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Intestinal gut microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742284/aquatic-animals-promote-antibiotic-resistance-gene-dissemination-in-water-via-conjugation-role-of-different-regions-within-the-zebra-fish-intestinal-tract-and-impact-on-fish-intestinal-microbiota
#1
Jialun Fu, Dong Yang, Min Jin, Weili Liu, Xin Zhao, Chenyu Li, Tianyu Zhao, Jingfeng Wang, Zhixian Gao, Zhiqiang Shen, Zhigang Qiu, Jun-Wen Li
The aqueous environment is one of many reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Fish, as important aquatic animals which possess ideal intestinal niches for bacteria to grow and multiply, may ingest antibiotic resistance bacteria from aqueous environment. The fish gut would be a suitable environment for conjugal gene transfer including those encoding antibiotic resistance. However, little is known in relation to the impact of ingested ARGs or ARB on gut microbiota. Here, we applied the cultivation method, qPCR, nuclear molecular genetic marker and 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing technologies to develop a plasmid-mediated ARG transfer model of zebrafish...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740754/the-time-course-of-broiler-intestinal-microbiota-development-after-administration-of-cecal-contents-to-incubating-eggs
#2
Erin E Donaldson, Dragana Stanley, Robert J Hughes, Robert J Moore
BACKGROUND: The microbial populations that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are known to influence the health and growth performance of the host. Clean hatcheries and machine-based incubation practices in the commercial poultry industry can lead to the acquisition of aberrant microbiota in the GIT of chickens and a very high level of bird-to-bird variation. The lack of microbial profile flock uniformity presents challenges for harnessing and manipulating intestinal bacteria to better serve the host...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739439/the-association-of-type-ii-diabetes-with-gut-microbiota-composition
#3
Fatemeh Navab-Moghadam, Mansour Sedighi, Mohammad E Khamseh, Fariba Alaei-Shahmiri, Malihe Talebi, Shabnam Razavi, Nour Amirmozafari
It is known that type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans could be linked to the composition of gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to evaluate three faecal bacterial species, including Bacteroides fragilis, Bifidobacterium longum and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in patients with T2D. This case control study included 18 patients with T2D and 18 matched persons without diabetes. The concentrations of B. fragilis, B. longum and F. prausnitzii were determined by quantitative Real-Time PCR. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the gut bacterial composition in patients with T2D was partially different from that in the healthy individuals...
July 21, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739053/glucomannan-consumption-elevates-colonic-alkaline-phosphatase-activity-by-up-regulating-the-expression-of-iap-i-which-is-associated-with-increased-production-of-protective-factors-for-gut-epithelial-homeostasis-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#4
Yukako Okazaki, Tetsuyuki Katayama
We previously reported that consumption of glucomannan-containing food (lily bulb) modulates gut microbiota and increases gut immunoglobulin A (IgA, index of intestinal immune function), mucins (index of intestinal barrier function), and colonic alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Small intestinal ALP has an established protective effect in inflammatory diseases, whereas little is known about the function of colonic ALP activity. We hypothesized that dietary glucomannan would increase colonic ALP activity and the gene expression in rats fed an HF diet...
July 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737484/the-effect-of-fiber-and-prebiotics-on-children-s-gastrointestinal-disorders-and-microbiome
#5
Carrie A M Wegh, Margriet H C Schoterman, Elaine E Vaughan, Clara Belzer, Marc A Benninga
The bacteria received upon birth are the start of colonization of the approximately 10(14) bacteria that are present in the mature human gastrointestinal tract, better known as the microbiota. The gut microbiota is implicated in gastrointestinal health, nutrient metabolism and benefits such as prevention of infection. Dietary fiber, including prebiotics, escape digestion in the small intestine and reach the colon intact, where they are partially or completely fermented by the gut microbiota. Areas covered: The possible interactions between dietary fiber, prebiotics and microbiota are discussed as well as how this relates to functional gastrointestinal disorders...
July 24, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736228/dbz-is-a-putative-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-that-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-insulin-resistance-and-gut-dysbiosis
#6
Pengfei Xu, Fan Hong, Jialin Wang, Jing Wang, Xia Zhao, Sheng Wang, Tingting Xue, Jingwei Xu, Xiaohui Zheng, Yonggong Zhai
BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor PPARγ is an effective pharmacological target for some types of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, the current PPARγ-targeting thiazolidinedione drugs have undesirable side effects. Danshensu Bingpian Zhi (DBZ), also known as tanshinol borneol ester derived from Salvia miltiorrhiza, is a synthetic derivative of natural compounds used in traditional Chinese medicine for its anti-inflammatory activity...
