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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528447/a-single-bout-of-endurance-exercise-modulates-eeg-microstates-temporal-features
#1
Jérôme N Spring, Miralena I Tomescu, Jérôme Barral
Electrical neuroimaging is a promising method to explore the spontaneous brain function after physical exercise. The present study aims to investigate the effect of acute physical exercise on the temporal dynamic of the resting brain activity captured by the four conventional map topographies (microstates) described in the literature, and to associate these brain changes with the post-exercise neuromuscular function. Twenty endurance-trained subjects performed a 30-min biking task at 60% of their maximal aerobic power followed by a 10 km all-out time trial...
May 20, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503368/running-wheel-training-does-not-change-neurogenesis-levels-or-alter-working-memory-tasks-in-adult-rats
#2
Cesar A Acevedo-Triana, Manuel J Rojas, Fernando Cardenas P
BACKGROUND: Exercise can change cellular structure and connectivity (neurogenesis or synaptogenesis), causing alterations in both behavior and working memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise on working memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult male Wistar rats using a T-maze test. METHODS: An experimental design with two groups was developed: the experimental group (n = 12) was subject to a forced exercise program for five days, whereas the control group (n = 9) stayed in the home cage...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489540/nonlinear-frequency-domain-analysis-of-the-transformation-of-cortical-inputs-by-a-motoneuron-pool-muscle-complex
#3
Renato Watanabe, Andre Kohn
Corticomotor coherence in the beta and/or gamma bands has been described in different motor tasks but the role of descending brain oscillations on force control has been elusive. Large-scale computational models of a motoneuron pool and the muscle it innervates have been used as tools to advance the knowledge of how neural elements may influence force control. Here we present a frequency domain analysis of a NARX model fitted to a large-scale neuromuscular model by means of generalized frequency response functions (GFRF)...
May 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485884/altered-sensorimotor-cortical-oscillations-in-individuals-with-multiple-sclerosis-suggests-a-faulty-internal-model
#4
David J Arpin, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, James E Gehringer, Rana Zabad, Tony W Wilson, Max J Kurz
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease that results in a broad array of symptoms, including impaired motor performance. How such demyelination of fibers affects the inherent neurophysiological activity in motor circuits, however, remains largely unknown. Potentially, the movement errors associated with MS may be due to imperfections in the internal model used to make predictions of the motor output that will meet the task demands. Prior magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and electroencephalographic brain imaging experiments have established that the beta (15-30 Hz) oscillatory activity in the sensorimotor cortices is related to the control of movement...
May 9, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484416/neuromyths-in-music-education-prevalence-and-predictors-of-misconceptions-among-teachers-and-students
#5
Nina Düvel, Anna Wolf, Reinhard Kopiez
In the last decade, educational neuroscience has become increasingly important in the context of instruction, and its applications have been transformed into new teaching methods. Although teachers are interested in educational neuroscience, communication between scientists and teachers is not always straightforward. Thus, misunderstandings of neuroscientific research results can evolve into so-called neuromyths. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of such music-related neuromyths among music teachers and music students...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471701/the-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-val66met-polymorphism-delivery-method-birth-weight-and-night-sleep-duration-as-determinants-of-obesity-in-vietnamese-children-of-primary-school-age
#6
Le Thi Tuyet, Bui Thi Nhung, Duong Thi Anh Dao, Nguyen Thi Hong Hanh, Le Danh Tuyen, Tran Quang Binh, Vu Thi Minh Thuc
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a complex disease that involves both environmental and genetic factors in its pathogenesis. Several studies have identified multiple obesity-associated loci in many populations. However, their contribution to obesity in the Vietnamese population is not fully described, especially in children. The study aimed to investigate the association of obesity with Val66Met polymorphism in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, delivery method, birth weight, and lifestyle factors in Vietnamese primary school children...
