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Visceral adiposity fat

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773163/epicardial-adipose-tissue-may-mediate-deleterious-effects-of-obesity-and-inflammation-on-the-myocardium
#1
REVIEW
Milton Packer
Epicardial adipose tissue has unique properties that distinguish it from other depots of visceral fat. Rather than having distinct boundaries, the epicardium shares an unobstructed microcirculation with the underlying myocardium, and in healthy conditions, produces cytokines that nourish the heart. However, in chronic inflammatory disorders (especially those leading to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction), the epicardium becomes a site of deranged adipogenesis, leading to the secretion of proinflammatory adipokines that can cause atrial and ventricular fibrosis...
May 22, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770778/apolipoprotein-e-in-diet-induced-obesity-a-paradigm-shift-from-conventional-perception
#2
Kyriakos E Kypreos, Eleni A Karavia, Caterina Constantinou, Aikaterini Hatziri, Christina Kalogeropoulou, Eva Xepapadaki, Evangelia Zvintzou
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a major protein component of peripheral and brain lipoprotein transport systems. APOE in peripheral circulation does not cross blood brain barrier or blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier. As a result, peripheral APOE expression does not affect brain APOE levels and vice versa. Numerous epidemiological studies suggest a key role of peripherally expressed APOE in the development and progression of coronary heart disease while brain APOE has been associated with dementia and Alzheimer's disease...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769150/adipose-tissue-uncoupling-protein-1-levels-and-function-are-increased-in-a-mouse-model-of-developmental-obesity-induced-by-maternal-exposure-to-high-fat-diet
#3
E Bytautiene Prewit, C Porter, M La Rosa, N Bhattarai, H Yin, P Gamble, T Kechichian, L S Sidossis
With brown adipose tissue (BAT) becoming a possible therapeutic target to counteract obesity, the prenatal environment could represent a critical window to modify BAT function and browning of white AT. We investigated if levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and UCP1-mediated thermogenesis are altered in offspring exposed to prenatal obesity. Female CD-1 mice were fed a high-fat (HF) or standard-fat (SF) diet for 3 months before breeding. After weaning, all pups were placed on SF. UCP1 mRNA and protein levels were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively, in brown (BAT), subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissues at 6 months of age...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768729/adaptive-changes-in-pancreas-post-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-induced-weight-loss
#4
A Lautenbach, M Wernecke, N Riedel, J Veigel, J Yamamura, S Keller, R Jung, P Busch, O Mann, F K Knop, J J Holst, J J Meier, J Aberle
AIMS: Obesity has been shown to trigger adaptive increases in pancreas parenchymal and fat volume. Consecutively, pancreatic steatosis may lead to beta-cell dysfunction. However, it is not known, whether the pancreatic tissue components decrease with weight loss and pancreatic steatosis is reversible following RYGB. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the effects of RYGB-induced weight loss on pancreatic volume and glucose homeostasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 11 patients were recruited in the Obesity Centre of the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf...
May 16, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768198/myocardin-related-transcription-factor-a-promotes-recruitment-of-itga5-profibrotic-progenitors-during-obesity-induced-adipose-tissue-fibrosis
#5
Jean Z Lin, Nabil Rabhi, Stephen R Farmer
Adipose tissue fibrosis is associated with inflammation and insulin resistance in human obesity. In particular, visceral fat fibrosis is correlated with hyperlipidemia and ectopic fat accumulation. Myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTFA) is an important coactivator that mediates the transcription of extracellular matrix and other fibrogenic genes. Here, we examine the role of MRTFA in the development of adipose tissue fibrosis and identify a signaling pathway that regulates the fate of vascular progenitors...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764718/metabolic-syndrome-associates-with-left-atrial-dysfunction
#6
K Nyman, M Granér, M O Pentikäinen, J Lundbom, A Hakkarainen, R Sirén, M S Nieminen, M-R Taskinen, N Lundbom, K Lauerma
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are risk factors of atrial fibrillation (AF), but limited data exist on their effect on left atrial (LA) function. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of cardiac, hepatic and intra-abdominal ectopic fat depots and cardiometabolic risk factors on LA function in non-diabetic male subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Myocardial and hepatic triglyceride contents were measured with 1.5T 1 H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and LA and left ventricular function, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), epicardial and pericardial fat by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 33 men with MetS and 40 men without MetS...
