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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087944/laboratory-diagnosis-and-susceptibility-testing-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Gary W Procop
The laboratory, which utilizes some of the most sophisticated and rapidly changing technologies, plays a critical role in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Some of these tools are being employed in resource-challenged countries for the rapid detection and characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Foremost, the laboratory defines appropriate specimen criteria for optimal test performance. The direct detection of mycobacteria in the clinical specimen, predominantly done by acid-fast staining, may eventually be replaced by rapid-cycle PCR...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060846/prediction-of-under-detection-of-paediatric-tuberculosis-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-experience-of-six-years-in-the-south-kivu-province
#2
Emmanuel André, Yvette Lufungulo Bahati, Eric Mulume Musafiri, Olivier Bahati Rusumba, Dimitri Van der Linden, Francis Zech
INTRODUCTION: In the field of tuberculosis (TB), and particularly in regard to paediatric TB (PedTB), clinical skills of health professionals play an important role in determining quality of care. In an era where novel diagnostic technologies and efficient treatment regimens are being made available for the poorest, we must not divert our attention from the importance of clinical skills, as this deliverable remains the cornerstone of individualized patient care and ultimately the best assurance for optimal use of resources...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059955/diagnosis-of-opportunistic-infections-hiv-co-infections-tuberculosis
#3
Lesley Scott, Pedro da Silva, Catharina C Boehme, Wendy Stevens, Chris Gilpin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis (TB) incidence has declined ∼1.5% annually since 2000, but continued to affect 10.4 million individuals in 2015, with 1/3 remaining undiagnosed or underreported. The diagnosis of TB among those co-infected with HIV is challenging as TB remains the leading cause of death in such individuals. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of active TB will avert mortality in both adults and children, reduce transmission, and assist in timeous decisions for antiretroviral therapy initiation...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043620/implementation-of-new-tools-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-detection-and-control
#4
Robin M Warren
Contrary to classical dogma, molecular epidemiological studies and mathematical modeling clearly show that the global drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) epidemic is driven by transmission. Furthermore, there is mounting evidence demonstrating that amplification of resistance occurs during treatment, possibly as a result of insufficient active drugs being administered. To control the drug-resistant TB epidemic, it will be essential to implement new, rapid, and highly sensitive and specific diagnostic methods to decrease the diagnostic delay associated with culture-based testing...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043606/ethambutol-resistance-testing-by-mutation-detection-using-mtbdrsl
#5
H Margaryan, S Rüsch-Gerdes, A Hayrapetyan, A Mirzoyan
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the successes in managing drug-susceptible TB, drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis is a major challenge to the effectiveness of National Tuberculosis Program in Armenia, placing the country in the list of 18 high-burden countries for MDR-TB in the WHO European Region. Estimated burden of MDR-TB in 2012 was 9.4 (7-12) and 43 (38-49) among retreatment TB cases. A total of 92 laboratory confirmed cases had been reported to the WHO (57 new and 35 previously treated) out of 511 cases tested for MDR-TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043600/benefits-and-challenges-of-molecular-diagnostics-for-childhood-tuberculosis
#6
Cristina Gutierrez
Expanding tuberculosis (TB)-diagnostic services, including access to rapid tests, is a World Health Organization (WHO) strategy to accelerate progress toward ending TB. Faster and more sensitive molecular tests capable of diagnosing TB and drug-resistant TB have the technical capacity to address limitations associated with smears and cultures by increasing accuracy and shortening turnaround times as compared with those of these conventional laboratory methods. Nucleic acid amplification assays used to detect and analyze Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-complex nucleic acids can be used directly on specimens from patients suspected of having TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043570/evaluate-the-efficiency-of-antigen-60-a60-protein-from-bcg-strain-of-mycobacterium-bovis-as-a-diagnostic-antigen
#7
Nafiseh Shakibamehr, Nader Mosavari, Mahdi Babaie, Samerand Reshady
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common infectious diseases in Iran and around the world. Diagnosis of this disease in many cases is difficult and often requires the use of paraclinical methods. Current diagnostic methods are either too slow or lack enough sensitivity or specificity. Several mycobacterial antigens are involved in the complex interaction with the immune system of the host. They can be helpful for mycobacteria diagnosis. Antigen 60 (A60) is a thermostable antigen found in the cytosol of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043569/strain-differentiation-of-13-indigenous-mycobacterium-bovis-isolates-from-infected-cattle-by-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism-analysis
#8
Shima Rezaee, Naheed Mojgani, Nader Mosavari, Mehrdad Hashmi