July 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733267/angptl4-promotes-bile-acid-absorption-during-taurocholic-acid-supplementation-via-a-mechanism-dependent-on-the-gut-microbiota
#7
Aafke W F Janssen, Wieneke Dijk, Jos Boekhorst, Folkert Kuipers, Albert K Groen, Sabina Lukovac, Guido J E J Hooiveld, Sander Kersten
Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase. A set of compounds that are able to reduce plasma triglyceride levels are bile acids (BA). Because BA have been shown to decrease ANGPTL4 secretion by intestinal cells, we hypothesized that BA lower plasma triglycerides (partly) via ANGPTL4. To test that hypothesis, wild-type and Angptl4(-/-) mice were fed chow supplemented with taurocholic acid (TCA) for seven days. TCA supplementation effectively lowered plasma triglycerides in wild-type and Angptl4(-/-) mice, indicating that ANGPTL4 is not required for plasma triglyceride-lowering by BA...
July 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733133/navigating-the-gut-buffet-control-of-polysaccharide-utilization-in-bacteroides-spp
#8
REVIEW
Nathan D Schwalm, Eduardo A Groisman
Bacteroides spp. are members of the human gut microbiota that confer myriad benefits on their hosts. Among them is the provision of energy from otherwise indigestible polysaccharides comprising part of the host diet, lining the intestinal mucosal layer, and decorating the surface of other microbes. Bacteroides spp. devote ∼20% of their genomes to the transport and breakdown of a wide variety of polysaccharides, and to the regulation of these processes. Bacteroides spp. rely on different families of transcriptional regulators to ensure that carbohydrate utilization genes are expressed under specific conditions...
July 18, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732571/examining-the-gut-bacteriome-virome-and-mycobiome-in-glucose-metabolism-disorders-are-we-on-the-right-track
#9
REVIEW
Charikleia Stefanaki, Melpomeni Peppa, George Mastorakos, George P Chrousos
Human gut microbiome is defined as the gene complement of the gut microbial community, measured via laboratory metagenomic techniques. It includes bacteriome, virome and mycobiome, which represent, respectively, the assemblages of bacteria, viruses and fungi, living in the human gut. Gut microbiota function as a living "organ" that interacts with the gastro-intestinal environment, provides nutrients and vitamins to the organism and transduces hormonal messages, essentially influencing the main metabolic pathways, including drug metabolism...
August 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728453/incomplete-metabolism-of-phytoestrogens-by-gut-microbiota-from-children-under-the-age-of-three
#10
Pilar Gaya, Abel Sánchez-Jiménez, Ángela Peirotén, Margarita Medina, José Maria Landete
Phytoestrogens are plant-derived polyphenols with structural and functional similarities to mammalian oestrogens. The aim of this work was to study the metabolism of phytoestrogens by children's intestinal microbiota and to compare it with previous results in adults. Faecal samples of 24 healthy children were subjected to phytoestrogen fermentation assay. Only one child produced equol, while O-desmethylangolensin was found in all. Urolithin production was detected in 14 children and enterolactone in 10. Further comparison with the metabolism of phytoestrogens by adult intestinal microbiota reflected that glycitein, dihydrogenistein, urolithins D and E, enterolactone, secoisolariciresinol and arctigenin were the most important metabolites differentiating between adult and child microbial gut metabolism...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727115/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-as-a-key-regulator-of-neural-function-and-the-stress-response-implications-for-human-and-animal-health
#11
N C Wiley, T G Dinan, R P Ross, C Stanton, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis comprises an extensive communication network between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota residing there. Development of a diverse gut microbiota is vital for multiple features of behavior and physiology, as well as many fundamental aspects of brain structure and function. Appropriate early-life assembly of the gut microbiota is also believed to play a role in subsequent emotional and cognitive development. If the composition, diversity, or assembly of the gut microbiota is impaired, this impairment can have a negative impact on host health and lead to disorders such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and even potentially neuropsychiatric illnesses, including anxiety and depression...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725001/2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-tcdd-elicited-effects-on-bile-acid-homeostasis-alterations-in-biosynthesis-enterohepatic-circulation-and-microbial-metabolism
#12
Kelly A Fader, Rance Nault, Chen Zhang, Kazuyoshi Kumagai, Jack R Harkema, Timothy R Zacharewski
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent environmental contaminant which elicits hepatotoxicity through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Male C57BL/6 mice orally gavaged with TCDD (0.01-30 µg/kg) every 4 days for 28 days exhibited bile duct proliferation and pericholangitis. Mass spectrometry analysis detected a 4.6-fold increase in total hepatic bile acid levels, despite the coordinated repression of genes involved in cholesterol and primary bile acid biosynthesis including Cyp7a1...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721546/health-benefits-observed-after-probiotic-lactobacillus-fermentum-ccm-7421-application-in-dogs
#13
REVIEW
Viola Strompfová, Ivana Kubašová, Andrea Lauková
The importance of the intestinal microbiota has attracted much interest in recent years particularly with respect to ways in which the microbiota can be manipulated in order to improve health. Improving gut health through the use of probiotic microorganisms has become an area of research activity in both human and animal nutrition. However, the amount of research using companion animals is insufficient. The present review evaluates and compares the effects achieved after application of canine-derived probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7421 to healthy dogs as well as to dogs suffering from gastrointestinal disorders...
