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Intestinal gut microbiota

Lanfang Tian, Siyuan Chen, Haiyan Liu, Mingzhang Guo, Wentao Xu, Xiaoyun He, Yunbo Luo, Xiaozhe Qi, Hongxia Luo, Kunlun Huang
Hepcidin, one kind of antimicrobial peptides, is one of the promising alternatives to antibiotics with broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Hepcidins cloned from different kinds of fishes have been produced using exogenous expression systems, and their in vitro antimicrobial effects have been verified. However their in vivo effects on gut microbiota and gut health of hosts remain unclear. Here we performed a safety study of hepcidin so that it can be used to reduce microbial contaminations in the food and feed...
2016: PloS One
Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri, Shuai Wei, Deog H Oh, Byong H Lee
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract has co-developed with a large number of microbes in a symbiotic relationship over millions of years. Recent studies indicate that indigenous bacteria are intimate with the intestine and play essential roles in health and disease. In the quest to maintain a stable niche, these prokaryotes influence multiple host metabolic pathways, resulting from an interactive host-microbiota metabolic signaling and impacting strongly on the metabolic phenotypes of the host. Since dysbiosis of the gut bacteria result in alteration in the levels of certain microbial and host co-metabolites, identifying these markers could enhance early detection of diseases...
October 21, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Chunqing Ai, Na Ma, Qiuxiang Zhang, Gang Wang, Xiaoming Liu, Fengwei Tian, Pei Chen, Wei Chen
Some studies reported that probiotic could relieve allergy-induced damage to the host, but how to get a useful probiotic is still a challenge. In this study, the protective effects of three lactic acid bacteria (La, Lp and Lc) were evaluated in a mouse model, and its relationship with the in vitro properties was analyzed. The in vitro results indicated that La with the capacity to inhibit IL-4 production could have a better anti-allergy effect in vivo than two others. However, the animal trials showed that all LAB strains could alleviate allergen-induced airway inflammation...
2016: PloS One
Yutaka Sugi, Kyoko Takahashi, Kenta Kurihara, Kou Nakano, Tetsuro Kobayakawa, Kazuaki Nakata, Masato Tsuda, Shigemasa Hanazawa, Akira Hosono, Shuichi Kaminogawa
α-Defensin 5 is important to both maintenance of a gut microbiota and host immunity. While previous reports have shown that gut bacteria are able to upregulate α-defensin 5 through Toll-like receptor signaling, we demonstrate here that α-defensin 5 expression can also be regulated by microbial metabolites. Among these, lactate appeared to significantly suppress α-defensin 5 gene transcription. Actually, fractions of <3 kD compounds obtained from the ceca of SPF mice were suppressed α-defensin 5 gene transcription at specific concentrations...
October 20, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Aziz Homayouni Rad, Farnaz Sahhaf, Tohid Hassanalilou, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed, Negar Motayagheni, Ahmad-Reza Soroush, Mina Javadi, Amir Mohammad Mortazavian, Leila Khalili
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus, a condition of multifactorial origin, is related to the intestinal microbiota by numerous molecular mechanisms. Controlling the vast increase in the prevalence of diabetes needs a natural and safe solution. Probiotics, known as live microorganisms that exert health benefits to the host, have anti-diabetic property. OBJECTIVE: This review will highlight the current evidences in probiotic effectiveness and future prospects for exploring probiotic therapy in the prevention and control of diabetes...
October 14, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Mahalingam Balakumar, Durai Prabhu, Chandrakumar Sathishkumar, Paramasivam Prabu, Namita Rokana, Ramesh Kumar, Srividhya Raghavan, Avinash Soundarajan, Sunita Grover, Virender Kumar Batish, Viswanathan Mohan, Muthuswamy Balasubramanyam
PURPOSE: Diabetes and obesity are characterized by glucose intolerance, fat deposition, inflammation, and dyslipidemia. Recent reports postulated that distinct gut microbiota alterations were observed in obese/diabetic subjects and modulating gut microbiota beneficially through specific probiotics could be a potential therapeutic option for type 2 diabetes/obesity. Therefore, we attempted to study the efficacy of probiotics of Indian gut origin (Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC5690 and Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC5689) along with a positive control, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) on glucose/lipid homeostasis in high-fat-diet-induced diabetic animal model...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Dongyan Zhang, Haifeng Ji, Hui Liu, Sixin Wang, Jing Wang, Yamin Wang
The gut microbiota plays important roles in the health and well-being of animals, and high-throughput sequencing facilitates exploration of microbial populations in the animal gut. However, previous studies have focused on fecal samples instead of the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we compared the microbiota diversity and composition of intestinal contents of weaned piglets treated with Lactobacillus reuteri or chlortetracycline (aureomycin) using high-throughput sequencing. Nine weaned piglets were randomly divided into three groups and supplemented with L...
