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Intestinal gut microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431245/host-microbe-co-metabolism-dictates-cancer-drug-efficacy-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans
#1
Timothy A Scott, Leonor M Quintaneiro, Povilas Norvaisas, Prudence P Lui, Matthew P Wilson, Kit-Yi Leung, Lucia Herrera-Dominguez, Sonia Sudiwala, Alberto Pessia, Peter T Clayton, Kevin Bryson, Vidya Velagapudi, Philippa B Mills, Athanasios Typas, Nicholas D E Greene, Filipe Cabreiro
Fluoropyrimidines are the first-line treatment for colorectal cancer, but their efficacy is highly variable between patients. We queried whether gut microbes, a known source of inter-individual variability, impacted drug efficacy. Combining two tractable genetic models, the bacterium E. coli and the nematode C. elegans, we performed three-way high-throughput screens that unraveled the complexity underlying host-microbe-drug interactions. We report that microbes can bolster or suppress the effects of fluoropyrimidines through metabolic drug interconversion involving bacterial vitamin B6, B9, and ribonucleotide metabolism...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429823/changes-in-the-gut-microbiome-of-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis-in-response-to-white-spot-syndrome-virus-wssv-infection
#2
Z F Ding, M J Cao, X S Zhu, G H Xu, R L Wang
Intestinal microorganisms play important roles in maintaining host health, but their functions in aquatic animal hosts have yet to be fully elucidated. The Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, is one such example. We attempted to identify the shift of gut microbiota that occurred in response to infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an emerging viral pathogen in the crab aquaculture industry. The microbiota may exert some control over aspects of the viral pathogenesis. We investigated the changes in composition and structure of the crab gut microbiome during various WSSV infection stages of 6 h post-infection (hpi) and 48 hpi, using a 16S rRNA approach on the MiSeq Illumina sequencing platform...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428788/the-protective-role-of-type-i-interferons-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#3
REVIEW
Kevin P Kotredes, Brianna Thomas, Ana M Gamero
The immune system of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract manages the significant task of recognizing and eliminating pathogens while maintaining tolerance of commensal bacteria. Dysregulation of this delicate balance can be detrimental, resulting in severe inflammation, intestinal injury, and cancer. Therefore, mechanisms to relay important signals regulating cell growth and immune reactivity must be in place to support GI homeostasis. Type I interferons (IFN-I) are a family of pleiotropic cytokines, which exert a wide range of biological effects including promotion of both pro- and anti-inflammatory activities...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428425/neonatal-acquisition-of-clostridia-species-protects-against-colonization-by-bacterial-pathogens
#4
Yun-Gi Kim, Kei Sakamoto, Sang-Uk Seo, Joseph M Pickard, Merritt G Gillilland, Nicholas A Pudlo, Matthew Hoostal, Xue Li, Thomas D Wang, Taylor Feehley, Andrew T Stefka, Thomas M Schmidt, Eric C Martens, Shinji Fukuda, Naohiro Inohara, Cathryn R Nagler, Gabriel Núñez
The high susceptibility of neonates to infections has been assumed to be due to immaturity of the immune system, but the mechanism remains unclear. By colonizing adult germ-free mice with the cecal contents of neonatal and adult mice, we show that the neonatal microbiota is unable to prevent colonization by two bacterial pathogens that cause mortality in neonates. The lack of colonization resistance occurred when Clostridiales were absent in the neonatal microbiota. Administration of Clostridiales, but not Bacteroidales, protected neonatal mice from pathogen infection and abrogated intestinal pathology upon pathogen challenge...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427473/intestinal-beh%C3%A3-et-and-crohn-s-disease-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#5
REVIEW
Simona Valenti, Romina Gallizzi, Dominique De Vivo, Claudio Romano
Behçet's disease (BD) and Crohn's disease (CD) are chronic immune-mediated, inflammatory disorders affecting many different systems (joints, skin, eyes, gastrointestinal and biliary tracts). Both disorders have fluctuating courses and when gastrointestinal symptoms are prevalent, differential diagnosis can be difficult. BD involves the gastrointestinal tract in 10-15% of cases with localized lesions in the ileocecal region. The clinical picture is heterogeneous with various clusters of disease expression. CD is a chronic inflammatory disorder, which can affect any part of the intestinal tract, as well as extra-intestinal tissue...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426878/microbiota-nash-hcc-and-the-potential-role-of-probiotics
#6
Giovanni Brandi, Stefania De Lorenzo, Marco Candela, Maria Abbondanza Pantaleo, Stefano Bellentani, Francesco Tovoli, Gioconda Saccoccio, Guido Biasco
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for the majority of primary liver cancers. Clearly identifiable risk factors are lacking in up to 30% of HCC patients and most of these cases are attributed to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Beyond the known risk factors for NAFLD, the intestinal microbiota, in particular dysbiosis (defined as any change in the composition of the microbiota commonly found in healthy conditions) is emerging as a new factor promoting the development of chronic liver diseases and HCC...
