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Endothelial cells

Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Angélica González-Maciel, Rafael Reynoso-Robles, Randy J Kulesza, Partha S Mukherjee, Ricardo Torres-Jardón, Topi Rönkkö, Richard L Doty
There is growing evidence that air pollution is a risk factor for a number of neurodegenerative diseases, most notably Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD). It is generally assumed that the pathology of these diseases arises only later in life and commonly begins within olfactory eloquent pathways prior to the onset of the classical clinical symptoms. The present study demonstrates that chronic exposure to high levels of air pollution results in AD- and PD-related pathology within the olfactory bulbs of children and relatively young adults ages 11 months to 40 years...
June 20, 2018: Environmental Research
Reema Banarjee, Akshay Sharma, Shakuntala Bai, Arati Deshmukh, Mahesh Kulkarni
Endothelial dysfunction is one of the primary steps in the development of diabetes associated cardiovascular diseases. Hyperglycemic condition in diabetes promotes accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the plasma, that interact with the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) present on the endothelial cells and negatively affect their function. Using Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) in culture, the effect of glycated human serum albumin on global proteomic changes was studied by SWATH-MS, a label free quantitative proteomic approach...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Beata Dąbrowska-Bouta, Grzegorz Sulkowski, Małgorzata Frontczak-Baniewicz, Joanna Skalska, Mikołaj Sałek, Jolanta Orzelska-Górka, Lidia Strużyńska
The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in medicine and in multiple commercial products has motivated researchers to investigate their potentially hazardous effects in organisms. Since AgNPs may easily enter the brain through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), characterization of their interactions with cellular components of the neurovascular unit (NVU) is of particular importance. Therefore, in an animal model of prolonged low-dose exposure, we investigate the extent and mechanisms of influence of AgNPs on cerebral microvessels...
June 20, 2018: Toxicology
Shashank Shekhar, Mark W Cunningham, Mallikarjuna R Pabbidi, Shaoxun Wang, George W Booz, Fan Fan
Ischemic stroke is a devastating and debilitating medical condition with limited therapeutic options. However, accumulating evidence indicates a central role of inflammation in all aspects of stroke including its initiation, the progression of injury, and recovery or wound healing. A central target of inflammation is disruption of the blood brain barrier or neurovascular unit. Here we discuss recent developments in identifying potential molecular targets and immunomodulatory approaches to preserve or protect barrier function and limit infarct damage and functional impairment...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Jacek Koszuk, Tomasz Bartosik, Jakub Wojciechowski, Wojciech Wolf, Anna Janecka, Joanna Drogosz, Angelika Długosz, Urszula Krajewska, Marek Mirowski, Tomasz Janecki
An efficient synthetic strategy to 3-methylidene-2,3-dihydroquinolin-4(1H)-ones variously substituted in position 2 has been developed. The title compounds were synthesized in the reaction sequence involving reaction of diethyl methylphosphonate with methyl 2-(tosylamino)benzoate, condensation of thus formed diethyl 2-(2-N-tosylphenyl)2-oxoethylphosphonate with various aldehydes followed by successful application of the obtained 3-diethoxyphosphoryl-1,2-dihydroquinolin-4-ols as Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reagents for the olefination of formaldehyde...
June 23, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Abdul Jaleel, A Aneesh Kumar, G S Ajith Kumar, Arun Surendran, Chandrashekaran C Kartha
Endocardial endothelium, which lines the chambers of the heart, is distinct in its origin, structure, and function. Characterization studies using genomics and proteomics have reported molecular signatures supporting the structural and functional heterogeneity of various endothelial cells. However, though functionally very important, no studies at protein level have been conducted so far characterizing endocardial endothelium. In this study, we used endothelial cells from pig heart to investigate if endocardial endothelial cells are distinct at the proteome level...