July 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721502/mucin-cross-feeding-of-infant-bifidobacteria-and-eubacterium-hallii
#14
Vera Bunesova, Christophe Lacroix, Clarissa Schwab
Mucus production is initiated before birth and provides mucin glycans to the infant gut microbiota. Bifidobacteria are the major bacterial group in the feces of vaginally delivered and breast milk-fed infants. Among the bifidobacteria, only Bifidobacterium bifidum is able to degrade mucin and to release monosaccharides which can be used by other gut microbes colonizing the infant gut. Eubacterium hallii is an early occurring commensal that produces butyrate and propionate from fermentation metabolites but that cannot degrade complex oligo- and polysaccharides...
July 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720679/potential-for-monitoring-gut-microbiota-for-diagnosing-infections-and-graft-versus-host-disease-in-cancer-and-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#15
Andrew Y Koh
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota, the collective community of microorganisms inhabiting the intestine, have been shown to provide many beneficial functions for the host. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and advanced molecular biology approaches have allowed researchers to identify gut microbiota signatures associated with disease processes and, in some cases, establish causality and elucidate underlying mechanisms. CONTENT: This report reviews 3 commonly used methods for studying the gut microbiota and microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microorganisms): 16S rRNA gene sequencing, bacterial group or species-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS)...
July 18, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719392/intestinal-microbiome-in-scleroderma-recent-progress
#16
Elizabeth R Volkmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our evolving understanding of how gut microbiota affects immune function and homeostasis has led many investigators to explore the potentially pathologic role of gut microbiota in autoimmune diseases. This review will discuss the rapidly advancing field of microbiome research in systemic sclerosis (SSc), an incurable autoimmune disease with significant gastrointestinal morbidity and mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports have identified common perturbations in gut microbiota across different SSc cohorts...
July 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717234/dietary-lipid-content-reorganizes-gut-microbiota-and-probiotic-l-rhamnosus-attenuates-obesity-and-enhances-catabolic-hormonal-milieu-in-zebrafish
#17
Silvia Falcinelli, Ana Rodiles, Azadeh Hatef, Simona Picchietti, Lina Cossignani, Daniel L Merrifield, Suraj Unniappan, Oliana Carnevali
In the present study, we explored whether dietary lipid content influences the gut microbiome in adult zebrafish. Diets containing three different lipid levels (high [HFD], medium [MFD], and low [LFD]) were administered with or without the supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (P) to zebrafish in order to explore how the dietary lipid content may influence the gut microbiome. Dietary lipid content shifted the gut microbiome structure. The addition of L. rhamnosus in the diets, induced transcriptional reduction of orexigenic genes, upregulation of anorexigenic genes, and transcriptional decrease of genes involved in cholesterol and triglyceride (TAG) metabolism, concomitantly with lower content of cholesterol and TAG...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717028/the-norepinephrine-metabolite-3-4-dihydroxymandelic-acid-is-produced-by-the-commensal-microbiota-and-promotes-chemotaxis-and-virulence-gene-expression-in-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli
#18
Nitesh Sule, Sasi Pasupuleti, Nandita Kohli, Rani Menon, Lawrence J Dangott, Michael D Manson, Arul Jayaraman
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is a commonly occuring foodborne pathogen responsible for numerous multistate outbreaks in the US. It is known to infect the host gastrointestinal tract, specifically in locations associated with lymphoid tissue. These niches serve as sources of enteric neurotransmitters such as epinephrine and norepinephrine that are known to increase virulence in several pathogens, including enterohemorrhagic E. coli The mechanisms that allow pathogens to target these niches are poorly understood...
July 17, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715992/the-hibernator-microbiome-host-bacterial-interactions-in-an-extreme-nutritional-symbiosis
#19
Hannah V Carey, Fariba M Assadi-Porter
Animals that undergo seasonal cycles of feeding and fasting have adaptations that maintain integrity of organ systems when dietary nutrients are lacking. Food deprivation also challenges the gut microbiota, which relies heavily on host diet for metabolic substrates and the gastrointestinal tract, which is influenced by enteral nutrients and microbial activity. Winter fasting in hibernators shifts the microbiota to favor taxa with the capacity to degrade and utilize host-derived substrates and disfavor taxa that prefer complex plant polysaccharides...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714057/population-specific-responses-to-interspecific-competition-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-two-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-populations
#20
Xiaoping He, Subba Rao Chaganti, Daniel D Heath
The gut microbial community in vertebrates plays a role in nutrient digestion and absorption, development of intestine and immune systems, resistance to infection, regulation of bone mass and even host behavior and can thus impact host fitness. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reintroduction efforts into Lake Ontario, Canada, have been unsuccessful, likely due to competition with non-native salmonids. In this study, we explored interspecific competition effects on the gut microbiota of two Atlantic salmon populations (LaHave and Sebago) resulting from four non-native salmonids...
July 16, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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