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Paul P Dobesh Pharm D, John Fanikos Mba R Ph
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and increases risk of stroke by nearly 5-fold. While warfarin has been employed successfully to reduce the risk of stroke in these patients, there are a number of challenges with therapy. These include the need for therapeutic monitoring due to variability in patient response, frequent dose adjustments, numerous drug-drug, drug-food, and drug-disease interactions, and a heightened risk of thrombosis and bleeding due to these issues. Current guidelines recommend that the vitamin K antagonists (VKA) or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) should be used for thromboprophylaxis in patients with nonvalvular AF at risk for stroke or systemic embolic events...
August 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
Jin Chang, Yuhei Ogomi, Chao Ding, Yao Hong Zhang, Taro Toyoda, Shuzi Hayase, Kenji Katayama, Qing Shen
The surface chemistry of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) plays an important role in determining the photoelectric properties of QD films and the corresponding quantum dot heterojunction solar cells (QDHSCs). To investigate the effects of the ligand structure on the photovoltaic performance and exciton dynamics of QDHSCs, PbS QDHSCs were fabricated by the solid state ligand exchange method with mercaptoalkanoic acid as the cross-linking ligand. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence and ultrafast transient absorption spectra show that the electronic coupling and charge transfer rate within QD ensembles were monotonically enhanced as the ligand length decreased...
November 30, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Fuyuki Ito, Jun-Ichi Fujimori, Narumi Oka, Michel Sliwa, Cyril Ruckebusch, Syoji Ito, Hiroshi Miyasaka
The initial processes of the crystallization of a solute molecule, 1-cyano-trans-1,2-bis-(4'-methylbiphenyl)-ethylene (CN-MBE) in binary solution (water and acetone), were investigated by means of fluorescence spectroscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM). With an increase in the volume fraction (Vw) of the poor solvent (water) in the solution, a drastic change in the fluorescence spectra and intensity of CN-MBE was observed. This change was attributed to aggregation induced emission (AIE). By analyzing the evolution of AIE by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS), it was revealed that four main species appeared in the solution depending on the Vw values...
November 30, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Kee-Hong Choi, Eunju Jaekal, Ga-Young Lee
Few psychosocial approaches address the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, which shares common features with depression and anxiety. Behavioral activation (BA) is effective for addressing depression and anxiety in adults with various mental disorders. Motivational interviewing (MI) has been successfully applied to address ambivalence or lack of motivation toward treatment. Motivational and behavioral activation (mBA) has been developed by incorporating the core principles from BA and MI with recent findings on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Eric Rogier, Delynn M Moss, Anna N Chard, Victoria Trinies, Seydou Doumbia, Matthew C Freeman, Patrick J Lammie
Malaria serology through assaying for IgG against Plasmodium spp. antigens provides evidence into the infection history for an individual. The multiplex bead assay (MBA) allows for detection of IgG against multiple Plasmodium spp., and can be especially useful in many regions where Plasmodium falciparum is of primary clinical focus, but other species are co-endemic. Dried blood spots were collected from 805 Malian children attending 42 elementary schools in the regions of Mopti, Sikasso, Koulikoro, and Bamako capital district, and IgG assayed by MBA...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Babak Amoian, Maryam Seyedmajidi, Hamidreza Safipor, Sediqe Ebrahimipour
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Alveolar ridge reduction caused after tooth extraction can be minimized through ridge preservation and application of graft materials. The aim of this study was to compare the histologic and histomorphometric aspects of bone particulated allografts, Cenobone and ITB-MBA, in the reconstruction of vertical alveolar ridge after maxillary sinus augmentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This clinical trial was performed among 20 patients. The participants were randomly divided into two groups of 10 participants...
September 2016: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
Li-Jyuan Luo, Jui-Yang Lai
To improve ocular bioavailability and extend pharmacological response, this study aims to investigate the role of alkyl chain length of monothiol-terminated alkyl carboxylic acids in the synthesis, characterization, and application of gelatin-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (GN) biodegradable in situ gelling carriers for antiglaucoma drug delivery. In the presence of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA), mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), mercaptobutyric acid (MBA), or mercaptohexanoic acid (MHA) as a chain transfer agent, the carboxylic end-capped poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) samples were prepared by free radical polymerization technique...
