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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523553/dna-modifications-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Rebecca G Smith, Katie Lunnon
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease, affecting millions of people worldwide. While a number of studies have focused on identifying genetic variants that contribute to the development and progression of late-onset AD, the majority of these only have a relatively small effect size. There are also a number of other risk factors, for example, age, gender, and other comorbidities; however, how these influence disease risk is not known. Therefore, in recent years, research has begun to investigate epigenetic mechanisms for a potential role in disease etiology...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507144/critical-roles-of-dna-demethylation-in-the-activation-of-ripening-induced-genes-and-inhibition-of-ripening-repressed-genes-in-tomato-fruit
#2
Zhaobo Lang, Yihai Wang, Kai Tang, Dengguo Tang, Tatsiana Datsenka, Jingfei Cheng, Yijing Zhang, Avtar K Handa, Jian-Kang Zhu
DNA methylation is a conserved epigenetic mark important for genome integrity, development, and environmental responses in plants and mammals. Active DNA demethylation in plants is initiated by a family of 5-mC DNA glycosylases/lyases (i.e., DNA demethylases). Recent reports suggested a role of active DNA demethylation in fruit ripening in tomato. In this study, we generated loss-of-function mutant alleles of a tomato gene, SlDML2, which is a close homolog of the Arabidopsis DNA demethylase gene ROS1 In the fruits of the tomato mutants, increased DNA methylation was found in thousands of genes...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501209/a-sensitive-signal-off-electrogenerated-chemiluminescence-biosensing-method-for-the-discrimination-of-dna-hydroxymethylation-based-on-glycosylation-modification-and-signal-quenching-from-ferroceneboronic-acid
#3
Yuling Zhang, Yan Li, Yingying Wei, Huiping Sun, Huan Wang
In this study, a new and sensitive signal-off electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensing method for the quantification of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in DNA (5-hmC-DNA) was developed. The method achieved simple and sensitive detection of 5-hmC-DNA based on the glycosylation of 5-hmC, combining both the amplification function of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the high quenching efficiency of the tris(2, 2'-ripyridine) dichlororuthenium(II) (Ru(bpy)3(2+))-ferrocene (Fc) system. First, the electrode modified with a mixture of Nafion and AuNPs was utilized as the platform for electrostatically adsorbing Ru(bpy)3(2+)(an ECL-emitting species) and assembling 5-hmC-DNA...
August 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496034/effect-of-perinatal-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-on-dna-methylation-and-histone-acetylation-in-cerebral-cortex-and-hippocampus-of-postnatal-male-mice
#4
Dhiraj Kumar, Mahendra Kumar Thakur
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is an estrogenic endocrine disruptor mostly used for the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Recently we have reported that perinatal BPA exposure impaired spatial memory through upregulation of synaptic proteins Neurexin1 and Neuroligin3 in male mice. As epigenetic mechanism is a key regulator of memory, we hypothesized that BPA might influence memory through epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Here we provide evidence that perinatal exposure to BPA decreased 5-mC DNA but increased histone H3 acetylation in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of postnatal 3 and 8 weeks male mice...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484589/idh1-or-2-mutations-do-not-predict-outcome-and-do-not-cause-loss-of-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-or-altered-histone-modifications-in-central-chondrosarcomas
#5
Arjen H G Cleven, Johnny Suijker, Georgios Agrogiannis, Inge H Briaire-de Bruijn, Norma Frizzell, Attje S Hoekstra, Pauline M Wijers-Koster, Anne-Marie Cleton-Jansen, Judith V M G Bovée
BACKGROUND: Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 or -2 are found in ~50% of conventional central chondrosarcomas and in up to 87% of their assumed benign precursors enchondromas. The mutant enzyme acquires the activity to convert α-ketoglutarate into the oncometabolite d-2-hydroxyglutarate (d-2-HG), which competitively inhibits α-ketoglutarate dependent enzymes such as histone- and DNA demethylases. METHODS: We therefore evaluated the effect of IDH1 or -2 mutations on histone modifications (H3K4me3, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3), chromatin remodeler ATRX expression, DNA modifications (5-hmC and 5-mC), and TET1 subcellular localization in a genotyped cohort (IDH, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fumarate hydratase (FH)) of enchondromas and central chondrosarcomas (n = 101) using immunohistochemistry...