October 19, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Mária Džunková, Giuseppe D'Auria, Hua Xu, Jun Huang, Yinghua Duan, Andrés Moya, Ciarán P Kelly, Xinhua Chen
Antibiotics have significant and long-lasting impacts on the intestinal microbiota and consequently reduce colonization resistance against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Standard therapy using antibiotics is associated with a high rate of disease recurrence, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies that target toxins, the major virulence factors, rather than the organism itself. Human monoclonal antibodies MK-3415A (actoxumab-bezlotoxumab) to C. difficile toxin A and toxin B, as an emerging non-antibiotic approach, significantly reduced the recurrence of CDI in animal models and human clinical trials...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Daniel Garrido, Santiago Ruiz-Moyano, Nina Kirmiz, Jasmine C Davis, Sarah M Totten, Danielle G Lemay, Juan A Ugalde, J Bruce German, Carlito B Lebrilla, David A Mills
The infant intestinal microbiota is often colonized by two subspecies of Bifidobacterium longum: subsp. infantis (B. infantis) and subsp. longum (B. longum). Competitive growth of B. infantis in the neonate intestine has been linked to the utilization of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). However, little is known how B. longum consumes HMO. In this study, infant-borne B. longum strains exhibited varying HMO growth phenotypes. While all strains efficiently utilized lacto-N-tetraose, certain strains additionally metabolized fucosylated HMO...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ying Guo, YouCai Zhang, WeiHua Huang, Felcy Pavithra Selwyn, Curtis D Klaassen
BACKGROUND: Berberine (BBR) is a traditional antimicrobial herbal medicine. Recently, BBR has gained popularity as a supplement to lower blood lipids, cholesterol and glucose. Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate blood levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose and energy homeostasis, and gut flora play an important role in BA metabolism. However, whether BBR alters BAs metabolism or dose-response effect of BBR on gut flora is unknown. METHODS: In this study, the effects of various doses of BBR on the concentrations of BAs in liver and serum of male C57BL/6 mice were determined by UPLC-MS/MS, and the expression of BA-related genes, as well as the amount of 32 of the most abundant gut bacterial species in the terminal ileum and large intestine of male C57BL/6 mice were quantified by RT-PCR and Quantigene 2...
October 18, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Stephanie M Dillon, Daniel N Frank, Cara C Wilson
HIV-1 infection is associated with substantial damage to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract resulting in structural impairment of the epithelial barrier and a disruption of intestinal homeostasis. The accompanying translocation of microbial products and potentially microbes themselves from the lumen into systemic circulation has been linked to immune activation, inflammation, and HIV-1 disease progression. The importance of microbial translocation in the setting of HIV-1 infection has led to a recent focus on understanding how the communities of microbes that make up the intestinal microbiome are altered during HIV-1 infection and how they interact with mucosal immune cells to contribute to inflammation...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Seong-Tshool Hong
The human intestine contains a massive and complex microbial community called gut microbiota. A typical human carries 100 trillion microbes in his/her body which is 10 times greater than the number of their host cells, i.e. whole number of human cells. A combined microbial genome constituting gut microbiota is well excess our own human genome. The microbial composition of gut microbiotata and its role on diseases became a booming area of research, presenting a new paradigm of opportunities for modern medicines...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Seungbum Kim, Gary Wang, Gilberto Lobaton, Eric Li, Tao Yang, Mohan Raizada
OBJECTIVE: Our previous studies have demonstrated that gut microbial dysbiosis is linked to high blood pressure in patients. This was associated with decreases in butyrate- and acetate- producing microbial populations. Thus, our objective in this study was to investigate the hypothesis that infusion of butyrate would impact dysbiosis, gut immunity and attenuate hypertension. DESIGN AND METHOD: C57B6 mice were divided into 4 groups; Saline infused, Angiotensin II (750ng/kg/min) infused, Ang II infused and butyrate treated (0...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yanling Wei, Jun Yang, Jun Wang, Yang Yang, Juan Huang, Hao Gong, Hongli Cui, Dongfeng Chen
BACKGROUND: The dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of gut-derived infections, making it a potential therapeutic target against multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) after sepsis. However, the effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in treating this disease has been rarely investigated. METHODS: Two male patients, a 65-year-old and an 84-year-old, were initially diagnosed with cerebellar hemorrhage and cerebral infarction, respectively, after admission...