Mycobacterium bovis is mainly detected in cattle throughout the world. This bacterium is considered the main causative agent of tuberculosis in man and animals. M. bovis is also reported to be endemic in badgers and in farmed and feral deer. The disease caused by M. bovis is a slow progressive disease with clinical signs not apparent until late in the disease process. key factors for effective control of tuberculosis includes rapid detection, adequate therapy, and contact tracing to halt further transmission...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043555/molecular-identification-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-isolates-from-kermanshah-province-iran
#9
Roghieh Moghaddam, Nader Mosavari, Ardeshir Hesampoor Mahalati
Tuberculosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases in the world. Rapid diagnosis of the disease and identification of species is extremely important for proper treatment of the disease as some species of the complex are resistant to the first-line of tuberculosis drugs. The aim of present study was molecular identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex isolates from Kermanshah Province, Iran, which were submitted to the Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory at Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute (Tehran, Iran)...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043543/investigation-of-urine-lipoarabinomannan-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patients-with-or-without-coinfection-with-tuberculosis-in-iran
#10
Payam Tabarsi, Majid Marjani, Afshin Moniri, Parissa Farnia, Mehdi Kazempour Dizaji, John Garssen, Ian M Adcock, Esmaeil Mortaz
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of AIDS-related deaths among adults in countries with resource limitations. The emergence of the Xpert MTB/RIF rapid molecular assay and its subsequent World Health Organization endorsement in 2010 transformed the TB-diagnostic landscape. Xpert provided diagnostic accuracy that was far superior to that of the sputum-smear microscopy test previously used. The detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen in urine has emerged as a potential point-of-care test for TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043525/molecular-genetics-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-resistant-to-aminoglycosides-and-cyclic-peptide-testing-by-mtbdrsl-in-armenia
#11
Hasmik Margaryan, Parissa Farnia, Armen Hayrapetyan, Alvard Mirzoyan
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The GenoType MTBDRsl test rapidly detects resistance to ethambutol, fluoroquinolones, second-line aminoglycosides (amikacin [AMK] and kanamycin [KAN]), and cyclic peptides (capreomycin [CAP]) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. According to data from Global Drug Resistance Surveillance Report (2007), Armenia is counted as a high-burden country for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The estimated burden of MDR-TB in 2012 was 9.4 (7-12) and 43 (38-49) among retreatment TB cases...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043516/evaluation-of-genotype-mtbdrplus-assay-for-rapid-detection-of-isoniazid-and-rifampicin-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-from-pakistan
#12
Hasnain Javed, Nazia Jamil, Tomasz Jagielski, Zofia Bakuła, Zarfishan Tahir
BACKGROUND: GenoType MTBDRplus is a molecular assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP), the two major anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs. Identification of INH resistance is largely based on the occurrence of mutations in the katG gene, coding for the catalase-peroxidase, or in the promoter region of the inhA gene, coding for the NADH-dependent enoyl-ACP reductase. For testing the RMP resistance, mutations in the rpoB gene, coding for the RNA polymerase β subunit, particularly in the RMP resistance determining region (RRDR) of the gene are investigated...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043512/mutations-in-embb-gene-associated-with-resistance-to-ethambutol-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-isolated-from-tb-patients-in-the-west-of-iran-2014-15
#13
Rashid Ramazanzadeh, Bahman Mohammadi, Parviz Mohajeri
INTRODUCTION: Mutations in embB gene, especially those in ethambutol resistance-determining region (ERDR), are known as "hot spots". These mutations have frequently been reported in EMB-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates, using the Sequence analysis as a precise and effective method. The aim of this study was to detect mutations in embB gene associated with resistance to ethambutol in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from TB patients in the west of Iran (2014-15). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was performed on smear-positive patients of the west side of Iran, in the TB research center located in Kermanshah city, during 2014-15...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998822/novel-rapid-pcr-for-the-detection-of-ile491phe-rpob-mutation-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-a-rifampicin-resistance-conferring-mutation-undetected-by-commercial-assays
#14
Emmanuel Andre, Léonie Goeminne, Alexandre Colmant, Patrick Beckert, Stefan Niemann, Michel Delmee
OBJECTIVES: Neither the liquid medium-based Bactec MGIT, nor commercial molecular assays such as the Xpert MTB/RIF and the MTBDRplus V2.0 assays are capable of detecting up to 30% of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains in Swaziland due to the large proportion of the rpoB Ile491Phe mutation. In other countries, the frequency of this mutation is thought to be low. METHODS: We designed a real-time multiplex allele-specific (MAS) PCR assays to identify the rpoB Ile491Phe mutation responsible for these undetected resistant MTB strains...
