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Stuart J Ritchie, Elliot M Tucker-Drob
Intelligence test scores and educational duration are positively correlated. This correlation could be interpreted in two ways: Students with greater propensity for intelligence go on to complete more education, or a longer education increases intelligence. We meta-analyzed three categories of quasiexperimental studies of educational effects on intelligence: those estimating education-intelligence associations after controlling for earlier intelligence, those using compulsory schooling policy changes as instrumental variables, and those using regression-discontinuity designs on school-entry age cutoffs...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Soo Min Cho, Ayelet Vardi, Nicolas Platt, Anthony H Futerman
Approximately 70 lysosomal storage diseases are currently known, resulting from mutations in genes encoding lysosomal enzymes and membrane proteins. Defects in lysosomal enzymes that hydrolyze sphingolipids have been relatively well studied. Gaucher disease is caused by the loss of activity of glucocerebrosidase, leading to accumulation of glucosylceramide. Gaucher disease exhibits a number of subtypes, with types 2 and 3 showing significant neuropathology. Sandhoff disease results from the defective activity of β-hexosaminidase, leading to accumulation of ganglioside GM2...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Elizabeth M Schoenfeld, Hemal K Kanzaria, Denise D Quigley, Peter St Marie, Nikita Nayyar, Sarah H Sabbagh, Kyle L Gress, Marc A Probst
OBJECTIVES: As Shared Decision-Making (SDM) has received increased attention as a method to improve the patient-centeredness of emergency department (ED) care, we sought to determine patients' desired level of involvement in medical decisions and their perceptions of potential barriers and facilitators to SDM in the ED. METHODS: We surveyed a cross-sectional sample of adult ED patients at three academic medical centers across the United States. The survey included 32 items regarding patient involvement in medical decisions including a modified Control Preference Scale (CPS) and questions about barriers and facilitators to SDM in the ED...
June 13, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Clara Torres-Barceló
Antibiotic resistance evolution in bacteria indicates that one of the challenges faced by phage therapy is that, sooner or later, bacteria will evolve resistance to phages. Evidently, this is the case of every known antimicrobial therapy, but here this is also part of a ubiquitous natural process of co-evolution between phages and bacteria. Fundamental evolutionary studies hold some clues that are crucial to limit the problematic process of bacterial resistance during phage applications. First, I discuss here the importance of defining evolutionary and ecological factors influencing bacterial resistance and phage counter-defense mechanisms...
June 12, 2018: Viruses
Debanjan Dhar, Laura Antonucci, Hayato Nakagawa, Ju Youn Kim, Elisabeth Glitzner, Stefano Caruso, Shabnam Shalapour, Ling Yang, Mark A Valasek, Sooyeon Lee, Kerstin Minnich, Ekihiro Seki, Jan Tuckermann, Maria Sibilia, Jessica Zucman-Rossi, Michael Karin
How fully differentiated cells that experience carcinogenic insults become proliferative cancer progenitors that acquire multiple initiating mutations is not clear. This question is of particular relevance to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which arises from differentiated hepatocytes. Here we show that one solution to this problem is provided by CD44, a hyaluronic acid receptor whose expression is rapidly induced in carcinogen-exposed hepatocytes in a STAT3-dependent manner. Once expressed, CD44 potentiates AKT activation to induce the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Mdm2, which terminates the p53 genomic surveillance response...
June 11, 2018: Cancer Cell
Shaun F Steeby, William H Harvin, John R Worley, Gregory J Della Rocca, David A Volgas, James P Stannard, Brett D Crist
OBJECTIVE: To assess the "Dedicated Orthopaedic Trauma Operating Room" (DOTOR) effect on management and outcomes of open tibia and femur fractures. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review LOCATION:: University Level I Trauma Center METHODS:: Patients categorized into those managed in the DOTOR versus those managed in a standard on-call operating room (OCOR). Data collected includes patient and injury characteristics, time to debridement, and patient outcomes...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Rowoon Park, Hyesu Kim, Saifullah Lone, Sangheon Jeon, Young Woo Kwon, Bosung Shin, Suck Won Hong
The conversion of graphene oxide (GO) into reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is imperative for the electronic device applications of graphene-based materials. Efficient and cost-effective fabrication of highly uniform GO films and the successive reduction into rGO on a large area is still a cumbersome task through conventional protocols. Improved film casting of GO sheets on a polymeric substrate with quick and green reduction processes has a potential that may establish a path to the practical flexible electronics...
June 6, 2018: Sensors
J Bhoday, B Glimelius, D Tait, R Glynne-Jones, R Adams, G Brown
Just over 50% of patients with advanced rectal cancer have a poor response to chemoradiotherapy with resultant poor outcomes. Professor Glimelius reviews the evidence base for defining such patients and the potential role, if any, of further treatment.
May 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
H M Senanayake, M Patabendige
BACKGROUND: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and peripartum cardiomyopathy are potentially lethal complications of pregnancy. We describe a case in which both of these developed in the same patient. The etiologies of both conditions remain uncertain, but they share immune hyperreactivity as a possible cause. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old Lankan primigravida gave birth at 38 weeks of gestation by cesarean section when she presented with right-sided abdominal pain and a provisional diagnosis of appendicitis...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Feihong Li, Chao Sun, Xuehan Li, Xinyi Yu, Chao Luo, Yanying Shen, Shenchun Qu
Graphene, a new type of nanomaterial, has unique physical properties and important potential biological applications. However, few studies have been conducted on the environmental impact of graphene. Therefore, to explore the effect of graphene on plants, three-week-old, tissue-cultured 'Gala' apple plants (Malus domestica) were treated with different concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, 10 mg/L) of graphene oxide (GO) and examined after 40 days. Results indicated that adventitious root length, moisture content and the number of lateral roots were all inhibited by 0...