2017: Clinical Sarcoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448110/heavy-metals-induce-decline-of-derivatives-of-5-methycytosine-in-both-dna-and-rna-of-stem-cells
#6
Jun Xiong, Xiaona Liu, Qing-Yun Cheng, Shan Xiao, Lai-Xin Xia, Bi-Feng Yuan, Yu-Qi Feng
Toxic heavy metals have been considered to be harmful environmental contaminations. The molecular mechanisms of heavy-metals-induced cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity are still not well elucidated. Previous reports showed exposures to toxic heavy metals can cause a change of DNA cytosine methylation (5-methylcytosine, 5-mC). However, it is still not clear whether heavy metals have effects on the recently identified new epigenetic marks in both DNA and RNA, i.e., 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5-foC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5-caC)...
May 3, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402695/uhrf2-regulates-local-5-methylcytosine-and-suppresses-spontaneous-seizures
#7
Yidan Liu, Bin Zhang, Xiaoyu Meng, Matthew J Korn, Jack M Parent, Lin-Yu Lu, Xiaochun Yu
The 5-methylcytosine (5mC) modification regulates multiple cellular processes and is faithfully maintained following DNA replication. In addition to DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) family proteins, ubiquitin-like PHD and ring finger domain-containing protein 1 (UHRF1) plays an important role in the maintenance of 5 mC levels. Loss of UHRF1 abolishes 5 mC in cells and leads to embryonic lethality in mice. Interestingly, UHRF1 has a paralog, UHRF2, that has similar sequence and domain architecture, but its biological function is not clear...
April 12, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368579/phosphorescent-decanuclear-bimetallic-pt6m4-m-zn-fe-tetrahedral-cages
#8
Yuzhen Zhang, Matthew R Crawley, Cory E Hauke, Alan E Friedman, Timothy R Cook
Coordination-driven self-assembly delivers discrete, nanoscopic architectures that may preserve or enhance the physicochemical properties of their parent building blocks. Herein, we report the syntheses, characterization, and photophysical properties of two tetrahedral cages, [Zn(II)4L6](PF6)8 (C1) and [Fe(II)4L6](OTf)8 (C2), where L = Pt(II)(PEt3)2(C≡C-bpy)2 (PEt3 = triethylphosphine; C≡C-bpy = 5-ethynyl-2,2'-bipyridine) and OTf = trifluoromethanesulfonate. C1 and C2 were assembled in isolated yields of 72% and 81% by treating 2 equiv of Zn(NO3)2·6H2O or Fe(OTf)2 with 3 equiv of L, respectively...
April 3, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361273/widespread-5-methylcytosine-in-the-genomes-of-avian-coccidia-and-other-apicomplexan-parasites-detected-by-an-elisa-based-method
#9
Zhenxing Gong, Hao Yin, Xueting Ma, Baohong Liu, Zhenglan Han, Lingqiao Gou, Jianping Cai
To date, little is known about cytosine methylation in the genomic DNA of apicomplexan parasites, although it has been confirmed that this important epigenetic modification exists in many lower eukaryotes, plants, and animals. In the present study, ELISA-based detection demonstrated that low levels of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) are present in Eimeria spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp., and Neospora caninum. The proportions of 5-mC in genomic DNA were 0.18 ± 0.02% in E tenella sporulated oocysts, 0...
