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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326489/ondansetron-ameliorates-depression-associated-with-obesity-in-high-fat-diet-fed-experimental-mice-an-investigation-based-on-the-behavioral-biochemical-and-molecular-approach
#1
Yeshwant Kurhe, Radhakrishnan Mahesh
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is an important risk factor for depression as more than half of the obese population is susceptible for depression at double rate. Our earlier studies reported the antidepressant potential of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron (OND) in depression associated obesity using behavioral tasks. The present research work is aimed to evaluate the effect of OND on depression associated with obesity with special emphasis on biochemical and molecular mechanisms such as hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), hippocampal histological examination and immunohistochemical expression of p53 proteins...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259551/investigating-the-functional-utility-of-the-left-parietal-erp-old-new-effect-brain-activity-predicts-within-but-not-between-participant-variance-in-episodic-recollection
#2
Catherine A MacLeod, David I Donaldson
A success story within neuroimaging has been the discovery of distinct neural correlates of episodic retrieval, providing insight into the processes that support memory for past life events. Here we focus on one commonly reported neural correlate, the left parietal old/new effect, a positive going modulation seen in event-related potential (ERP) data that is widely considered to index episodic recollection. Substantial evidence links changes in the size of the left parietal effect to changes in remembering, but the precise functional utility of the effect remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248758/poor-cognitive-ageing-vulnerabilities-mechanisms-and-the-impact-of-nutritional-interventions
#3
REVIEW
Sophie Miquel, Claire Champ, Jon Day, Esther Aarts, Ben A Bahr, Martijntje Bakker, Diána Bánáti, Vittorio Calabrese, Tommy Cederholm, John Cryan, Louise Dye, Jonathan A Farrimond, Aniko Korosi, Sophie Layé, Stuart Maudsley, Dragan Milenkovic, M Hasan Mohajeri, John Sijben, Alina Solomon, Jeremy P E Spencer, Sandrine Thuret, Wim Vanden Berghe, David Vauzour, Bruno Vellas, Keith Wesnes, Peter Willatts, Raphael Wittenberg, Lucie Geurts
BACKGROUND: Ageing is a highly complex process marked by a temporal cascade of events, which promote alterations in the normal functioning of an individual organism. The triggers of normal brain ageing are not well understood, even less so the factors which initiate and steer the neuronal degeneration, which underpin disorders such as dementia. A wealth of data on how nutrients and diets may support cognitive function and preserve brain health are available, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying their biological action in both normal ageing, age-related cognitive decline, and in the development of neurodegenerative disorders have not been clearly elucidated...
December 15, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248436/estrogen-signaling-in-the-medial-amygdala-decreases-emotional-stress-responses-and-obesity-in-ovariectomized-rats
#4
Christina M Estrada, Valentina Ghisays, Elizabeth T Nguyen, Jody L Caldwell, Joshua Streicher, Matia B Solomon
Declining estradiol (E2), as occurs during menopause, increases risk for obesity and psychopathology (i.e., depression, anxiety). E2 modulates mood and energy homeostasis via binding to estrogen receptors (ER) in the brain. The often comorbid and bidirectional relationship between mood and metabolic disorders suggests shared hormonal and/or brain networks. The medial amygdala (MeA) is abundant in ERs and regulates mood, endocrine, and metabolic stress responses; therefore we tested the hypothesis that E2 in the MeA mitigates emotional and metabolic dysfunction in a rodent model of surgical menopause...
