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Opiod use disorder

Jeroen J J Van Eijk, Jan T Groothuis, Nens Van Alfen
In this review we provide a current overview of the clinical features, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in neuralgic amyotrophy (NA). The disorder has several phenotypic variations, with a classic form in 70% of the patients. It is not rare, with an incidence of 1 per 1,000 individuals, but it is still often missed. Recurrences are common, yet the proposed multifactorial etiology, which includes genetic, biomechanical, and immunologic factors, limits our capacity to predict or prevent them...
March 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Pierre-Eric Lutz, Yi Zhou, Aurélie Labbe, Naguib Mechawar, Gustavo Turecki
The nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ)-Nociceptin Opiod-like Peptide (NOP) receptor system is a critical mediator of physiological and pathological processes involved in emotional regulation and drug addiction. As such, this system may be an important biological substrate underlying psychiatric conditions that contribute to the risk of suicide. Thus, the goal of the present study was to characterize changes in human N/OFQ and NOP signaling as a function of depression, addiction and suicide. We quantified the expression of N/OFQ and NOP by RT-PCR in the anterior insula, the mediodorsal thalamus, and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) from a large sample of individuals who died by suicide and matched psychiatrically-healthy controls...
November 2015: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Jaime Calvo-Alén
The use of opioids for benign disorders has been limited by concerns about these compounds' potential adverse events and their possible misuse. However, during the last few years an increased use in nonmalignant disorders, including rheumatologic diseases, has been observed. Herein, we review the scientific evidence for opioid therapy in three common scenarios in clinical rheumatology. Low back pain is a very frequent reason for consultation. Overall, the large majority of studies show a positive, yet rather moderate, effect of opioids in pain control, as well as in other outcomes including mood, work disability and anxiety...
October 2010: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
Pirkko Kriikku, Lars Wilhelm, Janne Rintatalo, Jukka Hurme, Jan Kramer, Ilkka Ojanperä
Phenazepam is a long-acting benzodiazepine that, unlike other benzodiazepines, is currently not scheduled as a narcotic in Finland, most other European countries or the USA. It is used as an anxiolytic, sedative-hypnotic and anti-epileptic, mainly in Russia. In Finland, as well as in some other countries, an increase in the unauthorized use of phenazepam has been observed in recent years. In the one year period between July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011 the prevalence of phenazepam in Finland was assessed among drivers apprehended for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID), in medico-legal autopsy cases and in police confiscations of illicit drugs...
July 10, 2012: Forensic Science International
Simone Soares Leite, Elizabeth Bessadas Penna Firme, Márcia Santana Bevilaqua, Leonel Dos Santos Pereira, Jacob Atié
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Remifentanil is an opiod with fast onset of action and short acting, and its use in short-duration procedures has increased in the last few years. Bradycardia and asystole are among the side effects reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of this drug in cardiac conduction and refractory period in human beings. METHODS: A prospective study with 16 patients, ages 18 to 65, both genders, ASA I to III, undergoing elective intracardiac electrophysiological study, was undertaken...
October 2007: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Boonying Manaboriboon, Chulathida Chomchai
INTRODUCTION: Dextromethorphan is an opiod-derived, easily available cough remedy that, when used in large quantities, can have stimulatory effects which mimic that of amphetamine and other psychedelic drugs. Due to its easy availability, dextromethorphan is gaining widespread popularity as a recreational drug among Thai youths. Symptoms of overdose are directly related to its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. Dextromethorphan is metabolized by cytochrome p450 2D6, an isoenzyme that exhibit polymorphism in Asians...
November 2005: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
S de Filippis, E Salvatori, G Coloprisco, P Martelletti
In 2001, WHO evidenced headache among the first twenty disability agents in the world. The International Classification of Headache Disorders, II version (ICHD-II) recognises 24 types of chronic headache and states primary headaches as chronic when attacks appear for more than 15 days per month, for at least three months. Migraine given by drugs overuse, defined by ICDH-II in 2004 (and revised in 2005) as MOH, represents a common and debilitating disorder, which can be defined as generation, perpetuation and persistence of intense chronic migraine caused by the frequent and excessive use of (symptomatic) drugs, giving an immediate relief...
March 2006: La Clinica Terapeutica
David A Fiellin
Substance use of disorders--including alcohol, cocaine, and opiod dependencies--are common in HIV-infected patients. Untreated substance use disorders result in poor HIV disease treatment outcomes; however, several new treatment strategies have emerged in recent years. Combined medication and counseling therapies are effective for alcohol and opioid dependencies, and counseling treatments are effective for cocaine dependence. Office-based treatment with buprenorphine offers the opportunity for coordinated treatment of HIV disease and opioid dependence...
July 2004: Topics in HIV Medicine: a Publication of the International AIDS Society, USA
David P Valentiner, Nina S Mounts, Brett J Deacon
This study examines panic attacks and substance use in a sample of incoming college freshman (n = 399 ) using questionnaires. Panickers (n = 47 ) were significantly more likely than nonpanickers (n = 290) to report having ever used sedatives, stimulants, opiods, and other drugs, but not tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, or hallucinogens. Gender and race did not substantially moderate the associations between substance use and panic attacks. Sedative, stimulant, opiod, and other drug use was not associated with panic attack frequency or the occurrence of unexpected attacks...
2004: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
M T Fernández-Sánchez, R Díaz-Trelles, A Groppetti, B Manfredi, A T Brini, G Biella, M L Sotgiu, A Novelli
Nefopam hydrochloride is a potent analgesic compound that possesses a profile distinct from that of opiods or anti-inflammatory drugs. Previous evidence suggested a central action of nefopam but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. Here we have used cultured cerebellar neurons to test the hypothesis that nefopam may modulate voltage sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) activity. Nefopam (100 microM) effectively prevented NMDA receptor-mediated early appearance (30 min) of toxicity signs induced by the VSSC activator veratridine...
December 2001: Neuropharmacology
W E Müller, J L Laplanche, H Ushijima, H C Schröder
The scrapie prion protein, PrP(Sc), as well as its peptide fragment, PrP106-126, are toxic on neuronal cells, resulting in cell death by an apoptotic, rather than necrotic mechanism. The apoptotic process of neuronal cells induced by prion protein supports diagnosis and offers potential targets for therapeutic intervention of the prion diseases. Among the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins, which may serve as markers of neuronal cell death associated with prion diseases, the 14-3-3 protein(s) turned out to be the most promising one...
July 31, 2000: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
W Glatt
The purpose of the study was to investigate a new method for detoxifying opioid-dependent patients. Butorphanol is an opiod with mixed agonist-antagonist properties, and is marketed as a nasal spray. Undiluted, it will cause significant physical withdrawal symptoms in a population dependent on opioids. Forty patients dependent on opioids were detoxified using dilute butorphanol spray. The initial concentration was 40% and gradually reduced. This technique was highly successful in keeping this difficult group of patients engaged in the treatment process for a longer period...
October 1999: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
J Pach, K Pach, D Targosz, L Winnik, M Obara
The drug overdose resulting in acute intoxication diagnosed in the 106 drug abusers in period form June to December 1994. The screening drugs identification was performed using immunoassays Triage and Vitalab Eclair manufactured by MERCK. Benzodiazepines followed by barbiturates and opiods were most often the cause of acute poisonings among the adult Kraków inhabitants. The results presented indicate that only adequate clinical observation, laboratory tests performance and establishing of intoxication state (acute poisoning, chronic intoxication or withdrawal) allows a complete patient evaluation...
1995: Przegla̧d Lekarski
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