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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107458/neuropilin-1-involvement-in-choroidal-and-retinal-neovascularisation
#1
Patricia Fernández-Robredo, Senthil Selvam, Michael B Powner, Dawn A Sim, Marcus Fruttiger
PURPOSE: Inhibiting VEGF is the gold standard treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). It is also effective in preventing retinal oedema and neovascularisation (NV) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinal vein occlusions (RVO). Neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) is a co-receptor for VEGF and many other growth factors, and therefore a possible alternative drug target in intra ocular neovascular disease. Here we assessed choroidal and retinal NV in an inducible, endothelial specific knock out model for Nrp1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041969/needle-free-injection-of-vesicular-phospholipid-gels-a-novel-approach-to-overcome-an-administration-hurdle-for-semisolid-depot-systems
#2
Michaela Breitsamer, Gerhard Winter
Vesicular phospholipid gels (VPGs) are depot formulations for the sustained release of drugs which are characterized by a high amount of phospholipids in the formulation. They consist of physiological excipients only and therefore display high biocompatibility. Their manufacture is simple, cheap, solvent free and ideal for the processing of proteins and peptides because of the low stress on the molecule e.g. by elevated temperatures. One major hurdle of VPGs is their high viscosity which makes them hard to almost impossible to inject with conventional, thin needles used for subcutaneous administration...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039081/neurologic-complications-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#3
REVIEW
Enrico Maffini, Moreno Festuccia, Lucia Brunello, Mario Boccadoro, Luisa Giaccone, Benedetto Bruno
Neurologic complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are frequently life-threatening, and their clinical management can be highly challenging. A wide spectrum of causative factors-including drug-related toxicities; infections sustained by virus, bacteria, or invasive molds; metabolic encephalopathy; cerebrovascular disorders; immune-mediated disorders; and disease recurrence-may lead to potentially lethal complications. Moreover, given that some neurologic complications are not uncommonly diagnosed post mortem, their overall incidence is likely to be underestimated...
December 27, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993133/synthesis-and-functionalization-of-protease-activated-nanoparticles-with-tissue-plasminogen-activator-peptides-as-targeting-moiety-and-diagnostic-tool-for-pancreatic-cancer
#4
Sophie Dobiasch, Szilard Szanyi, Aleko Kjaev, Jens Werner, Albert Strauss, Christian Weis, Lars Grenacher, Katya Kapilov-Buchman, Liron-Limor Israel, Jean-Paul Lellouche, Erica Locatelli, Mauro Comes Franchini, Jennifer Vandooren, Ghislain Opdenakker, Klaus Felix
BACKGROUND: Functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) are one promising tool for detecting specific molecular targets and combine molecular biology and nanotechnology aiming at modern imaging. We aimed at ligand-directed delivery with a suitable target-biomarker to detect early pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Promising targets are galectins (Gal), due to their strong expression in and on PDAC-cells and occurrence at early stages in cancer precursor lesions, but not in adjacent normal tissues...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955679/post-mortem-histopathology-underlying-%C3%AE-amyloid-pet-imaging-following-flutemetamol-f-18-injection
#5
Milos D Ikonomovic, Chris J Buckley, Kerstin Heurling, Paul Sherwin, Paul A Jones, Michelle Zanette, Chester A Mathis, William E Klunk, Aruna Chakrabarty, James Ironside, Azzam Ismail, Colin Smith, Dietmar R Thal, Thomas G Beach, Gill Farrar, Adrian P L Smith
In vivo imaging of fibrillar β-amyloid deposits may assist clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), aid treatment selection for patients, assist clinical trials of therapeutic drugs through subject selection, and be used as an outcome measure. A recent phase III trial of [(18)F]flutemetamol positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in 106 end-of-life subjects demonstrated the ability to identify fibrillar β-amyloid by comparing in vivo PET to post-mortem histopathology. Post-mortem analyses demonstrated a broad and continuous spectrum of β-amyloid pathology in AD and other dementing and non-dementing disease groups...
December 12, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932047/disturbances-of-glucose-metabolism-associated-with-the-use-of-psychotropic-drugs-a-post-mortem-evaluation
#6
Cristian Palmiere, Marc Augsburger, Vincent Varlet
Treatment with atypical antipsychotic agents and tetracyclic antidepressants has been associated with impaired glycemic control. Reported complications have included new-onset diabetes mellitus, life-threatening diabetic ketoacidosis and, rarely, death. The study presented herein focuses on biochemical investigations of glucose metabolism in a series of medico-legal cases that revealed the presence of atypical antipsychotic agents (clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone) or mirtazapine at toxicology...
December 5, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919010/the-role-of-alcohol-dependency-in-deaths-among-people-with-epilepsy-recorded-by-the-national-drug-related-deaths-index-ndrdi-in-ireland-2004-2013
#7
Ena Lynn, Suzi Lyons, Yvonne Langan, Sarah Craig, Colin Doherty
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate deaths among individuals with epilepsy recorded on the National Drug-Related Deaths Index (NDRDI). METHOD: A descriptive analysis of individuals with a known history of epilepsy in the NDRDI from 2004 to 2013 was undertaken. RESULTS: Between 2004 and 2013, 225 (2%) of the recorded cases had a documented history of epilepsy, 82 (36%) of whom had epilepsy recorded as the cause of death. Of these 82 deaths, the majority were male (60-73%) and half (median age) were aged 47 years or younger...