December 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220349/neural-correlates-of-motor-cognitive-dual-tasking-in-young-and-old-adults
#5
Selma Papegaaij, Tibor Hortobágyi, Ben Godde, Wim A Kaan, Peter Erhard, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
When two tasks are performed simultaneously, performance often declines in one or both tasks. These so-called dual-task costs are more pronounced in old than in young adults. One proposed neurological mechanism of the dual-task costs is that old compared with young adults tend to execute single-tasks with higher brain activation. In the brain regions that are needed for both tasks, the reduced residual capacity may interfere with performance of the dual-task. This competition for shared brain regions has been called structural interference...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203307/a-method-of-managing-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-absence-of-intracranial-pressure-monitoring-the-ice-protocol
#6
Peter Hendrickson, Jim Pridgeon, Nancy Temkin, Sureyya Dikmen, Walter Videtta, Gustavo Petroni, Silvia Lujan, Nahuel Guadagnoli, Zulma Urbina, Perla Blanca Pahnke, Daniel Godoy, Gustavo Pinero, Freddy Sandi Lora, Sergio Aguilera, Andres Rubiano, Caridad Soler Morejon, Manuel Jibaja, Hubiel Lopez, Ricardo Romero, Kelley Chaddock, Randall M Chesnut
BACKGROUND: Severe TBI (sTBI) is a significant global health problem disproportionately affecting Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). Management of intracranial hypertension in sTBI is crucial to survival and optimal recovery. High Income Country practitioners routinely use Intracranial Pressure (ICP) monitors although their utility has been questioned. ICP monitors are usually unavailable in LMICs. No consensus based/tested protocols or literature exists for sTBI treatment without ICP monitoring...
December 1, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201639/visual-feedback-alters-force-control-and-functional-activity-in-the-visuomotor-network-after-stroke
#7
Derek B Archer, Nyeonju Kang, Gaurav Misra, Shannon Marble, Carolynn Patten, Stephen A Coombes
Modulating visual feedback may be a viable option to improve motor function after stroke, but the neurophysiological basis for this improvement is not clear. Visual gain can be manipulated by increasing or decreasing the spatial amplitude of an error signal. Here, we combined a unilateral visually guided grip force task with functional MRI to understand how changes in the gain of visual feedback alter brain activity in the chronic phase after stroke. Analyses focused on brain activation when force was produced by the most impaired hand of the stroke group as compared to the non-dominant hand of the control group...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163104/transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-does-not-improve-behavioral-and-neurophysiological-measures-in-patients-with-subacute-vegetative-unresponsive-wakefulness-state-vs-uws
#8
Mauro Mancuso, Laura Abbruzzese, Stefania Canova, Giulia Landi, Simone Rossi, Emiliano Santarnecchi
Background: The absence of efficient treatments capable to promote central nervous system recovery in patients in vegetative state (VS) due to a severe acquired brain injury highlights the need of exploring alternative neuromodulatory treatments that can lead to neurobehavioral gains. Some encouraging preliminary observations suggest that transcranial direct current stimulation could be effective in disorders of consciousness (DoC) patients, especially when applied on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with minimally conscious state (MCS) but not in those with VS...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157660/encephalitis-and-myelitis-in-tropical-countries-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#9
REVIEW
Gisele Sampaio Silva, Guy A Richards, Tim Baker, Pravin R Amin
Tropical diseases are those that occur primarily or solely in the tropics, and as such include infectious diseases that are particularly prevalent in hot, humid conditions. The incidence of encephalitis in tropical countries is reported to be as high as 6.34/100,000/year. The term encephalitis implies inflammation of the brain and includes the presence of encephalopathy with two and more of the following features: fever, seizures and/or focal neurological findings; a cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis; electroencephalographic findings or abnormal neuroimaging suggestive of encephalitis...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142759/forced-migrants-involved-in-setting-the-agenda-and-designing-research-to-reduce-impacts-of-complex-emergencies-combining-swarm-with-patient-and-public-involvement
#10
Julii Suzanne Brainard, Enana Al Assaf, Judith Omasete, Steve Leach, Charlotte C Hammer, Paul R Hunter
Plain English summary: The UK's National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Protection Research Unit in Emergency Preparedness and Response was asked to undertake research on how to reduce the impact of complex national/international emergencies on public health. How to focus the research and decide on priority topics was challenging, given the nature of complex events. Using a type of structured brain-storming, the researchers identified the ongoing UK, European and international migration crisis as both complex and worthy of deeper research...