November 24, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Delynn M Moss, Anna N Chard, Victoria Trinies, Seydou Doumbia, Matthew C Freeman, Patrick J Lammie
Dried blood spots (DBS) were collected from 805 children attending 42 elementary schools in the regions of Mopti, Sikasso, Koulikoro, and the regional capital of Bamako in Mali as part of an evaluation of a school health intervention. Eluted immunoglobulin (Ig) G from the DBS was assessed by a multiplex bead assay (MBA) for two filariasis antigens, Wuchereria bancrofti, Wb123, and Brugia malayi, Bm14, to determine the effectiveness of mass drug administration (MDA) programs to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF)...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Dadong Liang, Yan Wang, Songyang Li, Yuqing Li, Miliang Zhang, Yang Li, Weishuai Tian, Junbo Liu, Shanshan Tang, Bo Li, Ruifa Jin
With the aid of theoretical calculations, a series of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were designed and prepared for the recognition of dicyandiamide (DCD) via precipitation polymerization using acetonitrile as the solvent at 333 K. On the basis of the long-range correction method of M062X/6-31G(d,p), we simulated the bonding sites, bonding situations, binding energies, imprinted molar ratios, and the mechanisms of interaction between DCD and the functional monomers. Among acrylamide (AM), N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA), itaconic acid (IA), and methacrylic acid (MAA), MAA was confirmed as the best functional monomer, because the strongest interaction (the maximum number of hydrogen bonds and the lowest binding energy) occurs between DCD and MAA, when the optimal molar ratios for DCD to the functional monomers were used, respectively...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Emily A Williams, Felix Mba Medie, Rachel E Bosserman, Benjamin K Johnson, Cristal Reyna, Micah J Ferrell, Matthew M Champion, Robert B Abramovitch, Patricia A Champion
Mycobacterial pathogens use the ESAT-6 system 1 (Esx-1) exporter to promote virulence. Previously, we used gene disruption and complementation to conclude that the MMAR_0039 gene in Mycobacterium marinum was required to promote Esx-1 export. Here we applied molecular genetics, proteomics and whole genome sequencing to demonstrate that the MMAR_0039 gene is not required for Esx-1 secretion or virulence. These findings suggest we initially observed an indirect mechanism of genetic complementation. We identified a spontaneous nonsense mutation in a known Esx-1-associated gene which causes a loss of Esx-1 activity...
October 24, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Yu Hu, Li Tan, Shao-Hui Zhang, Yu-Ting Zuo, Xue Han, Na Liu, Wen-Qing Lu, Ai-Lin Liu
Plant-based bioassays have gained wide use among the toxicological and/or ecotoxicological assessment procedures because of their simplicity, sensitivity, low cost, and reliability. The present study describes the use of Vicia faba (V. faba) micronucleus (MN) test and V. faba comet assay in the evaluation of the genotoxic potential of disinfection by-products (DBPs) commonly found in chlorine-disinfected drinking water. Five haloacetic acids and three halogenated acetonitriles were chosen as representatives of DBPs in this study because they are of potentially great public health risk...
October 26, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Manish K Yadav, Nandini M Manoli, SubbaRao V Madhunapantula
BACKGROUND: Megaloblastic anemia (MBA), also known as macrocytic anemia, is a type of anemia characterized by decreased number of RBCs as well as the presence of unusually large, abnormal and poorly developed erythrocytes (megaloblasts), which fail to enter blood circulation due to their larger size. Lack of vitamin-B12 (VB12) and / or folate (Vitamin-B9, VB9) with elevated homocysteine is the key factor responsible for megaloblastic anemia. Prior studies have demonstrated the induction of apoptosis in these abnormal under-developed erythrocytes...
2016: PloS One
Huiying Fu, Renjie Wu, Yuanyuan Li, Lizong Zhang, Xiaofang Tang, Jue Tu, Weimin Zhou, Jianchao Wang, Qiyang Shou
Carthamus tinctorius L. is a traditional Chinese medicine that activates blood circulation and dissipates blood stasis, and has been extensively used as antitumor treatment in a clinical setting in single or in compound preparation form. However, empirical evidence and a better understanding of the possible mechanisms involved are still required. Here, we investigated the role of safflower yellow (SY), the active ingredient of C. tinctorius, in the pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer, and the underlying mechanism of action...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Loiy E Ahmed Hassan, Saad S Dahham, Sultan Ayesh Mohammed Saghir, Abdelhafeez M A Mohammed, Nagla M Eltayeb, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid, Aman Shah Abdul Majid
BACKGROUND: Balanite aegyptiaca (L.) Delile, is a plant with extensive medicinal properties. Its stem bark is traditionally known for its spasmolytic and antiepileptic properties and used to treat yellow fever, jaundice and syphilis. Angiogenesis (sprouting of new blood vessels) is crucial for tumor growth and metastasis. The goal of this study is investigate the antiangiogenic, cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity as well as antitumor in vivo properties of B. aegyptiaca stem bark extracts...
