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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094283/adolescent-chronic-stress-and-adult-anxiety-adolescent-chronic-unpredictable-stress-exposure-is-a-sensitive-window-for-long-term-changes-in-adult-behavior-in-mice
#1
Nicole L Yohn, Julie A Blendy
Adolescence is a time period in development when the brain undergoes substantial remodeling in response to the environment. To determine if a stressful experience during adolescence affects adult behavior, we exposed adolescent male and female C57BL/6J mice to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) for 12 days starting at post-natal day 28 (PND28). We also exposed adult male and female mice to CUS for 12 days beginning at PND70 to determine if adolescence is a sensitive time period when stress can have long-lasting effects on behavior...
January 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093359/fmri-characterisation-of-widespread-brain-networks-relevant-for-behavioural-variability-in-fine-hand-motor-control-with-and-without-visual-feedback
#2
Stephen D Mayhew, Camillo Porcaro, Franca Tecchio, Andrew P Bagshaw
A bilateral visuo-parietal-motor network is responsible for fine control of hand movements. However, the sub-regions which are devoted to maintenance of contraction stability and how these processes fluctuate with trial-quality of task execution and in the presence/absence of visual feedback remains unclear. We addressed this by integrating behavioural and fMRI measurements during right-hand isometric compression of a compliant rubber bulb, at 10% and 30% of maximum voluntary contraction, both with and without visual feedback of the applied force...
January 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060211/service-delivery-in-the-healthcare-and-educational-systems-for-children-following-traumatic-brain-injury-gaps-in-care
#3
Juliet Haarbauer-Krupa, Angela Ciccia, Jonathan Dodd, Deborah Ettel, Brad Kurowski, Angela Lumba-Brown, Stacy Suskauer
OBJECTIVE: To provide a review of evidence and consensus-based description of healthcare and educational service delivery and related recommendations for children with traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Literature review and group discussion of best practices in management of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) was performed to facilitate consensus-based recommendations from the American Congress on Rehabilitation Medicine's Pediatric and Adolescent Task Force on Brain Injury...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031978/translational-research-needs-us-to-go-back-to-basics-and-collaborate-interview-with-lars-sundstrom
#4
Lars Sundstrom
Lars Sundstrom is Director of Enterprise and Translation at the West of England Academic Health Sciences Network [1] (UK), a Professor of Practice in Translational Medicine and Co-Director of the Elizabeth Blackwell Institute for Health Research at Bristol University [2] (UK), and an honorary Professor of Medicine at Cardiff University (UK). He has extensive experience in translational medicine and clinical neurosciences, holding positions at several eminent universities. He has also held executive and board-level positions at several SMEs, developing new therapeutics for neurological conditions and tools for drug discovery...
September 2016: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004637/donders-law-and-task-space-separation-principle-a-force-field-approach-to-motion-planning-for-redundant-manipulators
#5
Paolo Tommasino, Domenico Campolo
In this work, we address human-like motor planning in redundant manipulators. Specifically, we want to capture postural synergies such as Donders' law, experimentally observed in humans during kinematically redundant tasks, and infer a minimal set of parameters to implement similar postural synergies in a kinematic model. For the model itself, although the focus of this paper is to solve redundancy by implementing postural strategies derived from experimental data, we also want to ensure that such postural control strategies do not interfere with other possible forms of motion control (in the task space), i...
December 22, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004070/-effect-of-opioid-receptors-on-acute-stress-induced-changes-in-recognition-memory
#6
Ying Liu, Yu-Wei Wu, Zhao-Qiang Qian, Cai-Fang Yan, Ka-Min Fan, Jin-Hui Xu, Xiao Li, Zhi-Qiang Liu
Although ample evidence has shown that acute stress impairs memory, the influences of acute stress on different phases of memory, such as acquisition, consolidation and retrieval, are different. Experimental data from both human and animals support that endogenous opioid system plays a role in stress, as endogenous opioid release is increased and opioid receptors are activated during stress experience. On the other hand, endogenous opioid system mediates learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute forced swimming stress on recognition memory of C57 mice and the role of opioid receptors in this process by using a three-day pattern of new object recognition task...
December 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999362/body-machine-interfaces-after-spinal-cord-injury-rehabilitation-and-brain-plasticity
#7
Ismael Seáñez-González, Camilla Pierella, Ali Farshchiansadegh, Elias B Thorp, Xue Wang, Todd Parrish, Ferdinando A Mussa-Ivaldi
The purpose of this study was to identify rehabilitative effects and changes in white matter microstructure in people with high-level spinal cord injury following bilateral upper-extremity motor skill training. Five subjects with high-level (C5-C6) spinal cord injury (SCI) performed five visuo-spatial motor training tasks over 12 sessions (2-3 sessions per week). Subjects controlled a two-dimensional cursor with bilateral simultaneous movements of the shoulders using a non-invasive inertial measurement unit-based body-machine interface...
