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Magdalena A Gutowska, Brateen Shome, Sebastian Sudek, Darcy L McRose, Maria Hamilton, Stephen J Giovannoni, Tadhg P Begley, Alexandra Z Worden
Vitamin B1 (thiamin) is a cofactor for critical enzymatic processes and is scarce in surface oceans. Several eukaryotic marine algal species thought to rely on exogenous thiamin are now known to grow equally well on the precursor 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine (HMP), including the haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi Because the thiamin biosynthetic capacities of the diverse and ecologically important haptophyte lineage are otherwise unknown, we investigated the pathway in transcriptomes and two genomes from 30 species representing six taxonomic orders...
October 10, 2017: MBio
Jairo Arturo Pinzón-Cortés, Angelina Perna-Chaux, Nicolás Steven Rojas-Villamizar, Angelica Diaz-Basabe, Diana Carolina Polania-Villanueva, María Fernanda Jacome, Carlos Olimpo Mendivil, Helena Groot, Valeriano López-Segura
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by oxidative stress that could lead to chronic micro- and macro-vascular complications. We hypothesized that some of the target organ damage is mediated by oxidative alterations in epigenetic mechanisms involving DNA methylation (5mC) and DNA hydroxymethylation (5hmC). We analyzed global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in peripheral blood cells in well-controlled and poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and compared them to healthy controls...
October 9, 2017: Endocrine Connections
Chun-Song Cheng, Can-Jian Wang, Jie Liang, Chi-Chou Lao, Hua Zhou, Zhi-Feng Zhang
Medicinal almonds have been used for over 2 000 years and its clinical efficacy includes relieving cough and asthma. The domestic market in China is flooded with different kinds of dried almonds, such as bitter almond (Armeniacae Semen Amarum, AAS), sweet almond (Armeniacae Semen Dulce, ADS), salted almond (Armeniacae Semen Salsa, ASS), and their sulfur-fumigating products (Armeniacae Semen Sulphur Fumabat, ASFS). Wide varieties of almonds may lead to uncertain efficacy, aberrant quality, and even increased safety risk...
September 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Petra Novak, Tea Zuliani, Radmila Milačič, Janez Ščančar
Six congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 99, BDE 100, BDE 153 and BDE 154, were determined by a reliable and sensitive analytical method based on gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS) in mussel and fish tissue samples. For their extraction, 30min of ultrasound-assisted extraction with a 25% aqueous solution of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and an additional 2h of mechanical shaking with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris)-citrate buffer and iso-octane were applied...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Chungang Gu, Shenghua Wen, Peter Doig, Eric Gangl, Xiaolan Zheng, Yanjun Wang, Jeffrey W Johannes
Phosphorylation of xenobiotics is rare, probably due to a strong evolutionary pressure against it. This rarity may have attracted more attention recently, owing to intentionally designed kinase-substrate analogs which depend on kinase-catalyzed activation to form phosphorylated active drugs. We report a rare phosphorylated metabolite observed unexpectedly in mouse plasma samples after an oral dose of a Tankyrase inhibitor that was not intended to be a kinase substrate, i.e. (S)-2-(4-(6-(3,4-dimethylpiperazin-1-yl)-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)phenyl)-8-(hydroxymethyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (AZ2381)...
October 6, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Sanchari Bhattacharyya, Kith Pradhan, Nathaniel Campbell, Jozef Mazdo, Aparna Vasantkumar, Shahina Maqbool, Tushar D Bhagat, Sonal Gupta, Masako Suzuki, Yiting Yu, John M Greally, Ulrich Steidl, James Bradner, Meelad Dawlaty, Lucy Godley, Anirban Maitra, Amit Verma
Transcriptional deregulation of oncogenic pathways is a hallmark of cancer and can be due to epigenetic alterations. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is an epigenetic modification that has not been studied in pancreatic cancer. Genome-wide analysis of 5-hmC-enriched loci with hmC-seal was conducted in a cohort of low-passage pancreatic cancer cell lines, primary patient-derived xenografts, and pancreatic controls and revealed strikingly altered patterns in neoplastic tissues. Differentially hydroxymethylated regions preferentially affected known regulatory regions of the genome, specifically overlapping with known H3K4me1 enhancers...
October 6, 2017: Genome Research
Gunda Ingrid Georg, Xingxiang Gu, Vijayalaxmi Gupta, Yan Yang, Jinyi Zhu, Erick Carlson, Carolyn Kingsley, Joseph Tash, Ernst Schonbrunn, Jon Hawkinson
Analogs of N-butyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ) were prepared and assayed for inhibition of ceramide-specific glucosyltransferase (CGT), non-lysosomal -glucosidase 2 (GBA2) and the lysosomal -glucosidase 1 (GBA1). Compounds 6a-6f that carry sterically demanding nitrogen substituents, and compound 14, devoid of the C3 and C5 hydroxyl groups present in DNJ/NB-DGJ (N-butyl-deoxygalactojirimycin showed no inhibitory activity for CGT or GBA2. Inversion of stereochemistry at C4 of N-(n-butyl)- and N-(n-nonyl)-DGJ (compounds 25) also led to a loss of activity in these assays...
