune, Gaëtan Stoquart, Christine Detrembleur, Anne Renders, Martin Edwards, Charlotte Clarinval, Cécile Frognet, Isaline Brouwers, Vincenza Montedoro, Daniel Galinski
OBJECTIVE: To validate, establish norms and evaluate the reproducibility of upper limb motor assessment tasks using REAplan in healthy children. REAplan is a rehabilitation robotic device allowing upper limb mobilization in the horizontal plane. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-nine healthy children between six and twelve years participated in this study. Each child was assessed clinically and with REAplan, and twelve children were assessed twice. Elbow flexor and extensor muscles force were assessed with an isometric dynamometer Microfet II...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Karima Bakhti, Makii Muthalib, Stephane Perrey, Jerome Froger, Isabelle Laffont, Denis Mottet
OBJECTIVE: The majority of stroke survivors do not use their paretic arm in daily life activities, and this is, in part, because they learned to not use their paretic arm before recovering. In seated reaching, the difference between spontaneous arm use (as in daily activities) and forced arm use of the paretic arm (when trunk movements are not allowed) provides the percentage of learned non- use of the paretic arm. Here, we sought for neural correlates of the learned non-use behaviour using fNIRS neuroimaging...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Gerard G Fluet, Jigna Patel, Qinyin Qiu, Matthew Yarossi, Supriya Massood, Sergei V Adamovich, Eugene Tunik, Alma S Merians
PURPOSE: The complexity of upper extremity (UE) behavior requires recovery of near normal neuromuscular function to minimize residual disability following a stroke. This requirement places a premium on spontaneous recovery and neuroplastic adaptation to rehabilitation by the lesioned hemisphere. Motor skill learning is frequently cited as a requirement for neuroplasticity. Studies examining the links between training, motor learning, neuroplasticity, and improvements in hand motor function are indicated...
September 27, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Cédric Annweiler, Erdinç Dursun, Francois Féron, Duygu Gezen-Ak, Allan V Kalueff, Thomas Littlejohns, David Llewellyn, Pascal Millet, Tammy Scott, Katherine L Tucker, Selma Yilmazer, Olivier Beauchet
Hypovitaminosis D, a common condition in older adults, is associated with brain changes and dementia. Given the fast growing contribution of literature in this research field, clear guidance is needed for clinicians and researchers. International experts met at the invitational summit on "Vitamin D and cognition in older adults" in Boston, MA, July 2013. Based upon literature and expert opinion, the task force focused on key questions on the role of vitamin D in Alzheimer disease and related disorders. Each question was discussed and voted using a Delphi-like approach...
September 1, 2016: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
E A Haapala, A Viitasalo, T Venäläinen, A-M Eloranta, J Ågren, V Lindi, T A Lakka
AIM: Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for the normal development of the brain. We investigated the associations between plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognition in normal weight and overweight children. METHODS: The study recruited 386 normal weight children and 58 overweight children aged six to eight years and blood samples were drawn after a 12-hour fast. We assessed plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids using gas chromatography, cognition using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, and overweight and obesity using the age-specific and sex-specific cut-offs from the International Obesity Task Force...
September 19, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Sarah Fabi, Hartmut Leuthold
In the present study we investigated the nature and chronometry of empathy for pain influences on perceptual and motor processes. Thus, event-related brain potentials (ERPs), response force (RF) and oscillatory electroencephalography (EEG) activity were measured while participants were presented with pictures of body parts in painful or neutral situations. Their task consisted in either judging the painfulness of the stimuli or counting the body parts displayed. ERP results supported the assumption of an early automatic component of empathy for pain, as reflected by the early posterior negativity (EPN), and of a late controlled component, as reflected by the late posterior positivity (P3)...
September 28, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Philipp Kellmeyer, Thomas Cochrane, Oliver Müller, Christine Mitchell, Tonio Ball, Joseph J Fins, Nikola Biller-Andorno
Closed-loop medical devices such as brain-computer interfaces are an emerging and rapidly advancing neurotechnology. The target patients for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are often severely paralyzed, and thus particularly vulnerable in terms of personal autonomy, decisionmaking capacity, and agency. Here we analyze the effects of closed-loop medical devices on the autonomy and accountability of both persons (as patients or research participants) and neurotechnological closed-loop medical systems. We show that although BCIs can strengthen patient autonomy by preserving or restoring communicative abilities and/or motor control, closed-loop devices may also create challenges for moral and legal accountability...