March 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425133/fecal-microbiota-signatures-of-adult-patients-with-different-types-of-short-bowel-syndrome
#7
Yuhua Huang, Feilong Guo, Yousheng Li, Jian Wang, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a common cause of intestinal failure and can be divided into three types depending on intestinal anatomy. Gut dysbiosis has been observed in pediatric SBS patients and is associated with impaired outcome. Little is known about the changes in gut microbiota of adult SBS patients. Therefore, we aim to characterize the fecal microbiota of adult patients with different types of SBS. METHODS: Fifteen fecal samples from healthy controls and adult patients with type II or type III SBS were collected (five in each group)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424669/inferring-microbial-interactions-in-the-gut-of-the-hong-kong-whipping-frog-polypedates-megacephalus-and-a-validation-using-probiotics
#8
Francis Cheng-Hsuan Weng, Grace Tzun-Wen Shaw, Chieh-Yin Weng, Yi-Ju Yang, Daryi Wang
The concerted activity of intestinal microbes is crucial to the health and development of their host organisms. Investigation of microbial interactions in the gut should deepen our understanding of how these micro-ecosystems function. Due to advances in Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, various bioinformatic strategies have been proposed to investigate these microbial interactions. However, due to the complexity of the intestinal microbial community and difficulties in monitoring their interactions, at present there is a gap between the theory and biological application...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424327/rig-i-mavs-and-sting-signaling-promote-gut-integrity-during-irradiation-and-immune-mediated-tissue-injury
#9
Julius C Fischer, Michael Bscheider, Gabriel Eisenkolb, Chia-Ching Lin, Alexander Wintges, Vera Otten, Caroline A Lindemans, Simon Heidegger, Martina Rudelius, Sébastien Monette, Kori A Porosnicu Rodriguez, Marco Calafiore, Sophie Liebermann, Chen Liu, Stefan Lienenklaus, Siegfried Weiss, Ulrich Kalinke, Jürgen Ruland, Christian Peschel, Yusuke Shono, Melissa Docampo, Enrico Velardi, Robert R Jenq, Alan M Hanash, Jarrod A Dudakov, Tobias Haas, Marcel R M van den Brink, Hendrik Poeck
The molecular pathways that regulate the tissue repair function of type I interferon (IFN-I) during acute tissue damage are poorly understood. We describe a protective role for IFN-I and the RIG-I/MAVS signaling pathway during acute tissue damage in mice. Mice lacking mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) were more sensitive to total body irradiation- and chemotherapy-induced intestinal barrier damage. These mice developed worse graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a preclinical model of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) than did wild-type mice...
April 19, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422970/the-gut-microbiota-as-a-modulator-of-innate-immunity-during-melioidosis
#10
Jacqueline M Lankelma, Emma Birnie, Tassili A F Weehuizen, Brendon P Scicluna, Clara Belzer, Riekelt H Houtkooper, Joris J T H Roelofs, Alex F de Vos, Tom van der Poll, Andries E Budding, W Joost Wiersinga
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an emerging cause of pneumonia-derived sepsis in the tropics. The gut microbiota supports local mucosal immunity and is increasingly recognized as a protective mediator in host defenses against systemic infection. Here, we aimed to characterize the composition and function of the intestinal microbiota during experimental melioidosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C57BL/6 mice were infected intranasally with B...