June 22, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Silvia Gramolelli, Jianpin Cheng, Ines Martinez-Corral, Markus Vähä-Koskela, Endrit Elbasani, Elisa Kaivanto, Ville Rantanen, Krista Tuohinto, Sampsa Hautaniemi, Mark Bower, Caj Haglund, Kari Alitalo, Taija Mäkinen, Tatiana V Petrova, Kaisa Lehti, Päivi M Ojala
The transcription factor PROX1 is essential for development and cell fate specification. Its function in cancer is context-dependent since PROX1 has been shown to play both oncogenic and tumour suppressive roles. Here, we show that PROX1 suppresses the transcription of MMP14, a metalloprotease involved in angiogenesis and cancer invasion, by binding and suppressing the activity of MMP14 promoter. Prox1 deletion in murine dermal lymphatic vessels in vivo and in human LECs increased MMP14 expression. In a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line expressing high endogenous levels of PROX1, its silencing increased both MMP14 expression and MMP14-dependent invasion in 3D...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yen Ling Koon, Songjing Zhang, Muhammad Bakhait Rahmat, Cheng Gee Koh, Keng-Hwee Chiam
Endothelial cells adopt unique cell fates during sprouting angiogenesis, differentiating into tip or stalk cells. The fate selection process is directed by Delta-Notch lateral inhibition pathway. Classical Delta-Notch models produce a spatial pattern of tip cells separated by a single stalk cell, or the salt-and-pepper pattern. However, classical models cannot explain alternative tip-stalk patterning, such as tip cells that are separated by two or more stalk cells. We show that lateral inhibition models involving only Delta and Notch proteins can also recapitulate experimental tip-stalk patterns by invoking two mechanisms, specifically, intracellular Notch heterogeneity and tension-dependent rate of Delta-Notch binding...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chunliang Xu, Xin Gao, Qiaozhi Wei, Fumio Nakahara, Samuel E Zimmerman, Jessica Mar, Paul S Frenette
Endothelial cells (ECs) contribute to haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance in bone marrow, but the differential contributions of EC subtypes remain unknown, owing to the lack of methods to separate with high purity arterial endothelial cells (AECs) from sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs). Here we show that the combination of podoplanin (PDPN) and Sca-1 expression distinguishes AECs (CD45- Ter119- Sca-1bright PDPN- ) from SECs (CD45- Ter119- Sca-1dim PDPN+ ). PDPN can be substituted for antibodies against the adhesion molecules ICAM1 or E-selectin...
June 22, 2018: Nature Communications
Raquel Frenedoso da Silva, Deepanshi Dhar, Komal Raina, Dileep Kumar, Rama Kant, Valeria Helena Alves Cagnon, Chapla Agarwal, Rajesh Agarwal
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in American men. Proliferating cells have higher need for nutrients and oxygen, triggering angiogenesis that plays a critical role in tumor growth, progression and metastasis. Consequently, immense focus has converged onto inhibitors of angiogenesis in cancer treatment, such as Nintedanib, which has shown exceptional antitumor activity via inhibiting cell proliferation and the resulting tumor growth, primarily due to its combined action on tumor cells, endothelial cells and pericytes...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Katsuhiro Kato, Rodrigo Diéguez-Hurtado, Do Young Park, Seon Pyo Hong, Sakiko Kato-Azuma, Susanne Adams, Martin Stehling, Britta Trappmann, Jeffrey L Wrana, Gou Young Koh, Ralf H Adams
Blood vessels are essential for blood circulation but also control organ growth, homeostasis, and regeneration, which has been attributed to the release of paracrine signals by endothelial cells. Endothelial tubules are associated with specialised mesenchymal cells, termed pericytes, which help to maintain vessel wall integrity. Here we identify pericytes as regulators of epithelial and endothelial morphogenesis in postnatal lung. Mice lacking expression of the Hippo pathway components YAP and TAZ in pericytes show defective alveologenesis...
June 22, 2018: Nature Communications
Gernot Desoye
The placenta plays a key role in sustaining fetal growth and development. Due to its position between mother and fetus, it is exposed to changes in the intrauterine environment in both circulations. The relative influence of changes in those circulations depends on the period of gestation. Early in pregnancy, maternal influences prevail and may affect the complex biological processes characteristic for this pregnancy period, such as placentation, early cell differentiation, and spiral artery remodeling. It is still unclear whether the placenta early in pregnancy is a friend or foe for the fetus...
July 2018: Diabetes Care
Hua Yang, Wenwei Bai, Lihui Gao, Jun Jiang, Yingxi Tang, Yanfen Niu, Hua Lin, Ling Li
Mangiferin, a natural glucosyl xanthone, was confirmed to be an effective uric acid (UA)- lowering agent with dual action of inhibiting production and promoting excretion of UA. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of mangiferin on alleviating hypertension induced by hyperuricemia. Mangiferin (30, 60, 120 mg/kg) was administered intragastrically to hyperuricemic rats induced by gavage with potassium oxonate (750 mg/kg). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum levels of UA, nitric oxide (NO), C-reactionprotein (CRP) and ONOO- were measured...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Xiulong Niu, Yumeng Chen, Lin Qi, Guoqing Liang, Yue Wang, Lipeng Zhang, Ye Qu, Wenliang Wang
Inappropriate angiogenesis and osteogenesis are considered as the crucial factors of osteoporotic fracture. Hypoxia is a primary driving force for regulating the angiogenic-osteogenic coupling process. Our recent results indicated that hypoxia could improve angiogenesis as well as differentiation and activity of osteoblastic cells via up-regulating VEGF through HIF-1α pathway. Here we demonstrated that in human osteoblastic MG-63, U2-OS and Saos-2 cells, besides VEGF, the other two pro-angiogenic factors IL-6 and IL-8 were also up-regulated by hypoxia and CoCl2 (a mimic of hypoxia)...