February 21, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764530/influence-of-maternal-adiposity-preterm-birth-and-birth-weight-centiles-on-early-childhood-obesity-in-an-indigenous-australian-pregnancy-through-to-early-childhood-cohort-study
#7
K G Pringle, Y Q Lee, L Weatherall, L Keogh, C Diehm, C T Roberts, S Eades, A Brown, R Smith, E R Lumbers, L J Brown, C E Collins, K M Rae
Childhood obesity rates are higher among Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous Australian children. It has been hypothesized that early-life influences beginning with the intrauterine environment predict the development of obesity in the offspring. The aim of this paper was to assess, in 227 mother-child dyads from the Gomeroi gaaynggal cohort, associations between prematurity, Gestation Related-Optimal Weight (GROW) centiles, maternal adiposity (percentage body fat, visceral fat area), maternal non-fasting plasma glucose levels (measured at mean gestational age of 23...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763369/adipose-y5r-mrna-is-higher-in-obese-than-non-obese-humans-and-is-correlated-with-obesity-parameters
#8
Saimai Chatree, Chantacha Sitticharoon, Pailin Maikaew, Panapat Uawithya, Supornpim Chearskul
Neuropeptide Y is mainly expressed in the central nervous system to regulate food intake via its receptors, Y receptors, and in various peripheral tissues including adipose tissue. The objectives of this study were to compare Y5R mRNA and adipocyte parameters consisting of area, width, height, and perimeter either between obese and non-obese subjects or between subcutaneous and visceral fat as well as to compare between NPY, Y1R, Y2R, and Y5R mRNA expressions in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. In subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, Y5R was greater in obese than in non-obese humans (both P < 0...
May 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758402/lactation-related-changes-in-tissue-expression-of-pedf-in-dairy-cows
#9
H Sadri, B Saremi, S Dänicke, J Rehage, M Mielenz, A Hosseini, H Sauerwein
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is evolving as metabolic regulatory protein. Albeit mostly considered in only pathological conditions related to excess energy intake resulting in obesity and insulin resistance, PEDF is likely to be involved in other physiological processes such as the homeorhetic adaptation of metabolism to lactation. We aimed to characterize the expression of PEDF and its association to the concomitant mobilization of body reserves during lactation in nonobese subjects. This mobilization is particularly distinct in dairy cows, and we therefore assessed the mRNA expression of PEDF and its putative receptors in different tissues in 2 trials with dairy cows fed with or without conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs)...
April 17, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756965/visceral-adiposity-index-associated-with-behavioral-and-inflammatory-parameters-in-adults-a-population-based-study
#10
Fabrícia Geralda Ferreira, Wellington Segheto, Danielle Cristina Guimarães Da Silva, Patricia Feliciano Pereira, Giana Zarbato Longo
INTRODUCTION: the visceral adiposity index (VAI) is an indicator of fat distribution and function which is considered a predictor of cardiometabolic risk. OBJECTIVE: analyze the factors associated with VAI in Brazilian adults. METHODS: a cross-sectional population-based study was conducted with 854 adults, in Viçosa, MG, Brazil. A questionnaire was applied and anthropometric measurements, body composition and biochemical data were collected...
January 18, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750646/circulating-steroid-levels-as-correlates-of-adipose-tissue-phenotype-in-premenopausal-women
#11
Geneviève B Marchand, Anne-Marie Carreau, Sofia Laforest, Julie-Anne Côté, Marleen Daris, Katherine Cianflone, Cornelia Prehn, Jerzy Adamski, André Tchernof
Background Obesity-related alterations in the circulating steroid hormone profile remain equivocal in women. Our objective was to identify circulating steroid levels that relate to increased adiposity and altered adipose phenotype in premenopausal women. Materials and methods In a sample of 42 premenopausal women [age 46 ± 3 years; body mass index (BMI) 27.1 ± 4.2 kg/m2], 19 plasma steroids were quantified by electrospray ionization-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (ESI-LC-MS/MS). Body composition and fat distribution were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT), respectively...
May 11, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747087/hdl-cholesterol-efflux-capacity-and-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-are-associated-with-body-mass-but-are-not-changed-by-diet-induced-weight-loss-a-randomized-trial-in-abdominally-obese-men
#12
Charlotte P J Talbot, Jogchum Plat, Peter J Joris, Maurice Konings, Yvo H A M Kusters, Casper G Schalkwijk, Andreas Ritsch, Ronald P Mensink
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity is associated with a lower HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages and a higher CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein) activity, but effects of weight loss are not clear. In addition, associations with visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue are not known. We therefore investigated effects of diet-induced weight loss on HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux and cholesterol ester (CE) transfer in abdominally obese men. Differences between normal-weight and abdominally obese men were also examined...