October 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Lorenz Leitner, Matthias Walter, Behnaz Jarrahi, Johann Wanek, Jörg Diefenbacher, Lars Michels, Martina D Liechti, Spyros S Kollias, Thomas M Kessler, Ulrich Mehnert
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the applicability and precision of a novel infusion-drainage device (IDD) for standardised filling paradigms in neuro-urology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of lower urinary tract (LUT) (dys)function. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: The IDD is based on electrohydrostatic actuation which was previously proven feasible in a prototype setup. The current design includes hydraulic cylinders and a motorised slider to provide force and motion...
September 12, 2016: BJU International
Michelle Armenta Salas, Stephen I Helms Tillery
The neural mechanisms that take place during learning and adaptation can be directly probed with brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). We developed a BMI controlled paradigm that enabled us to enforce learning by introducing perturbations which changed the relationship between neural activity and the BMI's output. We introduced a uniform perturbation to the system, through a visuomotor rotation (VMR), and a non-uniform perturbation, through a decorrelation task. The controller in the VMR was essentially unchanged, but produced an output rotated at 30° from the neurally specified output...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Patricia Hinton Walker, Arnyce Pock, Catherine G Ling, Kyung Nancy Kwon, Megan Vaughan
Battlefield acupuncture is a unique auricular acupuncture procedure which is being used in a number of military medical facilities throughout the Department of Defense (DoD). It has been used with anecdotal published positive impact with warriors experiencing polytrauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, and traumatic brain injury. It has also been effectively used to treat warriors with muscle and back pain from carrying heavy combat equipment in austere environments. This article highlights the history within the DoD related to the need for nonpharmacologic/opioid pain management across the continuum of care from combat situations, during evacuation, and throughout recovery and rehabilitation...
September 2016: Nursing Outlook
Cheng-Ya Huang, Gwo-Ching Chang, Yi-Ying Tsai, Ing-Shiou Hwang
Increase in postural-demand resources does not necessarily degrade a concurrent motor task, according to the adaptive resource-sharing hypothesis of postural-suprapostural dual-tasking. This study investigated how brain networks are organized to optimize a suprapostural motor task when the postural load increases and shifts postural control into a less automatic process. Fourteen volunteers executed a designated force-matching task from a level surface (a relative automatic process in posture) and from a stabilometer board while maintaining balance at a target angle (a relatively controlled process in posture)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Karen L McCulloch, Anna Lisa de Joya, Kaitlin Hays, Erin Donnelly, Tammie Keller Johnson, Coby D Nirider, Heidi Roth, Sue Saliga, Irene Ward
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The use of standardized outcome measures (OMs) is essential in assessing the effectiveness of physical therapy (PT) interventions. The purposes of this article are (1) to describe the process used by the TBI EDGE task force to assess the psychometrics and clinical utility of OMs used with individuals with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI); (2) to describe the consensus recommendations for OM use in clinical practice, research, and professional (entry-level) PT education; and (3) to make recommendations for future work...
October 2016: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Jason Fischer, John G Mikhael, Joshua B Tenenbaum, Nancy Kanwisher
To engage with the world-to understand the scene in front of us, plan actions, and predict what will happen next-we must have an intuitive grasp of the world's physical structure and dynamics. How do the objects in front of us rest on and support each other, how much force would be required to move them, and how will they behave when they fall, roll, or collide? Despite the centrality of physical inferences in daily life, little is known about the brain mechanisms recruited to interpret the physical structure of a scene and predict how physical events will unfold...
August 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tomoya Ishigaki, Ryota Imai, Shu Morioka
Touching a stable object with a fingertip using slight force (<1 N) stabilizes standing posture independent of mechanical support, which is referred to as the effect of light touch (LT). In the neural mechanism of the effect of LT, the specific contribution of the cortical brain activity toward the effect of LT remains undefined, particularly the contribution toward steady-state postural sway. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cortical region responsible for the reduction of postural sway in response to the effect of LT...
September 28, 2016: Neuroreport
Mostafa A Nashaat, Hatem Oraby, Robert N S Sachdev, York Winter, Matthew E Larkum
Natural behavior occurs in multiple sensory and motor modalities and in particular is dependent on sensory feedback that constantly adjusts behavior. To investigate the underlying neuronal correlates of natural behavior, it is useful to have access to state-of-the-art recording equipment (e.g., 2-photon imaging, patch recordings, etc.) that frequently requires head fixation. This limitation has been addressed with various approaches such as virtual reality/air ball or treadmill systems. However, achieving multimodal realistic behavior in these systems can be challenging...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
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