June 19, 2018: Cytokine
Bo Pan, Zhen Wu, Xiao-Pan Gu, Zi-Yu Liu, Yun-Fang Zhao, Wen-Zhe Huang, Peng-Fei Tu, Wei Xiao, Jiao Zheng, Jun Li
Focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion is an essential process during ischemic stroke. The apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an important cause for brain injury after focal cerebral ischemia. Longxuetongluo capsule (LTC) has been used for the treatment of ischemic stroke in clinic. However, its underlying action mechanism is still unclear. This study aimed to verify the protective effect and mechanisms of LTC on HUVEC cells against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) injury through MTT, LDH, flow cytometry, AO/EB staining and western blot assays...
May 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Alessandra Cazzaniga, Laura Locatelli, Sara Castiglioni, Jeanette Maier
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is important for maintaining healthy endothelium, which is crucial for vascular integrity. In this paper, we show that VEGF stimulates the nuclear translocation of endothelial differentiation-related factor 1 (EDF1), a highly conserved intracellular protein implicated in molecular events that are pivotal to endothelial function. In the nucleus, EDF1 serves as a transcriptional coactivator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), which has a protective role in the vasculature...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Asima Farooq, Ali Shukur, Cai Astley, Lubomira Tosheva, Peter Kelly, Debra Whitehead, May Azzawi
Blood vessel disease is a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and is hallmarked by dysfunction of the lining endothelial cells (ECs). These cells play a significant role in vascular homeostasis, through the release of mediators to control vessel diameter, hence tissue perfusion. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) can be used as potential drug delivery platforms for vasodilator drugs. Here, using an ex vivo model of vascular function, we examine the use of titania coating for improved biocompatibility and release dynamics of MSN loaded sodium nitroprusside (SNP)...
June 19, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Thomas J Bell, Oliver J Brand, David J Morgan, Samira Salek-Ardakani, Christopher Jagger, Toshifumi Fujimori, Lauren Cholewa, Viranga Tilakaratna, Jörgen Östling, Matt Thomas, Anthony J Day, Robert J Snelgrove, Tracy Hussell
Little is known about the impact of viral infections on lung matrix despite its important contribution to mechanical stability and structural support. The composition of matrix also indirectly controls inflammation by influencing cell adhesion, migration, survival, proliferation and differentiation. Hyaluronan is a significant component of the lung extracellular matrix and production and degradation must be carefully balanced. We have discovered an imbalance in hyaluronan production following resolution of a severe lung influenza virus infection, driven by hyaluronan synthase 2 from epithelial cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts...
June 19, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Dan-Dan Zhu, Yun-Zhi Wang, Chen Zou, Xin-Ping She, Zhi Zheng
OBJECTIVE: Uric acid has been proposed as an independent risk factor of diabetic retinopathy. Although Notch signaling was reported to be affected in the presence of high concentrations of uric acid or glucose, the underlying mechanisms of hyperuricemia through the Notch signaling pathway to promote the development of diabetic retinopathy remain unknown. METHODS: We incubated human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) with high glucose, high uric acid and high glucose plus high glucose respectively and evaluated the apoptosis rate in different treated cells by Tunel staining...
June 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yang Liu, YingNan Zhang, Qingfeng Liang, Chao Yan, Li Wang, Jing Zhang, ZhiQiang Pan
BACKGROUND: In current non-human primate models, full-thickness porcine grafts could not achieve long-term survival without using potent systemic immunosuppressors. Moreover, the thickness disparity in xeno-PKP proved to be hard to manipulate and may cause several complications which also could prevent the grafts from long survival. Considering the advantages of Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) derived from its ultrathin graft and lower rejection rate, we hypothesize xeno-DSAEK may overcome these imperfections in xeno-PKP...
June 22, 2018: Xenotransplantation
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