October 18, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Ilias Lagkouvardos, Rüdiger Pukall, Birte Abt, Bärbel U Foesel, Jan P Meier-Kolthoff, Neeraj Kumar, Anne Bresciani, Inés Martínez, Sarah Just, Caroline Ziegler, Sandrine Brugiroux, Debora Garzetti, Mareike Wenning, Thi P N Bui, Jun Wang, Floor Hugenholtz, Caroline M Plugge, Daniel A Peterson, Mathias W Hornef, John F Baines, Hauke Smidt, Jens Walter, Karsten Kristiansen, Henrik B Nielsen, Dirk Haller, Jörg Overmann, Bärbel Stecher, Thomas Clavel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Karolina Varmuzova, Marcela Faldynova, Marta Elsheimer-Matulova, Alena Sebkova, Ondrej Polansky, Hana Havlickova, Frantisek Sisak, Ivan Rychlik
The colonization of poultry with different Salmonella enterica serovars poses an issue throughout the world. In this study we therefore tested the efficacy of a vaccine consisting of attenuated strains of Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Typhimurium and Infantis against challenge with the same serovars and with S. Agona, Dublin and Hadar. We tested oral and aerosol administration of the vaccine, with or without co-administration of cecal microbiota from adult hens. The protective effect was determined by bacterial counts of the challenge strains up to week 18 of life and by characterizing the immune response using real-time PCR specific for 16 different genes...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Research
Yutaka Sugi, Kyoko Takahashi, Kenta Kurihara, Kazuaki Nakata, Hikari Narabayashi, Yuji Hamamoto, Makoto Suzuki, Masato Tsuda, Shigemasa Hanazawa, Akira Hosono, Shuichi Kaminogawa
Immune responses against gut microbiota should be minimized to avoid unnecessary inflammation at mucosal surface. In this study, we analyzed the expression patterns of Toll-interacting protein (Tollip), an inhibitor of TLRs and IL-1 family cytokine-related intracellular signaling, in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Comparable mRNA expression was observed in murine small and large IECs (S-IECs and L-IECs). However, Tollip protein was only detected in L-IECs, but not in S-IECs. Similar results were obtained in germ-free mice, indicating that L-IEC-specific TOLLIP expression does not depend on bacterial colonization...
2016: PloS One
Maurizio Koch
Microbes are mostly important for the digestion of food, the absorption of some micronutrients, and the production of vitamins. The microbiota stimulates lymphoid structures in the gastrointestinal mucosa and decrease pathogens by competing for nutrients and space. Bacterial translocation is defined as the escape of gut bacteria and their products through the intestinal mucosa to the outside of the intestine as portovenous or systemic circulation. This is induced by a leaky gut barrier. There is evidence for a role of intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Edith Lahner, Bruno Annibale
Diverticular disease (DD) is a common gastrointestinal condition. Clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic diverticulosis to symptomatic uncomplicated or complicated DD. Symptoms related to uncomplicated DD are not specific and may be indistinguishable from those of irritable bowel syndrome. Low-grade inflammation, altered intestinal microbiota, visceral hypersensitivity, and abnormal colonic motility have been identified as factors potentially contributing to symptoms. Probiotics may modify the gut microbial balance leading to health benefits...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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