May 4, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469563/the-role-of-associative-cortices-and-hippocampus-during-movement-perturbations
#7
Matthew S D Kerr, Pierre Sacré, Kevin Kahn, Hyun-Joo Park, Mathew Johnson, James Lee, Susan Thompson, Juan Bulacio, Jaes Jones, Jorge González-Martínez, Catherine Liégeois-Chauvel, Sridevi V Sarma, John T Gale
Although motor control has been extensively studied, most research involving neural recordings has focused on primary motor cortex, pre-motor cortex, supplementary motor area, and cerebellum. These regions are involved during normal movements, however, associative cortices and hippocampus are also likely involved during perturbed movements as one must detect the unexpected disturbance, inhibit the previous motor plan, and create a new plan to compensate. Minimal data is available on these brain regions during such "robust" movements...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452879/aeromedical-evacuation-relevant-hypobaria-worsens-axonal-and-neurologic-injury-in-rats-following-underbody-blast-induced-hyperacceleration
#8
Julie L Proctor, Kaitlin T Mello, Raymond Fang, Adam C Puche, Robert E Rosenthal, William L Fourney, Ulrich H Leiste, Gary Fiskum
BACKGROUND: Occupants of military vehicles targeted by explosive devices often suffer from traumatic brain injury (TBI) and are typically transported by the aeromedical evacuation (AE) system to a military medical center within a few days. This study tested the hypothesis that exposure of rats to AE-relevant hypobaria worsens cerebral axonal injury and neurologic impairment caused by underbody blasts. METHODS: Anesthetized adult male rats were secured within cylinders attached to a metal plate, simulating the hull of an armored vehicle...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451885/impact-of-high-fat-diet-and-early-stress-on-depressive-like-behavior-and-hippocampal-plasticity-in-adult-male-rats
#9
Danusa Mar Arcego, Ana Paula Toniazzo, Rachel Krolow, Carine Lampert, Carolina Berlitz, Emily Dos Santos Garcia, Fabrício do Couto Nicola, Juliana Bender Hoppe, Mariana Maier Gaelzer, Caroline Peres Klein, Camilla Lazzaretti, Carla Dalmaz
During development, the brain goes through fundamental processes, including organization of neural networks and plasticity. Environmental interventions may change initial brain programming, leading to long-lasting effects and altering the susceptibility to psychopathologies, including depression disorder. It is known that depression is a psychiatric disorder with a high prevalence worldwide, including high rates among adolescents. In this study, we evaluated whether social isolation in the prepubertal period and chronic use of high-fat diet (HFD) may induce depressive-like behavior in male adult rats...
April 27, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447333/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-lithium-in-treating-acute-mania-in-youth-with-bipolar-disorder-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#10
A Duffy, S Patten, S Goodday, A Weir, N Heffer, A Cipriani
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological, clinical, and high-risk studies have provided evidence that the peak period for onset of diagnosable episodes of mania and hypomania starts in mid-to-late adolescence. Moreover, clinically significant manic symptoms may occur even earlier, especially in children at familial risk. Lithium is the gold standard treatment for acute mania in adults, yet to our knowledge, there is no published systematic review assessing lithium treatment of mania in children or adolescents...
December 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446874/age-related-differences-in-reorganization-of-functional-connectivity-for-a-dual-task-with-increasing-postural-destabilization
#11
Cheng-Ya Huang, Linda L Lin, Ing-Shiou Hwang
The aged brain may not make good use of central resources, so dual task performance may be degraded. From the brain connectome perspective, this study investigated dual task deficits of older adults that lead to task failure of a suprapostural motor task with increasing postural destabilization. Twelve younger (mean age: 25.3 years) and 12 older (mean age: 65.8 years) adults executed a designated force-matching task from a level-surface or a stabilometer board. Force-matching error, stance sway, and event-related potential (ERP) in the preparatory period were measured...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437225/neck-collar-with-mild-jugular-vein-compression-ameliorates-brain-activation-changes-during-a-working-memory-task-after-a-season-of-high-school-football
#12
Weihong Yuan, James Leach, Thomas Maloney, Mekibib Altaye, David Smith, Paul Gubanich, Kim Barber-Foss, Staci Thomas, Christopher DiCesare, Adam Kiefer, Gregory D Myer
Emerging evidence indicates that repetitive head impacts, even at a sub-concussive level, may result in exacerbated or prolonged neurologic deficits in athletes. This study aimed to: 1) quantify the effect of repetitive head impacts on the alteration of neuronal activity based on fMRI of working memory after a high school football season; and 2) determine whether a neck collar that applies mild jugular vein compression to reduce brain energy absorption in head impact through slosh mitigation can ameliorate the altered fMRI activation during a working memory task...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424602/assessing-the-driver-s-current-level-of-working-memory-load-with-high-density-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-a-realistic-driving-simulator-study
#13
Anirudh Unni, Klas Ihme, Meike Jipp, Jochem W Rieger
Cognitive overload or underload results in a decrease in human performance which may result in fatal incidents while driving. We envision that driver assistive systems which adapt their functionality to the driver's cognitive state could be a promising approach to reduce road accidents due to human errors. This research attempts to predict variations of cognitive working memory load levels in a natural driving scenario with multiple parallel tasks and to reveal predictive brain areas. We used a modified version of the n-back task to induce five different working memory load levels (from 0-back up to 4-back) forcing the participants to continuously update, memorize, and recall the previous 'n' speed sequences and adjust their speed accordingly while they drove for approximately 60 min on a highway with concurrent traffic in a virtual reality driving simulator...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421482/cost-effectiveness-of-stereotactic-radiosurgery-and-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-a-critical-review
#14
REVIEW
Nataniel H Lester-Coll, David J Sher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize and appraise published cost-effectiveness studies on stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). RECENT FINDINGS: We performed a Medline search of cost-effectiveness studies of SRS, SBRT, and other cancer treatment modalities such as surgery and systemic therapy from 2006 to 2016. We included studies that used both modeling and retrospective review techniques. We excluded studies of benign disease...