October 3, 2017: ChemMedChem
Lanting Zeng, Yinyin Liao, Jianlong Li, Ying Zhou, Jinchi Tang, Fang Dong, Ziyin Yang
Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) act as direct defenses against herbivores and as indirect defenses by attracting herbivore enemies. However, the involvement of HIPVs in within-plant or plant-to-plant signaling is not fully clarified. Furthermore, in contrast to model plants, HIPV signaling roles in crops have hardly been reported. Here, we investigated HIPVs emitted from tea (Camellia sinensis) plants, an important crop used for beverages, and their involvement in tea plant-to-plant signaling. To ensure uniform and sufficient exposure to HIPVs, jasmonic acid combined with mechanical damage (JAMD) was used to simulate herbivore attacks...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
En-Guang Ma, Yu-Feng Bai, Wei Cao, Yan Cao, Yong-Gang Huang, Huan-Chen Cheng, Rui-Hua An
Cytosine5-hyxymethylation (5hmC)which is a new epigenetic modification form plays important roles in the development and progression of tumors. In the present study, we observed that levels of 5hmC in the promoter region of Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) were lower in 97 samples of renal clear cell carcinoma tissue than in matched adjacent benign tissues. Moreover, when the cancer tissue samples were divided based on pathological staging, VHL expression and the level of 5hmC in the VHL promoter were both lower in pathological grade III tumors than in grades I or II...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
Huan-Huan Xing, Kun Zhou, Yan Yang, Ling Zhou, Wei Dong, Yue-de Wang, Hang-Ying Ma, Min Zhou, Yan-Qing Ye, Qiu-Fen Hu
We have carried out the chemical investigation on the roots of Alangium chinense. The chemical constituents from the roots of A.chinense were isolated and purified by various chromatographic techniques, such as silica gel, MCI-Gel resin, Sephadex LH-20 and high performance liquid chromatography. As a result, three alkaloids (1-3) were isolated from 90% EtOH extracts of the roots of this plant. Their structures were elucidated by physical-chemical properties and spectral data. Among them, compound 1 is a new compound, determined as 8-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-6,9-dimethyl-7H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-7-one...
January 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Qin Ma, Huan Lu, Ziying Xu, Yuanyuan Zhou, Weimin Ci
Hydroxylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by TET enzymes presents a particular regulatory mechanism in the mammalian brain. However, although methylation and hydroxymethylation of cytosines in non-CpG contexts have been reported, these mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we applied TAB-seq and oxBS-seq selectively to detect 5hmC and 5mC at base resolution in olfactory bulb derived from female mice. We found that active turnover of 5mC to 5hmC occurred in both CpG and non-CpG contexts...
September 25, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
A S Kol'tsova, A A Pendina, O A Efimova, A N Kaminskaya, A V Tikhonov, N S Osinovskaya, I Yu Sultanov, N Yu Shved, M I Kakhiani, V S Baranov
Using immunofluorescence with specific antibodies, we analyzed DNA hydroxymethylation in uncultured cells from 25 human uterine leiomyomas considering the menstrual cycle phase during surgery and the presence of MED12 gene mutations. It was found that each tumor node had specific DNA hydroxymethylation level that did not depend on the presence of mutations in MED12 gene, but depended on the phase of menstrual cycle. The degree of DNA hydroxymethylation was significantly lower in cells of leiomyomas excised during the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase (p=0...
September 25, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Yu-Cai He, Chun-Xia Jiang, Gang-Gang Chong, Jun-Hua Di, Cui-Luan Ma
Biocatalytic upgrading of bio-based platform chemical 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) to 2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan (BHMF) is currently of great interest due to the product specificity, mild reaction and high efficiency. In this work, 200mM 5-HMF could be effectively biotransformed to BHMF at 90.6% with highly 5-HMF-tolerant recombinant E. coli CCZU-K14 whole cells at pH 6.5 and 30°C under the optimum reaction conditions (cosubstrate glucose 1.0mol glucose/(mol 5-HMF), D-xylose 400mM, l-glutamic acid 250mM, Mg(2+) 1...
September 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Thomas Carell, Matthias Q Kurz, Markus Müller, Martin Rossa, Fabio Spada
The sequence of the four canonical bases dA, dC, dG and dT forming two defined Watson-Crick base pairs (dT:dA, dG:dC), held together by H-bonding, establish the sequence information in the DNA double strand. The faithful replication of the sequence information during cell division, the transcription of the DNA information into RNA and the final translation of the sequence information into proteins is the basis for life on earth. Multicellular organisms developed the concept of specialized cells that perform specific functions...
