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Visceral adiposity fat

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341863/distinct-gene-signatures-predict-insulin-resistance-in-young-mice-with-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#1
Katherine Chen, Alice Jih, Olivia Osborn, Sarah T Kavaler, Wenxian Fu, Roman Sasik, Rintaro Saito, Jane J Kim
Highly inbred C57BL/6 mice show wide variation in their degree of insulin resistance in response to diet-induced obesity even though they are almost genetically identical. Here we employed transcriptional profiling by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver in young mice to determine how gene expression patterns correlate with the later development of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in adulthood. To accomplish this goal, we partially removed and banked tissues from pubertal mice...
January 8, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338526/associations-of-abdominal-subcutaneous-and-visceral-fat-with-insulin-resistance-and-secretion-differ-between-men-and-women-the-netherlands-epidemiology-of-obesity-study
#2
Renée de Mutsert, Karin Gast, Ralph Widya, Eelco de Koning, Ingrid Jazet, Hildo Lamb, Saskia le Cessie, Albert de Roos, Jan Smit, Frits Rosendaal, Martin den Heijer
BACKGROUND: Abdominal obesity is a well-established risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, sex differences may exist. We aimed to investigate the associations of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with insulin resistance and insulin secretion in men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, fasting and postprandial concentrations of glucose and insulin were measured and abdominal fat depots were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging in 2253 participants (53% women)...
January 17, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338002/the-associations-between-adult-body-composition-and-abdominal-adiposity-outcomes-and-relative-weight-gain-and-linear-growth-from-birth-to-age-22-in-the-birth-to-twenty-plus-cohort-south-africa
#3
Alessandra Prioreschi, Richard J Munthali, Juliana Kagura, Rihlat Said-Mohamed, Emanuella De Lucia Rolfe, Lisa K Micklesfield, Shane A Norris
BACKGROUND: The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity in low- or middle-income countries precipitates the need to examine early life predictors of adiposity. OBJECTIVES: To examine growth trajectories from birth, and associations with adult body composition in the Birth to Twenty Plus Cohort, Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: Complete data at year 22 was available for 1088 participants (536 males and 537 females). Conditional weight and height indices were generated indicative of relative rate of growth between years 0-2, 2-5, 5-8, 8-18, and 18-22...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335416/lack-of-pronounced-changes-in-the-expression-of-fatty-acid-handling-proteins-in-adipose-tissue-and-plasma%C3%A2-of-morbidly-obese-humans
#4
Ewa Anna Grzegorczyk, Ewa Harasim-Symbor, Bartlomiej Lukaszuk, Dorota Harasiuk, Barbara Choromanska, Piotr Mysliwiec, Malgorzata Zendzian-Piotrowska, Adrian Chabowski
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Fatty acid handling proteins are involved in the process of accumulation of lipids in different fat tissue depots. Thus, the aim of the study was to estimate the expression of both fatty acid transport and binding proteins in the subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of patients with morbid obesity without metabolic syndrome, as well as the plasma concentrations of these transporters. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Protein (Western blotting) and mRNA (Real-time PCR) expression of selected fatty acid handling proteins was assessed in the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue of 30 patients with morbid obesity...
January 15, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334743/-adiponectin-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome-and-diseases-of-the-liver-bile-ducts-and-pancreas
#5
Adam Vašura, Martin Blaho, Petr Dítě, Tomáš Kupka, Pavel Svoboda, Arnošt Martínek
Epidemiological data show that the metabolic syndrome can be diagnosed in up to 30 % of the population. Regarding 5 components of the metabolic syndrome, three of them, in case of positivity (visceral obesity, arterial hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, changes of HDL-cholesterol levels and type 2 diabetes mellitus), are pathogenic factors which are the most frequently related to cardiovascular diseases, but currently they are also the focus of interest for gastroenterologists. The relationship between non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, has been described...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334694/home-alone-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-the-effects-of-individual-housing-on-body-weight-food-intake-and-visceral-fat-mass-in-rodents
#6
REVIEW
L Schipper, L Harvey, E M van der Beek, G van Dijk
Rats and mice are widely used to study environmental effects on psychological and metabolic health. Study designs differ widely and are often characterized by varying (social) housing conditions. In itself, housing has a profound influence on physiology and behaviour of rodents, affecting energy balance and sustainable metabolic health. However, evidence for potential long-term consequences of individual versus social housing on body weight and metabolic phenotype is inconsistent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses assessing effects of individual versus social housing of rats and mice, living under well-accepted laboratory conditions, on measures of metabolic health, including body weight, food intake and visceral adipose tissue mass...