June 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391295/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-brain-metastases-from-solid-tumors-guidelines-from-the-european-association-of-neuro-oncology-eano
#15
Riccardo Soffietti, Ufuk Abacioglu, Brigitta Baumert, Stephanie E Combs, Sara Kinhult, Johan M Kros, Christine Marosi, Philippe Metellus, Alexander Radbruch, Salvador S Villa Freixa, Michael Brada, Carmine M Carapella, Matthias Preusser, Emilie Le Rhun, Roberta Rudà, Joerg C Tonn, Damien C Weber, Michael Weller
The management of patients with brain metastases has become a major issue due to the increasing frequency and complexity of the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In 2014, the European Association of Neuro-Oncology (EANO) created a multidisciplinary Task Force to draw evidence-based guidelines for patients with brain metastases from solid tumors. Here, we present these guidelines, which provide a consensus review of evidence and recommendations for diagnosis by neuroimaging and neuropathology, staging, prognostic factors, and different treatment options...
February 1, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387589/inhibition-of-pre-sma-by-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-leads-to-more-cautious-decision-making-and-more-efficient-sensory-evidence-integration
#16
Tuğçe Tosun, Dilara Berkay, Alexander T Sack, Yusuf Ö Çakmak, Fuat Balcı
Decisions are made based on the integration of available evidence. The noise in evidence accumulation leads to a particular speed-accuracy tradeoff in decision-making, which can be modulated and optimized by adaptive decision threshold setting. Given the effect of pre-SMA activity on striatal excitability, we hypothesized that the inhibition of pre-SMA would lead to higher decision thresholds and an increased accuracy bias. We used offline continuous theta burst stimulation to assess the effect of transient inhibition of the right pre-SMA on the decision processes in a free-response two-alternative forced-choice task within the drift diffusion model framework...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367834/electroencephalographic-identifiers-of-motor-adaptation-learning
#17
Ozan Ozdenizci, Mustafa Yalcin, Ahmetcan Erdogan, Volkan Patoglu, Moritz Grosse-Wentrup, Mujdat Cetin
OBJECTIVE: Recent brain-computer interface (BCI) assisted stroke rehabilitation protocols tend to focus on sensorimotor activity of the brain. Relying on evidence claiming that a variety of brain rhythms beyond sensorimotor areas are related to the extent of motor deficits, we propose to identify neural correlates of motor learning beyond sensorimotor areas spatially and spectrally for further use in novel BCI-assisted neurorehabilitation settings. APPROACH: Electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded from healthy subjects participating in a physical force-field adaptation task involving reaching movements through a robotic handle...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363436/brain-activity-associated-with-selective-attention-divided-attention-and-distraction
#18
Emma Salo, Viljami Salmela, Juha Salmi, Jussi Numminen, Kimmo Alho
Top-down controlled selective or divided attention to sounds and visual objects, as well as bottom-up triggered attention to auditory and visual distractors, has been widely investigated. However, no study has systematically compared brain activations related to all these types of attention. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity in participants performing a tone pitch or a foveal grating orientation discrimination task, or both, distracted by novel sounds not sharing frequencies with the tones or by extrafoveal visual textures...
June 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356066/effectiveness-of-conservative-interventions-for-sickness-and-pain-behaviors-induced-by-a-high-repetition-high-force-upper-extremity-task
#19
D L Xin, J Hadrévi, M E Elliott, M Amin, M Y Harris, A E Barr-Gillespie, M F Barbe
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation is known to induce sickness behaviors, including decreased social interaction and pain. We have reported increased serum inflammatory cytokines in a rat model of repetitive strain injury (rats perform an upper extremity reaching task for prolonged periods). Here, we sought to determine if sickness behaviors are induced in this model and the effectiveness of conservative treatments. METHODS: Experimental rats underwent initial training to learn a high force reaching task (10 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks), with or without ibuprofen treatment (TRHF vs...
March 29, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337941/lesion-symptom-map-of-cognitive-postural-interference-in-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Serena Ruggieri, Fulvia Fanelli, Letizia Castelli, Nikolaos Petsas, Laura De Giglio, Luca Prosperini
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the disease-altered structure-function relationship underlying the cognitive-postural interference (CPI) phenomenon in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We measured postural sway of 96 patients and 48 sex-/age-matched healthy controls by force platform in quiet standing (single-task (ST)) while performing the Stroop test (dual-task (DT)) to estimate the dual-task cost (DTC) of balance. In patient group, binary T2 and T1 lesion masks and their corresponding lesion volumes were obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain...
March 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
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