April 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422780/understanding-the-gut-microbiota-in-inflammatory-and-functional-gastrointestinal-diseases
#11
Johanna Sundin, Lena Öhman, Magnus Simren
OBJECTIVE: During the last decade experimental and observational studies have shown that patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) may have an altered intestinal microbial composition compared to healthy subjects. However, no uniform microbial signature has as yet been detected for either IBD or IBS. This review summarizes the current knowledge of microbial dysbiosis, and its potential relationship to the pathophysiology in IBD and IBS. METHODS: A selective review was conducted to summarize the current knowledge of gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of IBD and IBS...
April 18, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420790/honeybee-gut-microbiota-promotes-host-weight-gain-via-bacterial-metabolism-and-hormonal-signaling
#12
Hao Zheng, J Elijah Powell, Margaret I Steele, Carsten Dietrich, Nancy A Moran
Social bees harbor a simple and specialized microbiota that is spatially organized into different gut compartments. Recent results on the potential involvement of bee gut communities in pathogen protection and nutritional function have drawn attention to the impact of the microbiota on bee health. However, the contributions of gut microbiota to host physiology have yet to be investigated. Here we show that the gut microbiota promotes weight gain of both whole body and the gut in individual honey bees. This effect is likely mediated by changes in host vitellogenin, insulin signaling, and gustatory response...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420148/differential-effect-of-sucrose-and-fructose-in-combination-with-a-high-fat-diet-on-intestinal-microbiota-and-kidney-oxidative-stress
#13
Adriana Rosas-Villegas, Mónica Sánchez-Tapia, Azalia Avila-Nava, Victoria Ramírez, Armando R Tovar, Nimbe Torres
There is controversial information about the adverse effect of sucrose (S) or fructose (F) in the development of obesity. Thus, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of S or F in a high fat diet (HF) on gut microbiota and renal oxidative stress. Rats were fed for four months with either high-fat + sucrose (HFS) or high-fat + fructose (HFF) or a control diet (C). Half of the HFS or HFF groups were maintained with the same diet and the other half were switched to the consumption of C. HFS and HFF groups increased 51% and 19% body weight, respectively, compared with the C group...
April 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419329/effects-of-the-inclusion-of-a-bacillus-direct-fed-microbial-on-performance-parameters-bone-quality-recovered-gut-microflora-and-intestinal-morphology-in-broilers-consuming-a-grower-diet-containing-corn-distillers-dried-grains-with-solubles
#14
J D Latorre, X Hernandez-Velasco, J L Vicente, R Wolfenden, B M Hargis, G Tellez
Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) have increasingly been used in poultry diets as a consequence of rising grain costs. Some, but not all, sources of DDGS have a variable compositional value, and a high inclusion of this by-product could be considered a risk factor for presentation of enteric diseases. Presently, 2 experiments were conducted using a starter corn-soybean diet (zero to 7 d) and a corn-DDGS-soybean grower diet (8 to 28 d) with or without inclusion of a Bacillus-direct-fed microbial (DFM)...
April 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418756/cultured-microbes-represent-a-substantial-fraction-of-the-human-and-mouse-gut-microbiota
#15
Ilias Lagkouvardos, Jörg Overmann, Thomas Clavel
During the last 15 years, molecular techniques have been preferred over culture-based approaches for the study of mammalian gut microbiota, i.e. the communities of microorganisms dwelling in the intestine of mammals. The main reason is the belief that the majority of gut bacteria, especially strict anaerobes, escape cultivation. Despite numerous such statements in publications, the literature does not provide a clear overview on the subject. In the present manuscript, we highlight recent work on the cultivation of bacteria from the intestine of mammals, review the literature and provide novel data pertaining to cultured fractions of mammalian gut microbiota...