2017: Research Involvement and Engagement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136539/an-examination-of-lower-limb-asymmetry-in-ankle-isometric-force-control
#11
Sheng-Che Yen, Laura C Olsavsky, Caitlin M Cloonan, Amelia R Llanos, Kara J Dwyer, Mohsen Nabian, Amir Bahador Farjadian
While asymmetries have been observed between the dominant and non-dominant legs, it is unclear whether they have different abilities in isometric force control (IFC). The purpose of this study was to compare ankle IFC between the legs. IFC is important for stabilization rather than object manipulation, and people typically use their non-dominant leg for stabilization tasks. Additionally, studies suggested that a limb can better acquire a motor task when the control mechanism of the task is related to what the limb is specialized for...
November 11, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118194/optimal-use-of-limb-mechanics-distributes-control-during-bimanual-tasks
#12
David Córdova Bulens, Frédéric Crevecoeur, Jean-Louis Thonnard, Philippe Lefèvre
Bimanual tasks involve the coordination of both arms, which often offers redundancy in the ways a task can be completed. The distribution of control across limbs is often considered from the perspective of handedness. In this context, although there are differences across dominant and non-dominant arms during reaching control (Sainburg 2002), previous studies have shown that the brain tends to favor the dominant arm when performing bimanual tasks (Salimpour and Shadmehr 2014). However, biomechanical factors known to influence planning and control in unimanual tasks may also generate limb asymmetries in force generation, but their influence on bimanual control has remained unexplored...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115485/effect-of-willed-movement-training-on-neurorehabilitation-after-focal-cerebral-ischemia-and-on-the-neural-plasticity-associated-signaling-pathway
#13
Zhi-Wen Zhou, Qi-Dong Yang, Qing-Ping Tang, Jie Yang, Rong-Jing Guo, Wen Jiang
Neurorehabilitation training is a therapeutic intervention for the loss of neural function induced by focal cerebral ischemia, however, the effect varies depending on the neurorehabilitation exercises. Willed movement (WM) training is defined as task‑oriented training, which increases enthusiasm of patients to accomplish a specific task. The current study was performed to the evaluate effect of WM training on neurorehabilitation following focal cerebral ischemia, and further investigate the influence on neural plasticity‑associated signaling pathway...
January 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107662/methylphenidate-alters-brain-connectivity-after-enhanced-physical-performance
#14
Michael King, Keelyn Van Breda, Laurie H Rauch, Samantha J Brooks, Dan J Stein, Jonathan Ipser
Muscle fatigue is a disturbed homeostatic state characterized by a temporary inability to maintain force output and has lasting effects on the brain in the period immediately after exercise, such as decreased interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC). Stimulants that increase dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmission can enhance performance during muscle fatiguing exercise (i.e. are ergogenic). We recently demonstrated that methylphenidate (MPH) increased force output and increased FC between the insular (IC) and hand motor cortex during a fatiguing handgrip task...
October 28, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105075/methodological-standards-for-in%C3%A2-vitro-models-of-epilepsy-and-epileptic-seizures-a-task1-wg4-report-of-the-aes-ilae-translational-task-force-of-the-ilae
#15
REVIEW
Joseph V Raimondo, Uwe Heinemann, Marco de Curtis, Howard P Goodkin, Chris G Dulla, Damir Janigro, Akio Ikeda, Chou-Ching K Lin, Premysl Jiruska, Aristea S Galanopoulou, Christophe Bernard
In vitro preparations are a powerful tool to explore the mechanisms and processes underlying epileptogenesis and ictogenesis. In this review, we critically review the numerous in vitro methodologies utilized in epilepsy research. We provide support for the inclusion of detailed descriptions of techniques, including often ignored parameters with unpredictable yet significant effects on study reproducibility and outcomes. In addition, we explore how recent developments in brain slice preparation relate to their use as models of epileptic activity...