March 30, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349832/differential-expression-of-ten-eleven-translocation-genes-in-endometrial-cancers
#10
Piotr Ciesielski, Paweł Jóźwiak, Katarzyna Wójcik-Krowiranda, Ewa Forma, Łukasz Cwonda, Sylwia Szczepaniec, Andrzej Bieńkiewicz, Magdalena Bryś, Anna Krześlak
Ten-eleven translocation proteins are α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases involved in the conversion of 5-methylcytosines (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxylcytosine that play a significant role in DNA demethylation. Deregulation of TET genes expression and changes in the level of 5-hmC are thought to be associated with the onset and progression of several types of cancer, but there are no such data related to endometrial cancer. The aim of the work was to investigate the messenger RNA expression levels of TET1, TET2, and TET3 in relation to clinicopathological characteristics of endometrial cancer as well as the correlation between expression of TET genes and the level of 5-hmC/5-mC...
March 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293326/line-1-is-preferentially-hypomethylated-within-adenomatous-polyps-in-the-presence-of-synchronous-colorectal-cancer
#11
Alice Chu Jiang, Lela Buckingham, William Barbanera, Amoah Yeboah Korang, Faraz Bishesari, Joshua Melson
BACKGROUND: Conventional tubular adenomas are frequently detected in patients undergoing average risk screening colonoscopy and are over-represented in patients who will develop colorectal cancer (CRC). Whether features of adenomas could serve as predictors of synchronous CRC is not known. Here, we investigate whether global methylation markers, including LINE-1, differ within adenomas in patients with and without synchronous CRC. METHODS: Colorectal tubular/tubulovillous adenomatous polyps in the absence (P group, n = 45) and in the presence of synchronous CRC (PC group, n = 32) were identified...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271879/formation-and-determination-of-endogenous-methylated-nucleotides-in-mammals-by-chemical-labeling-coupled-with-mass-spectrometry-analysis
#12
Huan Zeng, Chu-Bo Qi, Ting Liu, Hua-Ming Xiao, Qing-Yun Cheng, Han-Peng Jiang, Bi-Feng Yuan, Yu-Qi Feng
5-Methylcytosine (5-mC) is an important epigenetic mark that plays critical roles in a variety of cellular processes. To properly exert physiological functions, the distribution of 5-mC needs to be tightly controlled in both DNA and RNA. In addition to methyltransferase-mediated DNA and RNA methylation, premethylated nucleotides can be potentially incorporated into DNA and RNA during replication and transcription. To exclude the premodified nucleotides into DNA and RNA, endogenous 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine monophosphate (5-Me-dCMP) generated from nucleic acids metabolism can be enzymatically deaminated to thymidine monophosphate (TMP)...
March 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268229/the-hdac-inhibitor-laq824-enhances-epigenetic-reprogramming-and-in-vitro-development-of-porcine-scnt-embryos
#13
Jun-Xue Jin, Sanghoon Lee, Anukul Taweechaipaisankul, Geon A Kim, Byeong Chun Lee
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hypoacetylation caused by aberrant epigenetic nuclear reprogramming results in low efficiency of mammalian somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Many epigenetic remodeling drugs have been used in attempts to improve in vitro development of porcine SCNT embryos. In this study, we examined the effects of LAQ824, a structurally novel histone acetylase inhibitor, on the nuclear reprogramming and in vitro development of porcine SCNT embryos. METHODS: LAQ824 treatment was supplemented during the culture of SCNT embryos...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242787/tet2-in-normal-and-malignant-hematopoiesis
#14
Robert L Bowman, Ross L Levine
The ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of enzymes were originally cloned from the translocation breakpoint of t(10;11) in infant acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with subsequent genomic analyses revealing somatic mutations and suppressed expression of TET family members across a range of malignancies, particularly enriched in hematological neoplasms. The TET family of enzymes is responsible for the hydroxylation of 5-methylcytosines (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), followed by active and passive mechanisms leading to DNA demethylation...
February 27, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218898/detecting-dna-cytosine-methylation-using-nanopore-sequencing
#15
Jared T Simpson, Rachael E Workman, P C Zuzarte, Matei David, L J Dursi, Winston Timp
In nanopore sequencing devices, electrolytic current signals are sensitive to base modifications, such as 5-methylcytosine (5-mC). Here we quantified the strength of this effect for the Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION sequencer. By using synthetically methylated DNA, we were able to train a hidden Markov model to distinguish 5-mC from unmethylated cytosine. We applied our method to sequence the methylome of human DNA, without requiring special steps for library preparation.