April 28, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746487/loss-of-malat1-does-not-modify-age-or-diet-induced-adipose-tissue-accretion-and-insulin-resistance-in-mice
#13
Sophie Carter, Stéphanie Miard, Louise Boivin, Sandrine Sallé-Lefort, Frédéric Picard
Several studies have suggested that signals emerging from white adipose tissue can contribute to the control of longevity. In turn, aging is associated with perturbed regulation and partitioning of fat depots and insulin resistance. However, the exact mechanisms involved in these relationships remain undetermined. Using RAP-PCR on adipose tissue of young and old male mice coupled with qPCR validation, we have uncovered the long non-coding RNA Malat1 as a gene robustly downregulated in visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) during normal aging in male mice and men...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745794/visceral-adipose-tissue-tracks-more-closely-with-metabolic-dysfunction-than-intrahepatic-triglyceride-in-non-diabetic-lean-asians
#14
Cherlyn Ding, Zhiling Chan, Yu Chung Chooi, John Choo, Suresh Anand Sadananthan, Navin Michael, S Sendhil Velan, Melvin Khee-Shing Leow, Faidon Magkos
BACKGROUND: Increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) are important risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes in obese subjects. The relative contribution of these ectopic fat depots to cardiometabolic risk differs between populations, depends on the degree of obesity and the level of cardiorespiratory fitness, and is difficult to dissect because VAT and IHTG typically co-vary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an isolated increase in VAT or IHTG on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in apparently healthy normal-weight Asian subjects...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742682/lipid-accumulation-product-and-visceral-adiposity-index-are-associated-with-dietary-patterns-in-adult-americans
#15
Mohsen Mazidi, Hong-Kai Gao, Andre Pascal Kengne
In the present study, we aimed to examine the association between lipid accumulation product (LAP) and visceral adiposity index (VAI) with dietary pattern (DP) in the US adults. Participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with data available on dietary intake from 2005 to 2010 were included. DPs were derived by principal component analysis. We applied analysis of covariance and multivariable-adjusted linear regressions accounting for the masked variance and utilizing the proposed weighting methodology...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733805/il-17a-mcp-1-ccr-2-and-abca1-polymorphisms-in-children-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#16
Ulas Emre Akbulut, Hamdi Cihan Emeksiz, Senol Citli, Hamdi Cihan Emeksiz, Hatice Ayca Ata Korkmaz, Gaye Baki
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children has risen significantly, owing to the worldwide childhood obesity epidemic in the last two decades. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is closely linked to sedentary lifestyle, increased body mass index, and visceral adiposity. In addition, individual genetic variations also have a role in the development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the gene polymorphisms of MCP-1 (-2518 A/G) (rs1024611), CCR-2 (190 G/A) (rs1799864), ABCA1 (883 G/A) (rs4149313), and IL-17A (-197 G/A) (rs2275913) in obese Turkish children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
May 4, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732719/evaluation-of-visceral-adipose-tissue-oxygenation-by-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-mri-in-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#17
Hong-Jian Shi, Yan-Feng Li, Wen-Jie Ji, Zhi-Chun Lin, Wei Cai, Tao Chen, Bin Yuan, Xiu-Long Niu, Han-Ying Li, Wen Shu, Yu-Ming Li, Fei Yuan, Xin Zhou, Zhuoli Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) to evaluate visceral adipose tissue (VAT) oxygenation in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and its associations with systemic metaflammation. METHODS: Five-week-old ZDF rats and Zucker lean (ZL) rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 18 weeks. A baseline BOLD-MRI scan of perirenal adipose tissue was performed after 8 weeks of HFD feeding, and then the rats were randomized to receive pioglitazone or a vehicle for the following 10 weeks...
May 7, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730658/differential-patterns-of-secreted-frizzled-related-protein-4-sfrp4-in-adipocyte-differentiation-adipose-depot-specificity
#18
Hua Guan, Yali Zhang, Shoucui Gao, Liang Bai, Sihai Zhao, Xian Wu Cheng, Jianglin Fan, Enqi Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4) is a member of the SFRP family that acts as soluble modulators of Wnt signaling. Given the substantial rise in obesity, depot-specific fat accumulation and its associated diseases like diabetes, it is important to understand the molecular basis of depot-specific adipocyte differentiation. In the current study, we investigated the expression of SFRP4 in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in terms of their differentiation...
April 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730332/the-relationship-between-selected-body-fatness-indices-and-the-level-of-blood-interleukin-6-in-female-nursing-home-residents-aged-80-years-without-inflammation-a-pilot-study
#19
Ryszard Zarzeczny, Agnieszka Nawrat-Szołtysik, Anna Polak, Ahmed Manasar, Jakub Maliszewski, Adam Kiełtyka, Beata Matyja, Magdalena Dudek, Joanna Zborowska, Adam Wajdman
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) production facilitates a shift from acute to chronic inflammation that may induce the development of some diseases and aging. Several studies have suggested that adiposity is closely related to serum IL-6 level, but their authors examined relatively young older adults (aged 60-80 years), so it is not clear whether this association would also occur in people at a more advanced age. OBJECTIVE: to assess whether in elderly women without inflammation the widely used anthropometric obesity indices are associated with serum IL-6 level and, if so, to determine the best anthropometric predictor of this inflammatory biomarker...
May 3, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729371/involvement-of-glucocorticoid-prereceptor-metabolism-and-signaling-in-rat-visceral-adipose-tissue-lipid-metabolism-after-chronic-stress-combined-with-high-fructose-diet
#20
Biljana Bursać, Ana Djordjevic, Nataša Veličković, Danijela Vojnović Milutinović, Snježana Petrović, Ana Teofilović, Ljupka Gligorovska, Frederic Preitner, Luc Tappy, Gordana Matić
Both fructose overconsumption and increased glucocorticoids secondary to chronic stress may contribute to overall dyslipidemia. In this study we specifically assessed the effects and interactions of dietary fructose and chronic stress on lipid metabolism in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of male Wistar rats. We analyzed the effects of 9-week 20% high fructose diet and 4-week chronic unpredictable stress, separately and in combination, on VAT histology, glucocorticoid prereceptor metabolism, glucocorticoid receptor subcellular redistribution and expression of major metabolic genes...
May 2, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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