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Patrick luyten

Adam F Feyaerts, Lotte Mathé, Walter Luyten, Stijn De Graeve, Katrien Van Dyck, Lize Broekx, Patrick Van Dijck
Multi-resistant microorganisms continue to challenge medicine and fuel the search for new antimicrobials. Here we show that essential oils and their components are a promising class of antifungals that can have specific anti-Candida activity via their vapour-phase. We quantify the vapour-phase-mediated antimicrobial activity (VMAA) of 175 essential oils and 37 essential oil components, representing more than a 1,000 unique molecules, against C. albicans and C. glabrata in a novel vapour-phase-mediated susceptibility assay...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elisabeth M P Laurenssen, Patrick Luyten, Martijn J Kikkert, Dieuwertje Westra, Jaap Peen, Mirjam B J Soons, Anne-Marie van Dam, Anna J van Broekhuyzen, Matthijs Blankers, Jan J V Busschbach, Jack J M Dekker
BACKGROUND: Day hospital mentalization-based treatment (MBT-DH) is a promising treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD) but its evidence base is still limited. This multi-site randomized trial compared the efficacy of MBT-DH delivered by a newly set-up service v. specialist treatment as usual (S-TAU) tailored to the individual needs of patients, and offered by a well-established treatment service. METHODS: Two mental healthcare institutes in The Netherlands participated in the study...
February 26, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Karen Yearwood, Nicole Vliegen, Cecilia Chau, Jozef Corveleyn, Patrick Luyten
Studies about trauma often tend to focus on abuse and neglect. However important, these studies may neglect the importance of the broader community context that is often associated with trauma, and complex trauma (CT) in particular. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CT (defined in terms of experiencing abuse and/or neglect occurring in the context of relationships with caregivers), and of broader environmental adversity (i.e., exposure to community violence), in a sample of adolescents ( N = 218) from a severely disadvantaged district of Lima, Peru...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Elise Beau Vangeel, Stefan Kempke, Jelena Bakusic, Lode Godderis, Patrick Luyten, Leen Van Heddegem, Veerle Compernolle, Philippe Persoons, Diether Lambrechts, Benedetta Izzi, Kathleen Freson, Stephan Claes
OBJECTIVE: Although the precise mechanisms are not yet understood, previous studies have suggested that chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation and trauma in early childhood. Consistent with findings suggesting that early life stress-induced DNA methylation changes may underlie dysregulation of the HPA axis, we previously found evidence for the involvement of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene (NR3C1) methylation in whole blood of CFS patients...
January 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Eline Coppens, Stefan Kempke, Peter Van Wambeke, Stephan Claes, Bart Morlion, Patrick Luyten, Lukas Van Oudenhove
OBJECTIVE: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction may play a role in fibromyalgia (FM) pathogenesis, but remains understudied in this disorder. Furthermore, early childhood adversities (ECA) are common in FM, but whether they moderate stress reactivity is unknown. Hence, we investigated cortisol and subjective responses to acute psychosocial stress in FM and controls, while adjusting for ECA. METHODS: Twenty-seven female FM patients and 24 age-matched female controls were recruited in a tertiary care center and through advertisements, respectively...
December 11, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
Patrick Luyten, Peter Fonagy
The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) propose a much-needed change in approach to the study of vulnerability factors implicated in mental disorders, shifting away from a categorical, disease-oriented model to a dimensional approach that focuses on underlying systems implicated in psychopathology. In this paper we illustrate this approach with a focus on the emergence of depression in childhood and adolescence. Based on evolutionary biological and developmental psychopathology considerations, we present an integrative developmental cascade model of depression that essentially suggests that depression emerges out of a three-pronged series of interacting impairments in the domains of stress regulation, reward, and mentalizing...
October 9, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
Felicitas Rost, Patrick Luyten, Peter Fonagy
BACKGROUND: The two-configurations model developed by Blatt and colleagues offers a comprehensive conceptual and empirical framework for understanding depression. This model suggests that depressed patients struggle, at different developmental levels, with issues related to dependency (anaclitic issues) or self-definition (introjective issues), or a combination of both. AIMS: This paper reports three studies on the development and preliminary validation of the Anaclitic-Introjective Depression Assessment, an observer-rated assessment tool of impairments in relatedness and self-definition in clinical depression based on the item pool of the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure...