November 23, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913818/-amyloid-positron-emission-tomography-with-18-%C3%A2-f-florbetaben-in-the-diagnostic-workup-of-dementia-patients
#8
S Schönecker, C Prix, T Raiser, N Ackl, E Wlasich, G Stenglein-Krapf, E Mille, M Brendel, O Sabri, M Patt, H Barthel, P Bartenstein, J Levin, A Rominger, A Danek
BACKGROUND: To this day the definite diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease still relies on post-mortem histopathological detection of neurofibrillary tangles and beta-amyloid deposits. Amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) is a new diagnostic tool that enables the in vivo quantification of pathological beta-amyloid deposits. The aim of the current study was to evaluate to what extent (18)F-florbetaben-PET (FBB-PET) influences the diagnosis of patients with dementia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Imaging with FBB-PET was performed on 33 patients from our outpatient department for cognitive neurology...
December 2, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898722/suicide-among-young-people-and-adults-in-ireland-method-characteristics-toxicological-analysis-and-substance-abuse-histories-compared
#9
Ella Arensman, Marco Bennardi, Celine Larkin, Amanda Wall, Carmel McAuliffe, Jacklyn McCarthy, Eileen Williamson, Ivan J Perry
OBJECTIVE: Information on factors associated with suicide among young individuals in Ireland is limited. The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic characteristics and circumstances of death associated with age among individuals who died by suicide. METHODS: The study examined 121 consecutive suicides (2007-2012) occurring in the southern eastern part of Ireland (Cork city and county). Data were obtained from coroners, family informants, and health care professionals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872687/determining-the-molecular-pathways-underlying-the-protective-effect-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-for-alzheimer-s-disease-a-bioinformatics-approach
#10
Alejo J Nevado-Holgado, Simon Lovestone
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents a substantial unmet need, due to increasing prevalence in an ageing society and the absence of a disease modifying therapy. Epidemiological evidence shows a protective effect of non steroidal anti inflammatory (NSAID) drugs, and genome wide association studies (GWAS) show consistent linkage to inflammatory pathways; both observations suggesting anti-inflammatory compounds might be effective in AD therapy although clinical trials to date have not been positive. In this study, we use pathway enrichment and fuzzy logic to identify pathways (KEGG database) simultaneously affected in both AD and by NSAIDs (Sulindac, Piroxicam, Paracetamol, Naproxen, Nabumetone, Ketoprofen, Diclofenac and Aspirin)...
2017: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793687/synthesis-characterization-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-a-magnetic-cisplatin-delivery-nanosystem-based-on-pmaa-graft-peg-copolymers
#11
Efstathia Voulgari, Aristides Bakandritsos, Sotiris Galtsidis, Vassilis Zoumpourlis, Benjamin P Burke, Gonçalo S Clemente, Christopher Cawthorne, Stephen J Archibald, Jiři Tuček, Radek Zbořil, Vasiliki Kantarelou, Andreas Germanos Karydas, Konstantinos Avgoustakis
The development of anticancer drug delivery systems which retain or enhance the cytotoxic properties of the drug to tumorous tissues, while reducing toxicity to other organs is of key importance. We investigated different poly(methacrylic acid)-g-poly(ethyleneglycol methacrylate) polymers as in situ coating agents for magnetite nanocrystallites. The obtained magnetic nano-assemblies were in turn thoroughly characterized for their structural, colloidal and physicochemical properties (drug loading capacity/release, magnetic field triggered drug release, cell uptake and localization) in order to select the best performing system...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756689/neuroadaptations-to-antipsychotic-drugs-insights-from-pre-clinical-and-human-post-mortem-studies
#12
Davide Amato, Clare L Beasley, Margaret K Hahn, Anthony C Vernon
Antipsychotic drugs, all of which block the dopamine D2 receptor to a greater or lesser extent, are the mainstay for the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. Engaging in a deeper understanding of how antipsychotics act on the brain and body, at the cellular, molecular and physiological level is vital to comprehend both the beneficial and potentially harmful actions of these medications and stimulate development of novel therapeutics. To address this, we review recent advances in our understanding of neuroadaptations to antipsychotics, focusing on (1) treatment efficacy, (2) impact on brain volume and (3) evidence from human post-mortem studies that attempt to dissect neuropathological effects of antipsychotic drugs from organic schizophrenia neurobiology and (4) cardio-metabolic side effects...
October 15, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747724/citalopram-induced-long-qt-syndrome-and-the-mammalian-dive-reflex
#13
Frank F Vincenzi, Philippe Lunetta
While SCUBA diving, a 44-year-old Caucasian patient had an abnormal cardiac rhythm, presumably Torsade de Pointes (TdP), during the initial descent to depth. Upon surfacing, she developed ventricular fibrillation and died. The patient had been treated for mild depression for nearly a year with citalopram 60 mg per day, a drug known to cause prolonged QT interval. She had also been treated with two potentially hepatotoxic drugs. Liver impairment causes selective loss of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 activity, the major pathway for metabolism of citalopram...