December 19, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992510/noradrenaline-improves-behavioral-contrast-sensitivity-via-the-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor
#8
Ryo Mizuyama, Shogo Soma, Naofumi Suemastu, Satoshi Shimegi
Noradrenaline (NA) is released from the locus coeruleus in the brainstem to almost the whole brain depending on the physiological state or behavioral context. NA modulates various brain functions including vision, but many questions about the functional role of its effects and mechanisms remain unclear. To explore these matters, we focused on three questions, 1) whether NA improves detectability of a behavior-relevant visual stimulus, 2) which receptor subtypes contribute to the NA effects, and 3) whether the NA effects are specific for visual features such as spatial frequency (SF)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984100/air-puff-induced-vocalizations-a-novel-approach-to-detecting-negative-affective-state-following-concussion-in-rats
#9
Jenny R Browning, Ashley C Whiteman, Lai Yee Leung, Xi-Chun May Lu, Deborah A Shear
BACKGROUND: Negative emotional states resulting from concussion are of increasing concern. In the current study, we developed a model to investigate negative affect following concussion in the projectile concussive injury (PCI) model. High frequency ultrasonic vocalizations (22kHz USVs) are associated with negative affective stimuli in rats. Changes in negative affective state were examined following PCI using a mild air-puff stimulus to elicit 22kHz USVs. NEW METHOD: Forty-eight hours post-injury animals were placed into a clean acrylic box lined with bedding...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981752/the-effect-of-physical-fatigue-on-oscillatory-dynamics-of-the-sensorimotor-cortex
#10
Adam Fry, Karen J Mullinger, George C O'Neill, Matthew J Brookes, Jonathan P Folland
AIM: While physical fatigue is known to arise in part from supraspinal mechanisms within the brain exactly how brain activity is modulated during fatigue is not well understood. Therefore, this study examined how typical neural oscillatory responses to voluntary muscle contractions were affected by fatigue. METHODS: Eleven healthy adults (age 27±4 years) completed two experimental sessions in a randomised crossover design. Both sessions first assessed baseline maximal voluntary isometric wrist-flexion force (MVFb )...
December 16, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943468/progression-of-subcortical-atrophy-in-mild-parkinson-s-disease-and-its-impact-on-cognition
#11
H Foo, E Mak, T T Yong, M C Wen, R J Chander, W L Au, Y Y Sitoh, L C S Tan, N Kandiah
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with pronounced grey matter atrophy in various brain regions. However, the association between atrophy patterns and progression from no cognitive impairment (NCI) to Parkinson's disease (PD)-MCI is not clearly known. We investigated the pattern and progression of atrophy in subcortical structures and its impact on cognition in patients with mild PD. METHODS: Sixty-five patients with mild PD with baseline and longitudinal clinical and neuropsychological assessments, and structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were studied...
February 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940499/the-effects-of-adolescent-methylphenidate-exposure-on-the-behavioral-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-response-to-nicotine
#12
Elizabeth D Cummins, Kristen K Leedy, John M Dose, Daniel J Peterson, Seth L Kirby, Liza J Hernandez, Russell W Brown
This study analyzed the interaction of adolescent methylphenidate on the behavioral response to nicotine and the effects of these drug treatments on brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were intraperitoneal administered 1 mg/kg methylphenidate or saline using a "school day" regimen (five days on, two days off) beginning on postnatal day (P)28 and throughout behavioral testing. In Experiment 1, animals were intraperitoneal administered 0...
January 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923635/novel-application-of-a-radial-water-tread-maze-can-distinguish-cognitive-deficits-in-mice-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Marcella M Cline, Josh Yumul, Lisa Hysa, Dalia Murra, Gregory G Garwin, David G Cook, Warren Ladiges, Satoshi Minoshima, Donna J Cross
INTRODUCTION: The use of forced-swim, rat-validated cognition tests in mouse models of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) raises methodological concerns; such models are vulnerable to a number of confounding factors including impaired motor function and stress-induced non-compliance (failure to swim). This study evaluated the ability of a Radial Water Tread (RWT) maze, designed specifically for mice, that requires no swimming to distinguish mice with controlled cortical impact (CCI) induced TBI and Sham controls...