April 18, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416491/locoregional-effects-of-microbiota-in-a-preclinical-model-of-colon-carcinogenesis
#16
Sarah Tomkovich, Ye Yang, Kathryn Winglee, Josee Gauthier, Marcus Mühlbauer, Xiaolun Sun, Mansour Mohamadzadeh, Xiuli Liu, Patricia Martin, Gary P Wang, Eric Oswald, Anthony A Fodor, Christian Jobin
Inflammation and microbiota are critical components of intestinal tumorigenesis. To dissect how the microbiota contributes to tumor distribution, we generated germ-free (GF) ApcMin/+ and ApcMin/+;Il10-/- mice and exposed them to specific-pathogen-free (SPF) or colorectal cancer-associated bacteria. We found colon tumorigenesis significantly correlated with inflammation in SPF housed ApcMin/+;Il10-/-, but not ApcMin/+ mice. In contrast, small intestinal neoplasia development significantly correlated with age in both ApcMin/+;Il10-/- and ApcMin/+ mice...
April 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415628/gut-microbiota-drives-the-attenuation-of-dextran-sulphate-sodium-induced-colitis-by-huangqin-decoction
#17
Yang Yang, Gang Chen, Qian Yang, Juan Ye, Xueting Cai, Pamo Tsering, Xiaolan Cheng, Chunping Hu, Shuangquan Zhang, Peng Cao
The gut microbiota, including probiotics and pathogenic microorganisms, is involved in ulcerative colitis (UC) by regulating pathogenic microorganisms and the production of intestinal mucosal antibodies. Huangqin decoction (HQD), a traditional Chinese formula chronicled in the Shanghan lun, has been recognized as an effective drug for UC, owing to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. In the present study, we investigated whether HQD ameliorates dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis through alteration of the gut microbiota...
March 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414794/intestinal-extra-intestinal-and-systemic-sequelae-of-toxoplasma-gondii-induced-acute-ileitis-in-mice-harboring-a-human-gut-microbiota
#18
Eliane von Klitzing, Ira Ekmekciu, Anja A Kühl, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
BACKGROUND: Within seven days following peroral high dose infection with Toxoplasma gondii susceptible conventionally colonized mice develop acute ileitis due to an underlying T helper cell (Th) -1 type immunopathology. We here addressed whether mice harboring a human intestinal microbiota developed intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae upon ileitis induction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Secondary abiotic mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and associated with a complex human intestinal microbiota following peroral fecal microbiota transplantation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412519/vitamin-d-signaling-in-intestinal-innate-immunity-and-homeostasis
#19
REVIEW
Vassil Dimitrov, John H White
The lumen of the gut hosts a plethora of microorganisms that participate in food assimilation, inactivation of harmful particles and in vitamin synthesis. On the other hand, enteric flora, a number of food antigens, and toxins are capable of triggering immune responses causing inflammation, which, when unresolved, may lead to chronic conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is important, therefore, to contain the gut bacteria within the lumen, control microbial load and composition, as well as ensure adequate innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogenic threats...
April 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411221/an-extracellular-cell-attached-pullulanase-confers-branched-%C3%AE-glucan-utilization-in-human-gut-lactobacillus-acidophilus
#20
Marie S Møller, Yong Jun Goh, Kasper Bøwig Rasmussen, Wojciech Cypryk, Hasan Ufuk Celebioglu, Todd R Klaenhammer, Birte Svensson, Maher Abou Hachem
Of the few predicted extracellular glycan-active enzymes, glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 14 (GH13_14) pullulanases are the most common in human gut lactobacilli. These enzymes share a unique modular organization, not observed in other bacteria, featuring a catalytic module, two starch binding modules, a domain of unknown function, and a C-terminal surface layer association protein (SLAP) domain. Here we explore the specificity of a representative of this group of pullulanases, LaPul13_14 and its role in branched α-glucans metabolism in the well characterized Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM that is widely used as a probiotic...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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