January 15, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325562/increased-epicardial-adipose-tissue-thickness-is-a-predictor-of-new-onset-diabetes-mellitus-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-treated-with-high-intensity-statins
#7
Jeehoon Kang, Young-Chan Kim, Jin Joo Park, Sehun Kim, Si-Hyuck Kang, Young Jin Cho, Yeonyee E Yoon, Il-Young Oh, Chang-Hwan Yoon, Jung-Won Suh, Young-Seok Cho, Tae-Jin Youn, In-Ho Chae, Dong-Ju Choi
BACKGROUND: Statins are widely used for lipid lowering in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), but increasing evidence indicates an association between statin use and new-onset of diabetes mellitus (NODM). Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) refers to the visceral fat surrounding the heart, which is associated with metabolic diseases. We sought to determine the association between EAT thickness and NODM in CAD patients treated with high-intensity statins. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective medical record review of CAD patients treated with high-intensity statins for at least 6 months after percutaneous coronary intervention performed between January 2009 and June 2013 at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital...
January 11, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325542/visceral-adipose-tissue-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-hiv-infected-patients-undergoing-cart-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Maria Teresa Beires, André Silva-Pinto, Ana Cristina Santos, António José Madureira, Jorge Pereira, Davide Carvalho, António Sarmento, Paula Freitas
BACKGROUND: Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected patients has been associated with lipodystrophy, metabolic abnormalities, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Ultrasound measures of carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) have been used as a valid measure of subclinical atherosclerosis and as a tool to predict the risk of cardiovascular events. Our aim was to evaluate the progression of cIMT in HIV-infected patients subjected to cART, with and without lipodystrophy, over a one-year period...
January 11, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320703/three-dimensional-adipose-tissue-imaging-reveals-regional-variation-in-beige-fat-biogenesis-and-prdm16-dependent-sympathetic-neurite-density
#9
Jingyi Chi, Zhuhao Wu, Chan Hee J Choi, Lily Nguyen, Saba Tegegne, Sarah E Ackerman, Audrey Crane, François Marchildon, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Paul Cohen
While the cell-intrinsic pathways governing beige adipocyte development and phenotype have been increasingly delineated, comparatively little is known about how beige adipocytes interact with other cell types in fat. Here, we introduce a whole-tissue clearing method for adipose that permits immunolabeling and three-dimensional profiling of structures including thermogenic adipocytes and sympathetic innervation. We found that tissue architecture and sympathetic innervation differ significantly between subcutaneous and visceral depots...
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319751/effects-of-maternal-high-fat-intake-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-on-total-cholesterol-and-adipose-tissue-in-neonatal-rats
#10
M S Lima, G S Perez, G L Morais, L S Santos, G S Cordeiro, R D Couto, T C B J Deiró, C G Leandro, J M Barreto-Medeiros
AIM: Obesity during pregnancy is one of the most established risk factors for negative long-term programming. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal consumption of a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation on the weight gain, visceral adipose tissue and cholesterolemia in neonatal rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to the mother's diet during pregnancy and lactation: Control group (CG, n = 12) were the offspring of rats fed a standard diet (4% lipid) and the Test group (TG, n = 12) were pups rats fed on a high fat diet (23% lipid)...
January 8, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318960/the-role-of-inflammation-in-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-heart-diseases
#11
Zdenek Matloch, Anna Cinkajzlova, Milos Mraze, Martin Haluzik
Epicardial adipose tissue is not only a specific adipose tissue depot but also an active endocrine organ producing numerous substances with an important role in the development of obesity-related heart diseases. It is located between myocardium and visceral pericardium and consists predominantly of adipocytes, immunocompetent cells, ganglia and interconnecting nerve branches. Several studies documented a positive correlation between pericardial and epicardial fat and left ventricular hypertrophy and septal thickening, leading to diastolic dysfunction, electrocardiographic abnormalities and facilitating cardiac failure...
January 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310998/coronary-artery-calcifications-and-diastolic-dysfunction-versus-visceral-fat-area-in-type-1-diabetes-viscera-study
#12
Christophe E M De Block, Bharati Shivalkar, Wouter Goovaerts, Tim Brits, Ken Carpentier, An Verrijken, Viviane Van Hoof, Paul M Parizel, Chris Vrints, Luc F Van Gaal
AIMS: Type 1 diabetic patients (T1DM) experience a higher cardiovascular disease and mortality risk than controls. We investigated whether visceral adipose tissue (VAT) contributes to coronary artery calcifications (CAC) and cardiac dysfunction in T1DM. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 118 T1DM patients without a history of cardiovascular disease (men/women: 68/50, age 46±12years, HbA1c 7.6±0.9%, BMI 25.8±4.1kg/m2) was conducted. CAC and VAT were measured using a CT scan...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310809/relation-of-overall-and-abdominal-adiposity-with-electrocardiogram-parameters-of-subclinical-cardiovascular-disease-in-individuals-aged-45-to-65-years-from-the-netherlands-epidemiology-of-obesity-study
#13
Theodora W Elffers, Renée de Mutsert, Hildo J Lamb, Arie C Maan, Peter W Macfarlane, Ko Willems van Dijk, Frits R Rosendaal, J Wouter Jukema, Stella Trompet