November 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105073/methodological-standards-and-interpretation-of-video-electroencephalography-in-adult-control-rodents-a%C3%A2-task1-wg1-report-of-the-aes-ilae-translational-task%C3%A2-force-of-the-ilae
#16
Shilpa D Kadam, Raimondo D'Ambrosio, Venceslas Duveau, Corinne Roucard, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Akio Ikeda, Marco de Curtis, Aristea S Galanopoulou, Kevin M Kelly
In vivo electrophysiological recordings are widely used in neuroscience research, and video-electroencephalography (vEEG) has become a mainstay of preclinical neuroscience research, including studies of epilepsy and cognition. Studies utilizing vEEG typically involve comparison of measurements obtained from different experimental groups, or from the same experimental group at different times, in which one set of measurements serves as "control" and the others as "test" of the variables of interest. Thus, controls provide mainly a reference measurement for the experimental test...
November 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101820/extending-the-limits-of-force-endurance-stimulation-of-the-motor-or-the-frontal-cortex
#17
Rémi Radel, Gavin Tempest, Gauthier Denis, Pierre Besson, Raphael Zory
Previous findings indicate that facilitation of primary motor cortex (PMC) activity using trans-cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could improve resistance to physical fatigue. However, studies have failed to consistently replicate these results. Using non-focal-tDCS during a fatiguing task, recent work showed no enhancement of corticospinal excitability of the PMC despite a longer endurance time and suggested that contamination in other brain regions involved in motor command may have occurred. In accordance with recent evidence supporting the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in exercise maintenance, this double-blind sham-controlled crossover study (N = 22) compared the effect of high definition (HD)-tDCS of the PMC or the PFC on endurance time of a sustained contraction task of the elbow flexor...
October 9, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067961/genetic-and-clinical-advances-of-congenital-muscular-dystrophy
#18
REVIEW
Xiao-Na Fu, Hui Xiong
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to update the genetic and clinical advances of congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD), based on a systematic review of the literature from 1991 to 2017. DATA SOURCES: Articles in English published in PubMed from 1991 to 2017 English were searched. The terms used in the literature searches were CMD. STUDY SELECTION: The task force initially identified citations for 98 published articles. Of the 98 articles, 52 studies were selected after further detailed review...
November 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060757/haptic-fmri-reliability-and-performance-of-electromagnetic-haptic-interfaces-for-motion-and-force-neuroimaging-experiments
#19
Samir Menon, Jack Zhu, Deeksha Goyal, Oussama Khatib
Haptic interfaces compatible with functional magnetic resonance imaging (Haptic fMRI) promise to enable rich motor neuroscience experiments that study how humans perform complex manipulation tasks. Here, we present a large-scale study (176 scans runs, 33 scan sessions) that characterizes the reliability and performance of one such electromagnetically actuated device, Haptic fMRI Interface 3 (HFI-3). We outline engineering advances that ensured HFI-3 did not interfere with fMRI measurements. Observed fMRI temporal noise levels with HFI-3 operating were at the fMRI baseline (0...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021739/effect-of-error-augmentation-on-brain-activation-and-motor-learning-of-a-complex-locomotor-task
#20
Laura Marchal-Crespo, Lars Michels, Lukas Jaeger, Jorge López-Olóriz, Robert Riener
Up to date, the functional gains obtained after robot-aided gait rehabilitation training are limited. Error augmenting strategies have a great potential to enhance motor learning of simple motor tasks. However, little is known about the effect of these error modulating strategies on complex tasks, such as relearning to walk after a neurologic accident. Additionally, neuroimaging evaluation of brain regions involved in learning processes could provide valuable information on behavioral outcomes. We investigated the effect of robotic training strategies that augment errors-error amplification and random force disturbance-and training without perturbations on brain activation and motor learning of a complex locomotor task...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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