October 23, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Dries Bleys, Patrick Luyten, Bart Soenens, Stephan Claes
BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses have yielded contradictory findings concerning the role of 5-HTTLPR in interaction with stress (GxE) in depression. The current meta-analysis investigates if these contradictory findings are a result of differences between studies in methodological approaches towards the assessment of stress and depression. METHODS: After performing a systematic database search (February to December 2016), first, a meta-analysis was used to investigate the total effect size and publication bias...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
Celine De Meulemeester, Benedicte Lowyck, Rudi Vermote, Yannic Verhaest, Patrick Luyten
Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are characterized by problems in interpersonal functioning and their long-term social integration often remains problematic. Extant theories have linked identity diffusion to many of the interpersonal problems characteristic of BPD patients. Recent theoretical accounts have suggested that identity diffusion results from problems with mentalizing or reflective functioning, that is, the capacity to understand oneself and others in terms of intentional mental states...
December 2017: Psychiatry Research
Anthony Bateman, Chloe Campbell, Patrick Luyten, Peter Fonagy
In this paper we conceptualize borderline personality disorder as a disorder of mentalizing, social cognition, and loss of resilience. Several treatment approaches are effective, and meta-analyses suggest that there are few substantive differences in effectiveness between them and between specialized and non-specialized approaches. We propose that these findings arise because of shared mechanisms of change, congruent with current thinking both about the existence of a general 'p' factor of psychopathology and a reconceptualization of personality disorders as involving a lack of resilience resulting from problems with epistemic trust and salutogenesis, the capacity to derive benefit from the social environment...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Tara McFarquhar, Patrick Luyten, Peter Fonagy
BACKGROUND: Interpersonal problems are commonly reported by depressed patients, but the effect of psychotherapeutic treatment on them remains unclear. This paper reviews the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions for depression on interpersonal problems as measured by the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP). METHODS: An electronic database search identified articles reporting IIP outcome scores for individual adult psychotherapy for depression. A systematic review and, where possible, meta-analysis was conducted...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Allan Abbass, Patrick Luyten, Christiane Steinert, Falk Leichsenring
Although psychodynamic therapy (PDT) is an evidence-based intervention for a broad spectrum of psychiatric conditions, there is often notable bias in the way PDT is depicted both in the popular media and in the scientific literature. This has contributed to a negative view of PDT, which hampers both patient access to this treatment and researcher access to funding for further research on PDT. The adverse effects of these distortions and biases are detrimental not only to PDT but also to the overall field of psychotherapy, raising questions about its credibility...
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Anaïs Gouin, Anthony Bretaudeau, Kiwoong Nam, Sylvie Gimenez, Jean-Marc Aury, Bernard Duvic, Frédérique Hilliou, Nicolas Durand, Nicolas Montagné, Isabelle Darboux, Suyog Kuwar, Thomas Chertemps, David Siaussat, Anne Bretschneider, Yves Moné, Seung-Joon Ahn, Sabine Hänniger, Anne-Sophie Gosselin Grenet, David Neunemann, Florian Maumus, Isabelle Luyten, Karine Labadie, Wei Xu, Fotini Koutroumpa, Jean-Michel Escoubas, Angel Llopis, Martine Maïbèche-Coisne, Fanny Salasc, Archana Tomar, Alisha R Anderson, Sher Afzal Khan, Pascaline Dumas, Marion Orsucci, Julie Guy, Caroline Belser, Adriana Alberti, Benjamin Noel, Arnaud Couloux, Jonathan Mercier, Sabine Nidelet, Emeric Dubois, Nai-Yong Liu, Isabelle Boulogne, Olivier Mirabeau, Gaelle Le Goff, Karl Gordon, John Oakeshott, Fernando L Consoli, Anne-Nathalie Volkoff, Howard W Fescemyer, James H Marden, Dawn S Luthe, Salvador Herrero, David G Heckel, Patrick Wincker, Gael J Kergoat, Joelle Amselem, Hadi Quesneville, Astrid T Groot, Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly, Nicolas Nègre, Claire Lemaitre, Fabrice Legeai, Emmanuelle d'Alençon, Philippe Fournier
Emergence of polyphagous herbivorous insects entails significant adaptation to recognize, detoxify and digest a variety of host-plants. Despite of its biological and practical importance - since insects eat 20% of crops - no exhaustive analysis of gene repertoires required for adaptations in generalist insect herbivores has previously been performed. The noctuid moth Spodoptera frugiperda ranks as one of the world's worst agricultural pests. This insect is polyphagous while the majority of other lepidopteran herbivores are specialist...
