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Intestinal gut microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220870/long-term-use-of-ceftriaxone-sodium-induced-changes-in-gut-microbiota-and-immune-system
#1
Yanjie Guo, Xuefei Yang, Yane Qi, Shu Wen, Yinhui Liu, Shaoying Tang, Rongsheng Huang, Li Tang
Antibiotic administration, while facilitating clearance of targeted infections, also perturbs commensal microbial communities. Previous studies have all focused on the effects of short term use of antibiotics. Here, we focus on the effects of long term use of antibiotic on gut microbiota and immunity. BALB/c mice received saline or different doses of ceftriaxone sodium (100, 200 and 400 mg/mL) via daily gavage for 150 days. Alterations of fecal microbiota, small intestine histopathology, body weight, spleen index, serum IgG, mucus SIgA, IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio, CD4/CD8 ratio and CD4(+)CD25(+) cells were evaluated...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219317/dietary-fiber-gap-and-host-gut-microbiota
#2
Meng Han, Ping Liu, Defa Li, Yuan Li, Xi Ma
Accumulating evidence are dramatically increasing access to the facts that the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in host metabolism and health, which revealed the possibility of a plethora of associations between gut bacteria and human diseases. Several functional roles carried out by a major class of host's diet, such as fiber. Fiber is the main source of microbiota-accessible carbohydrate in the diet of humans. In modern diet, it is difficult to intake dietary fiber as enough as recommended standard. The low-fiber diet in the modern life, known as fiber gap, can trigger to a substantial depletion of the human gut microbiota diversity and beneficial metabolites...
February 20, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217370/tryptophan-a-gut-microbiota-derived-metabolites-regulating-inflammation
#3
REVIEW
Lucie Etienne-Mesmin, Benoit Chassaing, Andrew T Gewirtz
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which comprise Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic intestinal disorders with an increased prevalence and incidence over the last decade in many different regions over the world. The etiology of IBD is still not well defined, but evidence suggest that it results from perturbation of the homeostasis between the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system, with the involvement of both genetic and environmental factors. Genome wide association studies, which involve large-scale genome-wide screening of potential polymorphism, have identified several mutations associated with IBD...
February 6, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215168/contributions-of-the-interaction-between-dietary-protein-and-gut-microbiota-to-intestinal-health
#4
Ning Ma, Yanan Tian, Yi Wu, Xi Ma
There is growing recognition that composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiota can be modulated by the dietary proteins which in turn impact health. The amino acid composition and digestibility of proteins, which are influenced by its source and amount of intake, play a pivotal role in determining the microbiota. Reciprocally, it appears that the gut microbiota is also able to affect protein metabolism which give rise to the view that function between the microbiota and protein can proceed in both directions...
February 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215066/how-to-modulate-gut-microbiota-diet-pre-probiotics-or-antibiotics
#5
Francesca R Ponziani, Cecilia Binda, Antonio Gasbarrini
The gut microbiota is involved in the maintenance of humans' health and its alterations have been associated to several intestinal and extra intestinal disorders. For this reason, there is increasing interest on gut microbiota modulation as both a preventive strategy or as a therapeutic option in different gastrointestinal, hepatic and systemic diseases. Many studies have tried to find out the impact of diet, prebiotic, probiotic and antibiotics on gut microbiota composition and function, obtaining very heterogeneous and sometimes conflicting results, especially as regards the effect on clinical outcomes...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214071/lipocalin-2-a-master-mediator-of-intestinal-and-metabolic-inflammation
#6
REVIEW
Alexander R Moschen, Timon E Adolph, Romana R Gerner, Verena Wieser, Herbert Tilg
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2), also known as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), is released by various cell types and is an attractive biomarker of inflammation, ischemia, infection, and kidney damage. Both intestinal and metabolic inflammation, as observed in obesity and related disorders, are associated with increased LCN2 synthesis. While LCN2 in the intestinal tract regulates the composition of the gut microbiota and shows anti-inflammatory activities, it also exhibits proinflammatory activities in other experimental settings...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214040/reinforcement-of-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-by-arabinoxylans-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects-a-randomized-controlled-trial-arabinoxylans-in-gut-barrier
#7
Bouke N Salden, Freddy J Troost, Ellen Wilms, Pilar Truchado, Ramiro Vilchez-Vargas, Dietmar H Pieper, Ruy Jáuregui, Massimo Marzorati, Tom van de Wiele, Sam Possemiers, Ad A Masclee
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity and metabolic diseases are associated with alterations in microbial composition and impaired gut barrier. Previous in vitro and animal studies have shown that arabinoxylans (AX) have the potential to modulate gut microbiota and gut barrier and therefore could have a protective role. Primary aim of the study was to investigate the effect of AX on intestinal permeability. Secondary aims included the effect of AX on gene transcription and protein expression of tight junctions (TJ), intestinal microbiota composition and activity, immune response and metabolic markers in overweight and obese individuals...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212861/accumulation-of-phosphatidylcholine-on-gut-mucosal-surface-is-not-dominated-by-electrostatic-interactions
#8
Agatha Korytowski, Wasim Abuillan, Federico Amadei, Ali Makky, Andrea Gumiero, Irmgard Sinning, Annika Gauss, Wolfgang Stremmel, Motomu Tanaka
The accumulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the intestinal mucus layer is crucial for the protection of colon epithelia from the bacterial attack. It has been reported that the depletion of PC is a distinct feature of ulcerative colitis. Here we addressed the question how PC interacts with its binding proteins, the mucins, which may establish the hydrophobic barrier against colonic microbiota. In the first step, the interactions of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) with two mucin preparations from porcine stomach, have been studied using dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurement, and Langmuir isotherms, suggesting that mucin binds to the surface of DOPC vesicles...