October 19, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Chengchao Chu, Shengxiang Ge, Jing Zhang, Huirong Lin, Gang Liu, Xiaoyuan Chen
We present a simple colorimetric assay for EV71 virus detection based on the aggregation of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) and melamine (MA) modified silver nanoparticles (4-MBA-MA-AgNPs) in the presence of Mn(2+). The EV71-Ab1 was incubated on a 96-well plate and the EV71-Ab2 was labeled on the surface of three-dimensional nanoflower-like MnO2-PEG (3D-MnO2-PEG). After layer-by-layer immunoreactions, the EV71 virus and the corresponding 3D-MnO2-PEG-Ab2 were captured on the plate. With the addition of Vitamin C (Vc), Mn(2+) was released from the 3D-MnO2-PEG and then the aggregation of the 4-MBA-MA-AgNPs was induced, allowing a naked-eye detection limit of EV71 virus to be as low as 5 × 10(4) particles per mL, which is about three orders of magnitude lower than the conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
September 15, 2016: Nanoscale
Tanja Lahtinen, Eero Hulkko, Karolina Sokołowska, Tiia-Riikka Tero, Ville Saarnio, Johan Lindgren, Mika Pettersson, Hannu Häkkinen, Lauri Lehtovaara
We present the synthesis, separation, and characterization of covalently-bound multimers of para-mercaptobenzoic acid (p-MBA) protected gold nanoclusters. The multimers were synthesized by performing a ligand-exchange reaction of a pre-characterized Au102(p-MBA)44 nanocluster with biphenyl-4,4'-dithiol (BPDT). The reaction products were separated using gel electrophoresis yielding several distinct bands. The bands were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealing monomer, dimer, and trimer fractions of the nanocluster...
September 21, 2016: Nanoscale
Alfredo Tlahuice-Flores
The effect of chiral and achiral ligands protecting the inner Au9 core of the Au18(SR)14 cluster is studied based on density functional theory (DFT) and its corrected long-range interaction (DFT-D) approach. It was found that the electronic properties (energy levels) depend on the specific ligands, which induce distinct distortions on the Au-S framework. However, the substitution of S-c-C6H11 as SCH3 ligands may be considered to be correct given the obtained resemblance to the displayed bonding, optical and chiroptical properties...
October 12, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Wenna Liu, Tao Yang, Junhong Chen, Yingzhi Chen, Xinmei Hou, Xuemei Han, Kuo-Chih Chou
Enhanced reproducible Raman signals of the 4-MBA molecule were observed on the surface of semiconducting SiC nanowhiskers (SiCNWs) by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The SERS enhancement was further tuned and boosted by doping with B. Theoretical calculations were performed to unravel the mechanism of the SERS enhancement and it was found that the SERS effect was strongly associated with the energy level structure between the substrate and analyte. Appropriate energy level matching facilitated the charge transfer process during laser illumination, enhancing the SERS signal...
October 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Christopher L Bowlus, James T Kenney, Gary Rice, Robert Navarro
BACKGROUND: Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), previously known as primary biliary cirrhosis and which has been designated an orphan condition, is a chronic autoimmune disease resulting in the destruction of the small bile ducts in the liver. Without effective treatment, disease progression frequently leads to liver failure and death. Until May 2016, the only FDA-approved treatment for PBC was ursodiol (UDCA), an oral hydrophilic bile acid, which can slow progression of liver damage due to PBC...
October 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Haibin Li, Chusheng Liu, Qiqin Wang, Haibo Zhou, Zhengjin Jiang
In order to investigate the effect of charged groups present in hydrophilic monolithic stationary phases on their chromatographic properties, three charged hydrophilic monomers, i.e. N,N-dimethyl-N-acryloyloxyethyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium betaine (SPDA), [2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (AETA), and 3-sulfopropyl acrylate potassium salt (SPA) were co-polymerized with the crosslinker N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA), respectively. The physicochemical properties of the three resulting charged hydrophilic monolithic columns were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, ζ-potential analysis and micro-HPLC...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
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