September 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Peter Fonagy, Patrick Luyten
Problems related to aggression in young people are traditionally subsumed under the header of conduct problems, which include conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. Such problems in children and adolescents are an important societal and mental health problem. In this paper we present an evolutionarily informed developmental psychopathology view of conduct problems inspired by the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. We assume that while there are many pathways to conduct problems, chronic or temporary impairments in the domain of social cognition or mentalizing are a common denominator...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
Patrick Luyten
Sidney Blatt's seminal contributions in the domain of personality development, psychopathology, and health rank among the best researched and most empirically supported theories in psychoanalysis. Blatt is known primarily for his two-polarities model of personality development, which he viewed as evolving through a dialectical, synergistic interaction between two fundamental processes across the lifespan: the development of interpersonal relatedness on the one hand, and of self-definition on the other. In this model, psychopathology is viewed as an attempt to find a balance, however distorted, between relatedness and self-definition...
June 2017: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Lies Van Assche, Manuel Morrens, Patrick Luyten, Luc Van de Ven, Mathieu Vandenbulcke
OBJECTIVE: The current review discusses neuropsychological profiles and the longitudinal course of cognitive dysfunction in Late Onset Schizophrenia (LOS) and Very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis (VLOSLP), and attempts to clarify its neurobiological underpinnings. METHOD: A systematic literature search resulted in 29 publications describing original research on the neuropsychology of LOS/VLOSLP and 46 studies focussing on neurobiology. RESULTS: Although mildly progressive cognitive impairment is usually present, only a subgroup of LOS/VLOSLP develops dementia during a 10-year follow-up succeeding the onset of psychosis...
December 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Dawson Cooke, Lynn Priddis, Patrick Luyten, Garth Kendall, Robert Cavanagh
While past research on the care of infants has been mostly with mothers, in recent times there has been a renewed attention to the father-infant relationship. This study examined differences between mother and father parental reflective functioning (PRF) or parental mentalizing; that is, the parental capacity to reason about their own and their children's behaviors by taking into consideration intentional mental states. Data were collected from 120 couples with a 1-year-old child who were participants in the West Australian Peel Child Health Study...
August 21, 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
Dine J Feenstra, Patrick Luyten, Dawn L Bales
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is common in clinical practice. Psychotherapy is the treatment of choice, and mentalization-based treatment (MBT) is one of the empirically supported treatments that are currently available. For adults, two variants of MBT (MBT day hospital [MBT-DH] and MBT intensive outpatient [MBT-IOP]) have been developed and empirically evaluated. The authors review research on the development, efficacy, and implementation of MBT. In conclusion, the authors focus on the implementation of treatment programs for BPD patients...
2017: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic
Maaike L Smits, Dine J Feenstra, Dawn L Bales, Jasmijn de Vos, Zwaan Lucas, Roel Verheul, Patrick Luyten
BACKGROUND: The borderline personality disorder (BPD) population is notably heterogeneous, and this has potentially important implications for intervention. Identifying distinct subtypes of patients may represent a first step in identifying which treatments work best for which individuals. METHODS: A cluster-analysis on dimensional personality disorder (PD) features, as assessed with the SCID-II, was performed on a sample of carefully screened BPD patients (N = 187) referred for mentalization-based treatment...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
Nader Perroud, Deborah Badoud, Sébastien Weibel, Rosetta Nicastro, Roland Hasler, Anne-Lise Küng, Patrick Luyten, Peter Fonagy, Alexandre Dayer, Jean-Michel Aubry, Paco Prada, Martin Debbané
Emotion dysregulation and interpersonal hardships constitute core features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Research has established the link between these core dysregulations and fluctuations in the capacity to appreciate the mental states that underlie behavior (mentalizing, operationalized as reflective functioning (RF)). As emotion dysregulation and interpersonal hardships also characterize adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this study sought to examine the potential RF impairments affecting this population...
June 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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