December 2015: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715341/modulation-of-glp-1-signaling-as-a-novel-therapeutic-approach-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology
#14
Antonella Tramutola, Andrea Arena, Chiara Cini, D Allan Butterfield, Eugenio Barone
Clinical studies suggest a link between peripheral insulin resistance and cognitive dysfunction. Post-mortem analyses of Alzheimer disease (AD) subjects revealed insulin resistance in the brain, suggesting a role of this condition in cognitive deficits observed in AD. In this review, we focus on the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) signaling pathway, whose role in the brain is collecting increasing attention because of its association with insulin signaling activation. Areas covered: The role of GLP-1-mediated effects in the brain and how they are affected along the progression of AD pathology is discussed...
January 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701408/enhanced-sensitivity-to-drugs-of-abuse-and-palatable-foods-following-maternal-overnutrition
#15
D Peleg-Raibstein, G Sarker, K Litwan, S D Krämer, S M Ametamey, R Schibli, C Wolfrum
Epidemiological studies have shown an association between maternal overnutrition and increased risk of the progeny for the development of obesity as well as psychiatric disorders. Animal studies have shown results regarding maternal high-fat diet (HFD) and a greater risk of the offspring to develop obesity. However, it still remains unknown whether maternal HFD can program the central reward system in such a way that it will imprint long-term changes that will predispose the offspring to addictive-like behaviors that may lead to obesity...
October 4, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684727/a-rat-carotid-balloon-injury-model-to-test-anti-vascular-remodeling-therapeutics
#16
Natalia Petrasheskaya, Hyun-Jin Tae, Ismayil Ahmet, Mark I Talan, Edward G Lakatta, Li Lin
The rat carotid balloon injury is a well-established surgical model that has been used to study arterial remodeling and vascular cell proliferation. It is also a valuable model system to test, and to evaluate therapeutics and drugs that negate maladaptive remodeling in the vessel. The injury, or barotrauma, in the vessel lumen caused by an inflated balloon via an inserted catheter induces subsequent neointimal growth, often leading to hyperplasia or thickening of the vessel wall that narrows, or obstructs the lumen...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681340/determination-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-a-single-sample-of-human-teeth-by-a-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-method
#17
Giovanni Ottaviani, Roberto Cameriere, Marta Cippitelli, Rino Froldi, Giovanna Tassoni, Massimiliano Zampi, Mariano Cingolani
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to detect drugs of abuse in a single sample of tooth. Pulverized samples of dental materials were subjected to acid hydrolysis to detect opiates, cocaine and their metabolites. The residual dental materials from these analyses were subjected to basic extraction to detect cannabis products (Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol). The method showed a good linearity between 0.05 and 2 ng/mg for all substances...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630300/evaluating-the-effect-of-micropump%C3%A2-position-internal-pressure-and-doxorubicin-dosage-on-efficacy-of-pressurized-intra-peritoneal-aerosol-chemotherapy-pipac-in-an-ex-vivo-model
#18
Veria Khosrawipour, Tanja Khosrawipour, Thomas Albert Falkenstein, David Diaz-Carballo, Eckart Förster, Aras Osma, Irenäus Anton Adamietz, Jürgen Zieren, Khashayar Fakhrian
BACKGROUND/AIM: Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) is a novel clinical approach to the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. A well-established, not anatomic ex vivo PIPAC model was used to investigate the influence of changes in internal pressure, distance of the Micropump(©) (MIP) to the distributing surface and the drug concentration on the penetration depth of doxorubicin in the target tissue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Doxorubicin was aerosolized in an ex vivo PIPAC model using a hermetic container system mimicking the abdominal cavity...
2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597253/concurrent-estimation-of-metabolite-concentrations-along-with-parent-drug-quantification-in-post-mortem-blood
#19
Jenni Viinamäki, Ilkka Ojanperä
There is a constant demand for the quantification of drug metabolites within post-mortem toxicology. Especially electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry techniques necessitate that calibration is carried out using primary reference standards due to the non-uniform ionization efficiency between parent drugs and their metabolites. As reference standards for metabolites are not readily available and their costs are high, alternative methods for immediate quantification are required. In this study, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and corona charged aerosol detection was utilized for the concurrent quantification of 23 drug metabolites using the corresponding parent drug for calibration...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591717/post-mortem-concentrations-of-drugs-determined-in-femoral-blood-in-single-drug-fatalities-compared-with-multi-drug-poisoning-deaths
#20
Alan Wayne Jones, Anita Holmgren, Johan Ahlner
BACKGROUND: Reference concentrations of drugs in post-mortem femoral blood furnishes useful information when poisoning (intoxication) deaths are investigated. However, few publications compare the concentrations of drugs in single-drug fatalities with multi-drug intoxications. This article attempts to fill this gap in knowledge. METHODS: We searched a national forensic toxicology database (TOXBASE) and found N=13,963 deaths attributed by pathologists to intoxication by drugs (poisoning)...
October 2016: Forensic Science International
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