February 20, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166067/ultrasound-guided-femoral-nerve-block-to-provide-analgesia-for-positioning-patients-with-femur-fracture-before-subarachnoid-block-comparison-with-intravenous-fentanyl
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
S Ranjit, B B Pradhan
Background Positioning patients with fractured femur for subarachnoid block is painful. Intravenous analgesics or peripheral nerve block like femoral nerve block or fascia iliaca compartment block are some of the available techniques to reduce pain. We compared the efficacy of femoral nerve block and intravenous fentanyl in providing effective analgesia before positioning for subarachnoid block. Objective This study was designed to compare between ultrasound guided femoral nerve block with lignocaine and intravenous fentanyl in providing effective analgesia before positioning patient with femur fracture in sitting position for subarachnoid block...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129457/tumor-suppressor-gene-methylation-on-the-short-arm-of-chromosome-1-in-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia
#17
Naoki Mori, Mari Ohwashi-Miyazaki, Kentaro Yoshinaga, Michiko Okada, Masayuki Shiseki, Toshiko Motoji, Junji Tanaka
OBJECTIVES: We previously reported loss of heterozygosity on 1p in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). We analyzed promoter methylation and mutation of tumor suppressor genes on 1p36 in CML. METHODS: We performed methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR) analysis of the PRDM2, RUNX3, and TP73 genes in 61 patients with CML (43 chronic phase, CP; two accelerated phase; and 16 blast crisis, BC). Oxidative MS-PCR, PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism, and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR were also analyzed...
January 27, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100914/tet-mediated-hydroxymethylcytosine-at-the-ppar%C3%AE-locus-is-required-for-initiation-of-adipogenic-differentiation
#18
Y Yoo, J H Park, C Weigel, D B Liesenfeld, D Weichenhan, C Plass, D-G Seo, A M Lindroth, Y J Park
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Adipose tissue is one of the main organs regulating energy homeostasis via energy storage as well as endocrine function. The adipocyte cell number is largely determined by adipogenesis. While the molecular mechanism of adipogenesis has been extensively studied, its role in dynamic DNA methylation plasticity remains unclear. Recently, it has been shown that Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET) is catalytically capable of oxidizing DNA 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) toward a complete removal of the methylated cytosine...
April 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006848/global-methylation-of-blood-leukocyte-dna-and-risk-of-melanoma
#19
Jie Shen, Renduo Song, Jie Wan, Chad Huff, Shenying Fang, Jeffrey E Lee, Hua Zhao
Global DNA methylation, possibly influenced by lifestyle and environmental factors, has been suggested to play an active role in carcinogenesis. However, its role in melanoma has rarely been explored. The aims of this study were to evaluate the relationship between melanoma risk and levels of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC), a marker for global DNA methylation, in blood leukocyte DNA, and to determine whether this 5-mC level is influenced by pigmentation and sun exposure. This case-control study included 540 melanoma cases and 540 healthy controls...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999197/effects-of-lipopolysaccharide-on-maturation-of-bovine-oocyte-in-vitro-and-its-possible-mechanisms
#20
Shan-Jiang Zhao, Yun-Wei Pang, Xue-Ming Zhao, Wei-Hua Du, Hai-Sheng Hao, Hua-Bin Zhu
Lipopolysaccharide disturbs the secretion of gonadotropin, endometrial function and implantation efficiency. However, there is little information regarding the effects of lipopolysaccharide on cyclic ovary activity, especially oocyte maturation. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of lipopolysaccharide on the maturation potential of bovine oocytes. We found that lipopolysaccharide exposure significantly decreased the first polar body extrusion rate and delayed the cell cycle progression. The abnormal spindle rate was significantly increased in lipopolysaccharide treatment group, accompanied by disrupted localization and level of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-MAPK)...
January 17, 2017: Oncotarget
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