May 30, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Z Ulčová-Gallová, M Pešek, M Haschová, P Chaloupka, P Mukenšnabl, J Cibulka, P Lošan, K Bibková, Z Mičanová
INTRODUCTION: This statements follows the first part of our publication entitled Screening of endometrial NK cells in selected infertile patients (First part - Methods and current results), where we dealt with methodology and endometrial findings of the natural killer cells CD16+ and CD56+. These cells are among the most important in preimplantaion, and in implantation period, in early pregnancy too, but can also negatively influence above mentioned processes. OBJECTIVE: We focused on the immunomodulatory treatment with intramuscular immunoglobulins in 21 infertile patients with a high density of endometrial NK cells CD16+ and CD56+...
2018: Ceská Gynekologie
Gloria Huerta-Ángeles, Kristina Nešporová, Gabriela Ambrožová, Lukas Kubala, Vladimir Velebný
This review shows the steps toward material selection focalized on the design and development of medical devices based on hyaluronan (HA). The selection is based on chemical and mechanical properties, biocompatibility, sterilization, safety, and scale-up costs. These facts play a vital role in the industrialization process. Approved medical devices containing-HA are illustrated to identify key parameters. The first part of this work involves the steps toward a complete characterization of chemical and mechanical aspects, reproducibility of the processes and scale up...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Joseph Spatafora, M Catherine Aime, Ning Zhang, Keith A Seifert
The end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st will be remembered as the golden age of molecular systematics of Fungi. The development of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), automated sequencing, and explicit algorithms for inferring phylogenetic trees transformed fungal systematics into a hypothesis-testing discipline that would go on to serve as the foundation for comparative and evolutionary genomics. Many mycologists participated in this modernization of mycology and perhaps none more than Meredith Blackwell...
January 2018: Mycologia
Gerard Hastings
We have discovered the elixir of life. For the first time in human existence we now know how we can avoid disease, make our lives healthier and more fulfilled, and even fend off the grim reaper himself (at least for a while). We may not have joined the immortals - many traps and snares continue to prey on us - but we are beginning to learn some of their secrets. Why then are we failing to grasp these heady opportunities? WHO data show that nine out of ten of we Europeans are dying of lifestyle diseases; that is diseases caused by our own choices - self-inflicted diseases...
June 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Vishal Jindal
Prostate cancer was the first cancer in which immunotherapy vaccine was approved by FDA in 2010 named Sipuleucel-T. No new immunotherapies have been approved since, as phase 3 trials didn't show any improvement in overall survival (OS) especially with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Currently tremendous amount of research is going on, in studying microenvironment of prostate cancer, finding new targets and biomarkers, and trying different combination therapies. Some of the new targets explored are VISTA and PARP inhibitors...
March 12, 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Anupam Ghosh, Prakhar Godara, Sagar Chakraborty
An important aspect of the recently introduced transient uncoupling scheme is that it induces synchronization for large values of coupling strength at which the coupled chaotic systems resist synchronization when continuously coupled. However, why this is so is an open problem? To answer this question, we recall the conventional wisdom that the eigenvalues of the Jacobian of the transverse dynamics measure whether a trajectory at a phase point is locally contracting or diverging with respect to another nearby trajectory...
May 2018: Chaos
Emma-Louise Cole, James J Waggitt, Anders Hedenstrom, Marco Piano, Mark D Holton, Luca Börger, Emily L C Shepard
Animal-attached technologies can be powerful means to quantify space-use and behaviour, however, there are also ethical implications associated with capturing and instrumenting animals. Furthermore, tagging approaches are not necessarily well-suited for examining the movements of multiple individuals within specific, local areas of interest. Here, we assess a method of quantifying animal space use based on a modified theodolite with an inbuilt laser rangefinder. Using a database of > 4,200 tracks of migrating birds, we show that detection distance increases with bird body mass (range 5 g - >10 kg)...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Hideaki Miyake, Ryota Aki, Yuto Matsushita, Keita Tamura, Daisuke Motoyama, Toshiki Ito, Takayuki Sugiyama, Atsushi Otsuka
BACKGROUND/AIM: To date, it has not been well characterized whether sunitinib is effective in elderly patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of age on clinical outcomes of mRCC patients receiving sunitinib. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The efficacy and safety of first-line sunitinib in 154 consecutive mRCC patients were retrospectively compared between patients aged <75 (n=125) and ≥75 (n=29) years...
June 2018: Anticancer Research
Zhibing Tang, Lin Zhao, Zaixing Yang, Zhaohui Liu, Jia Gu, Bing Bai, Jinlian Liu, Jiaying Xu, Huilin Yang
Background: Graphene and its derivative graphene oxide (GO) have been implicated in a wide range of anticancer effects. Purpose: The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate the toxicity and underlying mechanisms of GO on two osteosarcoma (OSA) cancer cell lines, MG-63 and K7 M2 cells. Methods: MG-63 and K7 M2 cells were treated by GO (0-50 µg/mL) for various time periods. Cell viability was tested by MTT and Live/Dead assays...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Jennifer J Hurlow, Gavin J Humphreys, Frank L Bowling, Andrew J McBain
The number of people in the world with diabetes has nearly quadrupled in the past 40 years. Current data show that 25% of these diabetics will develop a foot ulcer in their lifetime and that the cost of care for a diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is over twice that of any other chronic ulcer aetiology. Microbial biofilm has been linked to both wound chronicity and infection. Close to 1 in 2 diabetics with a DFU are predicted to go on to develop a diabetic foot infection (DFI). The majority of these DFIs have been found to evolve even before the diabetic individual has received an initial referral for expert DFU management...
May 28, 2018: International Wound Journal
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