September 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Motohiro Yasui, Rina Ota, Chihiro Tsukano, Yoshiji Takemoto
Avenaol, isolated from the allelopathic plant black oat, was the first C20 germination stimulant related to strigolactones. Structurally, it consisted of a bicyclo[4.1.0]heptanone skeleton containing a cyclopropane ring bearing three main chains projecting in the same direction (i.e. all-cis-substituted cyclopropane). Herein, we report the total synthesis of avenaol using a robust strategy involving the formation of an all-cis-substituted cyclopropane via an alkylidenecyclopropane. The key factors in the success of this total synthesis include the Rh-catalysed intramolecular cyclopropanation of an allene, an Ir-catalysed stereoselective double-bond isomerisation, and the differentiation of two hydroxymethyl groups via the regioselective formation and oxidation of a tetrahydropyran based on the reactivity of a cyclopropyl group...
September 22, 2017: Nature Communications
Azam Heidari, Nader Noshiranzadeh, Fakhri Haghi, Rahman Bikas
Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS) system is a cell to cell signaling mechanism that regulates virulence factors and pathogenicity. Therefore, the QS system in P. aeruginosa may be an important target for pharmacological intervention. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of sub-MIC concentrations of (S,E)-2-hydroxy-N-(3-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyridin-4-yl)propane hydrazide (pyridoxal lactohydrazone) against P. aeruginosa QS related virulence factors. We investigated the effect of sub-MIC concentrations of chiral pyridoxal lactohydrazone, which formed by the reaction of chiral lactic acid hydrazide and pyridoxal (one form of Vitamin B6) as bioactive reagents, on virulence factors...
September 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Xin-Hong Zhang, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Ya-Ping Xue, Yuan-Shan Wang, Bo Yang, Yu-Guo Zheng
Recombinant Escherichia coli cells harboring nitrilase from Alcaligenes faecalis were immobilized using tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine (THP) as the coupling agent. The optimal pH and temperature of the THP-immobilized cells were determined at pH 8.0 and 55 °C. The half-lives of THP-immobilized cells measured at 35, 40, and 50 °C were 1800, 965, and 163 h, respectively. The concentration of R-mandelic acid (R-MA) reached 358 mM after merely 1-h conversion by the immobilized cells with 500 mM R,S-mandelonitrile (R,S-MN), affording the highest productivity of 1307 g L(-1) day(-1) and the space-time productivity of 143...
September 22, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Andres Cardenas, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Lode Godderis, Radu-Corneliu Duca, Ana Navas-Acien, Augusto A Litonjua, Dawn L DeMeo, Kasey J Brennan, Chitra J Amarasiriwardena, Marie-France Hivert, Matthew W Gillman, Emily Oken, Andrea A Baccarelli
BACKGROUND: Mercury is a global pollutant, and prenatal exposure is associated with adverse health effects. To date, no studies have evaluated the association between prenatal mercury exposure and DNA hydroxymethylation, an epigenetic modification important for tissue differentiation and embryonic development. OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the association between prenatal mercury exposure and offspring global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation at birth and test for persistence of the association in childhood...
August 29, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Hua-Sheng Yang, Li-Xia Tan, Wei-Gang Wu, Xiao-Li Li, Li-Zhen Wen, Lu Wu
It is not scientific to explain that fried Fructus Hordei Germinatus is more effective than row Fructus Hordei Germinatus in resolving food stagnation from the aspects of amylase, tricine and other "active ingredients". In the present experiment, the contents of active ingredients including quercetin, tricine, kaempferol, catechin, ferulic acid and inactive ingredients including 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, acrylamide in frying process were determined by HPLC. The dynamic change rules of active ingredient and inactive ingredients in the frying process were investigated by HCA, PCA and PLS-DA analysis...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Yue-Ting Li, Dao-Ran Pang, Zhi-Xiang Zhu, Hui-Xia Huo, Yi Ren, Zhi-Tian Peng, Jiao Zheng, Yun-Fang Zhao, Peng-Fei Tu, Jun Li
Chemical constituents from the fruits of Vitex negundo var. cannabifolia and their nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory and cytotoxic activities were investigated. The compounds were isolated and purified by various column chromatography, and their structures were identified by physiochemical properties and spectroscopic data. Thirteen lignans and six phenolic compounds were isolated from the CH2Cl2 extract of the fruits of V. negundo var. cannabifolia, respectively. Their structures were elucidated as 6-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxymethyl-7-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-2-naphthaldehyde (1), vitedoin A (2), vitexdoin F (3), detetrahydroconidendrin (4), vitexdoin E (5), 4-oxosesamin (6), L-sesamin (7), (+)-beechenol (8), ligballinol (9), 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-6-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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