February 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211537/ambient-ultrafine-particle-ingestion-alters-gut-microbiota-in-association-with-increased-atherogenic-lipid-metabolites
#9
Rongsong Li, Jieping Yang, Arian Saffari, Jonathan Jacobs, Kyung In Baek, Greg Hough, Muriel H Larauche, Jianguo Ma, Nelson Jen, Nabila Moussaoui, Bill Zhou, Hanul Kang, Srinivasa Reddy, Susanne M Henning, Matthew J Campen, Joseph Pisegna, Zhaoping Li, Alan M Fogelman, Constantinos Sioutas, Mohamad Navab, Tzung K Hsiai
Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is associated with atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Ultrafine particles (UFP, dp < 0.1-0.2 μm) are redox active components of PM. We hypothesized that orally ingested UFP promoted atherogenic lipid metabolites in both the intestine and plasma via altered gut microbiota composition. Low density lipoprotein receptor-null (Ldlr(-/-)) mice on a high-fat diet were orally administered with vehicle control or UFP (40 μg/mouse/day) for 3 days a week...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210795/observational-comparisons-of-intestinal-microbiota-characterizations-immune-enzyme-activities-and-muscle-amino-acid-compositions-of-loach-in-paddy-fields-and-ponds-in-sichuan-province
#10
Song Yang, Yuanliang Duan, Jie Zhang, Jian Zhou, Ya Liu, Jun Du, Liulan Zhao, Zongjun Du, Shuaishuai Han
A balanced intestinal microbial ecosystem is crucial for the growth and health of animals because it can influence the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the intestine. Different culture conditions may change the ecology of microbial in intestine and thus affect the overall growth performance of an animal. In this study, we compared intestinal morphologies, microbiota characterizations, immune enzyme activities, and muscle amino acid compositions of loach cultured in paddy fields and ponds. The fish were fed with the same diets from May 5 to November 5 (2015) in three paddy or ponds...
February 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210076/potential-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-synthetic-torpor-and-therapeutic-hypothermia
#11
REVIEW
Claudia Sisa, Silvia Turroni, Roberto Amici, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela, Matteo Cerri
Therapeutic hypothermia is today used in several clinical settings, among them the gut related diseases that are influenced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. This perspective paved the way to the study of hibernation physiology, in natural hibernators, highlighting an unexpected importance of the gut microbial ecosystem in hibernation and torpor. In natural hibernators, intestinal microbes adaptively reorganize their structural configuration during torpor, and maintain a mutualistic configuration regardless of long periods of fasting and cold temperatures...
January 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207737/the-enteric-nervous-system-promotes-intestinal-health-by-constraining-microbiota-composition
#12
Annah S Rolig, Erika K Mittge, Julia Ganz, Josh V Troll, Ellie Melancon, Travis J Wiles, Kristin Alligood, W Zac Stephens, Judith S Eisen, Karen Guillemin
Sustaining a balanced intestinal microbial community is critical for maintaining intestinal health and preventing chronic inflammation. The gut is a highly dynamic environment, subject to periodic waves of peristaltic activity. We hypothesized that this dynamic environment is a prerequisite for a balanced microbial community and that the enteric nervous system (ENS), a chief regulator of physiological processes within the gut, profoundly influences gut microbiota composition. We found that zebrafish lacking an ENS due to a mutation in the Hirschsprung disease gene, sox10, develop microbiota-dependent inflammation that is transmissible between hosts...
February 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206729/gut-microbiota-and-gastric-disease
#13
Dolores Sgambato, Agnese Miranda, Lorenzo Romano, Marco Romano
The gut microbiota may be considered a crucial "organ" of human body because of its role in the maintenance of the balance between health as well as disease. It is mainly located in the small bowel and colon, while, the stomach was long thought to be sterile in particular for its high acid production. In particular, stomach was considered "an hostile place" for bacterial growth until the identification of Helicobacter pylori (HP). Now, the stomach and its microbiota can be considered as two different "organs" that share the same place and they have an impact on each other...
15, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204873/dysbiosis-a-risk-factor-for-celiac-disease
#14
REVIEW
Anamaria Girbovan, Genel Sur, Gabriel Samasca, Iulia Lupan
Celiac disease remains one of the most challenging pathologies of the small intestine. It involves multiple pathogenic pathways and there are no disease-changing pharmacological agents available against it yet. The term microbiota refers to the community of microorganisms that inhabit a particular region of the body. Normal gut microbiota has a vital role in maintaining the intestinal homeostasis and promoting health. Celiac disease is associated with microbiota alteration, especially with an increase in the number of Gram-negative bacteria and a decrease in the number of Gram-positive bacteria...
February 15, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198673/diversity-and-enterotype-in-gut-bacterial-community-of-adults-in-taiwan
#15
Chao Liang, Han-Chi Tseng, Hui-Mei Chen, Wei-Chi Wang, Chih-Min Chiu, Jen-Yun Chang, Kuan-Yi Lu, Shun-Long Weng, Tzu-Hao Chang, Chao-Hsiang Chang, Chen-Tsung Weng, Hwei-Ming Wang, Hsien-Da Huang
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal microbiota, particularly gut microbiota, is associated with human health. The biodiversity of gut microbiota is affected by ethnicities and environmental factors such as dietary habits or medicine intake, and three enterotypes of the human gut microbiome were announced in 2011. These enterotypes are not significantly correlated with gender, age, or body weight but are influenced by long-term dietary habits. However, to date, only two enterotypes (predominantly consisting of Bacteroides and Prevotella) have shown these characteristics in previous research; the third enterotype remains ambiguous...
January 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197578/chemical-characterization-of-the-glycated-myofibrillar-proteins-from-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-and-their-impacts-on-the-human-gut-microbiota-in-vitro-fermentation
#16
Kaining Han, Ye Yao, Shiyuan Dong, Sun Jin, Hang Xiao, Haohao Wu, Mingyong Zeng
In this study, the chemical characterization of glycoconjugates of myofibrillar proteins from grass carp conjugated with glucose via Maillard reaction for up to 24 h of dry-heating was investigated, and their impacts on the microbial community in vitro human fecal fermentation were firstly evaluated by high-throughput sequencing technologies. The glycation greatly increased the furosine levels in glycoconjugates, which reached the maximum level (2.87 ± 0.08 mg per 100 mg protein) for 9 h of heating, and resulted in the structural changes of myofibrillar proteins based on the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis...
February 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197380/the-influence-of-gut-decontamination-prophylactic-antibiotics-on-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-and-survival-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#17
Bertrand Routy, Caroline Letendre, David Enot, Maxime Chénard-Poirier, Vikram Mehraj, Noémie Charbonneau Séguin, Khaled Guenda, Kathia Gagnon, Paul-Louis Woerther, David Ghez, Silvy Lachance
The intestinal microbiota plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). High-dose conditioning regimens given prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) modulate the composition of gut microbiota and damage the gut epithelial barrier, resulting in increased systemic inflammation. We assessed whether gut decontamination with antibiotics (ATB) prior to aHSCT influenced the frequency of aGVHD and mortality in 500 patients from two Canadian centers between 2005 and 2012...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196137/effects-of-dietary-nutrient-levels-on-microbial-community-composition-and-diversity-in-the-ileal-contents-of-pregnant-huanjiang-mini-pigs
#18
Yujiao Ji, Xiangfeng Kong, Huawei Li, Qian Zhu, Qiuping Guo, Yulong Yin
The mammalian gut microbiota influences various metabolic and physiological processes. Substantial metabolic changes occur during a healthy pregnancy that may be related to microbiota composition dynamics. However, the effect of diet on intestinal microbiota composition and diversity during pregnancy remains unclear. We examined the ileal contents of Huanjiang mini-pigs at two pregnancy stages to determine the effects of dietary nutrient levels on such microbial communities. Animals received either a higher-nutrient (HN) diet formulated to meet US National Research Council requirements or a lower-nutrient (LN) diet that met the Chinese National Feeding Standard recommendations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196086/nopal-feeding-reduces-adiposity-intestinal-inflammation-and-shifts-the-cecal-microbiota-and-metabolism-in-high-fat-fed-rats
#19
Sofia Moran-Ramos, Xuan He, Elizabeth L Chin, Armando R Tovar, Nimbe Torres, Carolyn M Slupsky, Helen E Raybould
Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa) rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195067/the-effect-of-short-term-treatment-with-probiotic-vsl-3-on-various-clinical-and-biochemical-parameters-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#20
W Marlicz, E Wunsch, M Mydlowska, M Milkiewicz, K Serwin, M Mularczyk, P Milkiewicz, J Raszeja-Wyszomirska
The evidence is mounting that alterations of innate immunity and gut microbiota contribute to chronic liver disease and its complications. Modulation of intestinal microbiota is an emerging therapeutic strategy in hepatology. Probiotics through modulation of intestinal milieu have the potential to affect the course of liver disease. The data concerning the influence of probiotics on various plasma molecules and compounds involved in the pathogenesis of hyperdynamic circulatory state in liver cirrhosis is still not confluent and require further evaluation...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
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