December 17, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979786/exploring-tuberculosis-by-molecular-tests-on-dna-isolated-from-smear-microscopy-slides
#15
REVIEW
Niaina Rakotosamimanana, Marie Sylvianne Rabodoarivelo, Juan Carlos Palomino, Anandi Martin, Voahangy Rasolofo Razanamparany
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease of global public health importance caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) worsened by the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB strains. Timely diagnosis and treatment of TB remains a key public health priority with a critical role of laboratories for rapidly and accurately detecting TB and drug resistance. Molecular assays based on nucleic acid amplification techniques have been developed for rapid, sensitive and specific diagnosis of TB with the possibility to determine the status of its drug sensitivity...
December 12, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974543/evaluation-of-the-genotype%C3%A2-mtbdrsl%C3%A2-ver-2-0-assay-for-second-line-drug-resistance-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-in-south-africa
#16
Y Gardee, A W Dreyer, H J Koornhof, S V Omar, P da Silva, Z Bhyat, N A Ismail
Early detection of resistance to second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs is important for the management of multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB. The Genotype® MTBDRsl VERSION 2.0 (VER 2.0) line probe assay has been redesigned for molecular detection of resistance-conferring mutations of fluoroquinolones (FLQ) (gyrA and gyrB genes) and second-line injectable drugs (SLID) (rrs and eis genes). The study evaluated the diagnostic performance of MTBDRsl VER 2.0 for the detection of second-line drug resistance compared with phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST), using the Bactec™ MGIT 960 system on Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from South Africa...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966321/determination-of-genotypic-varieties-and-genotyping-of-multiple-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-by-the-rflp-and-spoligotyping-methods
#17
Tekin Karslıgil, Ayşen Bayram, Fahriye Ekşi
BACKGROUND/AIM: The purpose of the present study was to determine the distribution and epidemiological features of mycobacteria with molecular methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-five culture-positive samples were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction enzyme length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) at species level, and their molecular typing was performed with spoligotyping. The IS6110 region and the locus of gene coding for Hsp65 were amplified. RFLP profiles were obtained by cutting the Hsp65 region with the Hae III and BstE II (Eco91I) enzymes...
November 17, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928076/rapid-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-resistant-to-isoniazid-and-or-rifampicin-standardization-of-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-analysis
#18
Jimena Collantes, Francesca Barletta Solari, Leen Rigouts
Drug susceptibility testing using molecular techniques can enhance the identification of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Two multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were developed to detect the most common resistance-associated mutations to isoniazid (katGS315T, inhA-15C → T), and rifampicin (rpoBH526Y and rpoBS531L). To assess the species specificity of the qPCR, we selected 31 nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) reference strains belonging to 17 species from the public collection of mycobacterial cultures (BCCM/ITM)...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865234/rapid-detection-of-extensively-drug-resistant-xdr-tb-strains-from-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-tb-cases-isolated-from-smear-negative-pulmonary-samples-in-an-intermediate-reference-laboratory-in-india
#19
Himanshu Vashistha, M Hanif, Sanjeev Saini, Ashwani Khanna, Srashty Sharma, Zeeshan Sidiq, Vasim Ahmed, Manoj Dubey, K K Chopra, Divya Shrivastava
BACKGROUND: Direct sputum smear microscopy is commonly used for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). The objectives of the study were first, to determine the recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in smear-negative sputum samples through liquid culture (using MGIT 960) and solid culture (using LJ slant) and second, to screen multidrug-resistant isolates through line probe assay and further third, to identify XDR isolates through MGIT second-line DST from these positive MDR cultures in Delhi region...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847014/molecular-detection-of-fluoroquinolone-resistance-associated-gyra-mutations-in-ofloxacin-resistant-clinical-isolates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-iran-and-belarus
#20
Mohammad Arjomandzadegan, Leonid Titov, Parissa Farnia, Parviz Owlia, Reza Ranjbar, Fatemeh Sheikholeslami, Larissa Surkova
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Detection of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA gene could determine resistance to fluoroquinolone antituberculosis drugs. The aim of this study was to detect mutations in QRDRs. METHODS: From 184 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ofloxacin resistance was proven in 42 isolates using the proportion method. The molecular basis of resistance to ofloxacin were investigated by the determination of mutations in the QRDR region of the gyrA gene...
September 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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