Overall and abdominal obesity are well-established risk factors for cardiometabolic disease. However, associations of overall and abdominal adiposity with electrocardiographic (ECG) markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, we investigated these associations in a population without preexisting CVD. We performed cross-sectional analyses in the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity Study. Body mass index (BMI), total body fat, and waist circumference were assessed in all participants, and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue (by magnetic resonance imaging) were assessed in a random subgroup...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303933/perirenal-adiposity-is-associated-with-lower-progression-free-survival-from-ovarian-cancer
#14
Yan Zhang, Adriana M Coletta, Pamela K Allen, Aaroh M Parikh, Matthes Cox-Mattin, Larissa A Meyer, Charlotte C Sun, Karen M Basen-Engquist, Karen H Lu, Ann H Klopp
OBJECTIVES: Abdominal obesity is linked with a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer. However, the link between abdominal obesity and survival after diagnosis of ovarian cancer is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of abdominal obesity on progression-free survival in patients with ovarian cancer. METHODS: Among 258 patients, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume, along with perirenal adipose tissue thickness (a visceral adiposity proxy measure) was retrospectively measured from abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans obtained within 6 months of ovarian cancer diagnosis...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297106/idalopirdine-a-selective-5-ht6-receptor-antagonist-reduces-food-intake-and-body-weight-in-a-model-of-excessive-eating
#15
Magdalena Kotańska, Klaudia Lustyk, Adam Bucki, Monika Marcinkowska, Joanna Śniecikowska, Marcin Kołaczkowski
Obesity, from early childhood onwards, is a common societal problem. The overconsumption of sweet, salty and high-fat products are the main factors that cause excessive weight gain. It is therefore necessary to search for new drugs that affect satiety centers and reduce the sense of hunger and caloric intake. It has been suggested that the blockade of 5-HT6 receptors may reduce food intake, and since idalopirdine is a clinically tested, selective 5HT6 receptor antagonist, it was chosen to be examined in animal models of obesity...
January 3, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290362/early-cardiac-abnormalities-in-obese-children-and-their-relationship-with-adiposity
#16
María Mercedes Rodicio, Vanessa Domenech de Miguel, María Guinda Jiménez, Secundino Cigarrán Guldrís, María Montserrat López Franco, Ana Estany Gestal, María L Couce, María Rosaura Leis Trabazo
OBJECTIVES: Childhood obesity rates are increasing as well as chronic disease and cardiovascular risk factors for patients at young ages. In this study, we evaluate the correlation between cardiac parameters, body mass index (BMI), and other body composition indicators in children and adolescents. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated anthropometric measurements, bioelectrical impedance parameters, and echocardiographic measurements including the left ventricular mass (LVM), LVM index (LVMI), and left atrial diameter (LAD) in children and adolescents ages 7 to 15 y...
February 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290349/dxa-assessed-changes-in-body-composition-in-obese-women-following-two-different-weight-loss-programs
#17
Federico Ponti, Valentina Soverini, Andrea Plazzi, Maria Pilar Aparisi Gómez, Daniele Mercatelli, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Giuseppe Battista, Giulio Marchesini, Alberto Bazzocchi
OBJECTIVE: Changes in body composition during weight loss programs might have a significant effect on long-term results. The aim of this study was to test these changes by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in obese women enrolled into two different weight loss medical programs. METHODS: We prospectively studied 71 women assigned to either an intensive 3-mo cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or a 1-mo nutritional counseling plan (NCP). All patients underwent DXA whole-body scan before treatment and after 3, 6, and 12 mo...
February 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287472/cover-image-volume-119-number-2-february-2018
#18
Ni Qiu, Wei-Jin Fang, Hong-Sheng Li, Zhi-Min He, Zhou-Sheng Xiao, Yan Xiong
Cover: The cover image, by Qiu et al., is based on the Original Research Article, Impairment of primary cilia contributes to visceral adiposity of high fat diet-fed mice, DOI: 10.1002/jcb.26253.
February 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287006/hyperadiponectinemia-during-infliximab-induction-therapy-in-pediatric-crohn-s-disease
#19
Klara Frivolt, Tobias Schwerd, Stephanie B Schatz, Folke Freudenberg, Christine Prell, Katharina J Werkstetter, Philip Bufler, Sibylle Koletzko
OBJECTIVES: The inflammatory process in Crohn's disease (CD) involves the visceral fat, characterized by adipocyte hyperplasia and altered adipose tissue and serum concentrations of TNF, leptin, adiponectin and resistin. We investigated the effect of anti-TNF therapy with infliximab (IFX) on serum adipokine levels in pediatric CD. METHODS: Serum concentrations of resistin (ng/ml), leptin (ng/ml), and total adiponectin (μg/ml) were assessed by ELISA in 18 pediatric CD patients (mean age 15...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286209/precision-of-dxa-derived-visceral-fat-measurements-in-a-large-sample-of-adults-of-varying-body-size
#20
Kim Meredith-Jones, Jillian Haszard, Nigel Stanger, Rachael Taylor
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the precision of GE Lunar's CoreScan tool (GE Healthcare, Madison, Wisconsin) for measuring visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in adults of varying body size. METHODS: Two consecutive dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans with repositioning were undertaken in 233 participants (110 male, 123 female) aged 18 to 70 years; 38% (n = 89) had normal weight, 34% (n = 80) had overweight, and 27% (n = 64) had obesity...
December 29, 2017: Obesity
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