December 3, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917106/reward-sensitivity-enhances-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-activation-during-free-choice
#14
Catherine Cho, David V Smith, Mauricio R Delgado
Expressing one's preference via choice can be rewarding, particularly when decisions are voluntarily made as opposed to being forced. An open question is whether engaging in choices involving rewards recruits distinct neural systems as a function of sensitivity to reward. Reward sensitivity is a trait partly influenced by the mesolimbic dopamine system, which can impact an individual's neural and behavioral response to reward cues. Here, we investigated how reward sensitivity contributes to neural activity associated with free and forced choices...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887994/tactile-stimulation-during-sleep-alters-slow-oscillation-and-spindle-densities-but-not-motor-skill
#15
Sofia Isabel Ribeiro Pereira, Felipe Beijamini, Frederik D Weber, Roberta Almeida Vincenzi, Felipe Augusto Cini da Silva, Fernando Mazzilli Louzada
Studies using targeted memory reactivation have shown that presentation of auditory or olfactory contextual cues during sleep can bias hippocampal reactivations towards the preferential replay of the cue-associated material, thereby resulting in enhanced consolidation of that information. If the same cortical ensembles are indeed used for encoding and storage of a given piece of information, forcing the sleeping brain to re-engage in task-intrinsic information processing should disturb the natural ongoing consolidation processes and therefore impair possible sleep benefits...
February 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857123/low-grade-epilepsy-associated-neuroepithelial-tumours-the-2016-who-classification
#16
REVIEW
Ingmar Blümcke, Eleonora Aronica, Albert Becker, David Capper, Roland Coras, Mrinalini Honavar, Thomas S Jacques, Katja Kobow, Hajime Miyata, Angelika Mühlebner, José Pimentel, Figen Söylemezoğlu, Maria Thom
Rapid developments in molecular genetic technology and research have swiftly advanced our understanding of neuro-oncology. As a consequence, the WHO invited their expert panels to revise the current classification system of brain tumours and to introduce, for the first time, a molecular genetic approach for selected tumour entities, thus setting a new gold standard in histopathology. The revised 5th edition of the 'blue book' was released in May 2016 and will have a major impact in stratifying diagnosis and treatment...
November 18, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851900/residual-perception-of-biological-motion-in-cortical-blindness
#17
Nicolas Ruffieux, Meike Ramon, Junpeng Lao, Françoise Colombo, Lisa Stacchi, François-Xavier Borruat, Ettore Accolla, Jean-Marie Annoni, Roberto Caldara
From birth, the human visual system shows a remarkable sensitivity for perceiving biological motion. This visual ability relies on a distributed network of brain regions and can be preserved even after damage of high-level ventral visual areas. However, it remains unknown whether this critical biological skill can withstand the loss of vision following bilateral striate damage. To address this question, we tested the categorization of human and animal biological motion in BC, a rare case of cortical blindness after anoxia-induced bilateral striate damage...
2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849544/imagined-hand-clenching-force-and-speed-modulate-brain-activity-and-are-classified-by-nirs-combined-with-eeg
#18
Yunfa Fu, Xin Xiong, Changhao Jiang, Baolei Xu, Yongcheng Li, Hongyi Li
Simultaneous acquisition of brain activity signals from the sensorimotor area using NIRS combined with EEG, imagined hand clenching force and speed modulation of brain activity, as well as 6-class classification of these imagined motor parameters by NIRS-EEG were explored. Near infrared probes were aligned with C3 and C4, and EEG electrodes were placed midway between the NIRS probes. NIRS and EEG signals were acquired from 6 healthy subjects during 6 imagined hand clenching force and speed tasks involving the right hand...
November 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813297/the-phosphodiesterase-type-2-inhibitor-bay-60-7550-reverses-functional-impairments-induced-by-brain-ischemia-by-decreasing-hippocampal-neurodegeneration-and-enhancing-hippocampal-neuronal-plasticity
#19
Lígia Mendes Soares, Erika Meyer, Humberto Milani, Harry W M Steinbusch, Jos Prickaerts, Rúbia M Weffort de Oliveira
Cognitive and affective impairments are the most characterized consequences following cerebral ischemia. BAY 60-7550, a selective phosphodiesterase type 2 inhibitor (PDE2-I), presents memory-enhancing and anxiolytic-like properties. The behavioral effects of BAY 60-7550 have been associated with its ability to prevent hydrolysis of both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) thereby interfering with neuronal plasticity. Here we hypothesize that PDE2-I treatment could promote functional recovery after brain ischemia...
November 4, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811295/spontaneous-alternation-behavior-in-larval-zebrafish
#20
Stefan Yu Bögli, Melody Ying-Yu Huang
Spontaneous alternation behavior (SAB) describes the tendency of animals to alternate their turn direction in consecutive turns. SAB, unlike other mnestic tasks, does not require any prior training or reinforcement. Because of its close correlation with the development and function of the hippocampus in mice, it is thought to reflect a type of memory. Adult zebrafish possess a hippocampus-like structure utilizing the same neurotransmitters as in human brains, and have thus been used to study memory. In the current study, we established SAB in zebrafish larvae at 6 days post-fertilization using a custom-made forced-turn maze with a rate of 57%...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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