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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453005/post-mortem-quetiapine-concentrations-in-hair-segments-of-psychiatric-patients-correlation-between-hair-concentration-dose-and-concentration-in-blood
#1
Kamilla Nyborg Günther, Sys Stybe Johansen, Marie Katrine Klose Nielsen, Petra Wicktor, Jytte Banner, Kristian Linnet
Drug analysis in hair is useful when seeking to establish drug intake over a period of months to years. Segmental hair analysis can also document whether psychiatric patients are receiving a stable intake of antipsychotics. This study describes segmental analysis of the antipsychotic drug quetiapine in post-mortem hair samples from long-term quetiapine users by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. The aim was to obtain more knowledge on quetiapine concentrations in hair and to relate the concentration in hair to the administered dose and the post-mortem concentration in femoral blood...
February 3, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437467/the-analytical-challenge-in-the-determination-of-cathinones-key-players-in-the-worldwide-phenomenon-of-novel-psychoactive-substances
#2
Rosa A S Couto, Luís Moreira Gonçalves, Félix Carvalho, José A Rodrigues, Cecília M P Rodrigues, M Beatriz Quinaz
Since the turn of the century, the synthesis, availability and use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) have been increasingly reported worldwide, being currently considered a complex global phenomenon. As most NPS are not detected in routine drug screening, an extra effort has been made to develop new analytical methods for the detection of these compounds, with several approaches being successfully applied and reported in the literature. The increased traffic of NPS is often related to limited capacity for detecting and monitoring these compounds, which makes essential to explore in detail both conventional and more recent approaches to prospect novel sensing strategies and develop in-the-field sensors able to detect NPS in a time efficient manner, within a wide range of concentrations, in a variety of sample matrices such as biological samples, wastewater, powders, crystals and post-mortem specimens...
February 13, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415163/genetic-variation-of-a-drd2-co-expression-network-is-associated-with-changes-in-prefrontal-function-after-d2-receptors-stimulation
#3
Pierluigi Selvaggi, Giulio Pergola, Barbara Gelao, Pasquale Di Carlo, Maria Antonietta Nettis, Graziella Amico, Leonardo Fazio, Antonio Rampino, Fabio Sambataro, Giuseppe Blasi, Alessandro Bertolino
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) contribute to the inverted U-shaped relationship between dopamine signaling and prefrontal function. Genetic networks from post-mortem human brain revealed 84 partner genes co-expressed with DRD2. Moreover, eight functional single nucleotide polymorphisms combined into a polygenic co-expression index (PCI) predicted co-expression of this DRD2 network and were associated with prefrontal function in humans. Here, we investigated the non-linear association of the PCI with behavioral and Working Memory (WM) related brain response to pharmacological D2Rs stimulation...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408723/the-distribution-and-redistribution-of-fentanyl-norfentanyl-in-post-mortem-samples
#4
C N Chatterton, M Scott-Ham
This article compares 249 post mortem case reports that were positive for fentanyl/norfentanyl. All the cases were submitted to, and analyzed by, the toxicology department of the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. This study highlights the varied distribution of fentanyl in the body after death as a result of misadventure, i.e., these are accidental drug overdose cases as opposed to a study of analytical data resulting from fentanyl use/administration in a clinical environment and/or death as a result of suicide...
December 28, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377008/blood-brain-barrier-breakdown-in-alzheimer-disease-and-other-neurodegenerative-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Melanie D Sweeney, Abhay P Sagare, Berislav V Zlokovic
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a continuous endothelial membrane within brain microvessels that has sealed cell-to-cell contacts and is sheathed by mural vascular cells and perivascular astrocyte end-feet. The BBB protects neurons from factors present in the systemic circulation and maintains the highly regulated CNS internal milieu, which is required for proper synaptic and neuronal functioning. BBB disruption allows influx into the brain of neurotoxic blood-derived debris, cells and microbial pathogens and is associated with inflammatory and immune responses, which can initiate multiple pathways of neurodegeneration...
January 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364498/synthetic-cathinones-related-fatalities-an-update
#6
S Zaami, R Giorgetti, S Pichini, F Pantano, E Marinelli, F P Busardò
OBJECTIVE: Synthetic cathinones, more commonly known as "bath salts", are synthetic drugs chemically related to cathinone, a psychostimulant found in the khat plant. They are the first most consumed products among new psychoactive substances, which cause psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects determining a number of fatalities worldwide.  In this paper, we have systematically reviewed cases of synthetic cathinones-related fatalities analytically confirmed, which have occurred in the last few years...
January 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351369/heparin-but-not-tissue-plasminogen-activator-improves-outcomes-in-dcd-liver-transplantation-in-a-porcine-model
#7
Amelia J Hessheimer, Marina Vendrell, Javier Muñoz, Ángel Ruíz, Alba Díaz, Luís Flores Sigüenza, Jorge Rodríguez Lanzilotta, Eduardo Delgado Oliver, Jose Fuster, Miquel Navasa, Juan Carlos García-Valdecasas, Pilar Taurá, Constantino Fondevila
BACKGROUND: Ischemic type biliary lesions arise most frequently after DCD liver transplantation and result in high morbidity and graft loss. Many DCD grafts are discarded out of fear for this complication. In theory, microvascular thrombi deposited during donor warm ischemia might be implicated in ITBL pathogenesis. Herein, we aim to evaluate the effects of the administration of either heparin or the fibrinolytic drug TPA as means to improve DCD liver graft quality and potentially avoid ITBL...
January 19, 2018: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329388/a-series-of-deaths-involving-carfentanil-in-the-uk-and-associated-post-mortem-blood-concentrations
#8
Simon P Elliott, Elena Hernandez Lopez
The potent opioid and veterinary drug, carfentanil has recently entered the illicit drug market, especially in relation to heroin and cocaine. Recent publications have reported carfentanil concentrations found in fatalities occurring in the USA. This article presents the toxicological findings in seven heroin/cocaine cases occurring in the UK within a short period of time where carfentanil was detected and measured. Carfentanil was detected along with other drugs in all cases with no alcohol detected in the post-mortem blood in any of the cases...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317062/could-the-screening-for-correct-oral-health-reduce-the-impact-of-death-due-to-bolus-asphyxia-in-adult-patients-a-forensic-case-report
#9
Isabella Aquila, Santo Gratteri, Matteo A Sacco, Emilio Nuzzolese, Vittorio Fineschi, Paola Frati, Pietrantonio Ricci
INTRODUCTION: "Bolus death" or "Café Coronary syndrome" refers to death due to asphyxia caused by an occlusion of the upper airways due to food. In this kind of asphyxia, the food bolus obstructs the larynx or the bronchial branches. This kind of event often affects subjects with acute intoxication due to alcohol or drugs, or with edentulism and with neurological or psychiatric diseases. CASE REPORT: An elderly woman, suffering from schizophrenia, was found dead in her house due to food bolus asphyxia...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244080/quantification-of-methadone-and-main-metabolites-in-nails
#10
Teresa Patrícia Magalhães, Sara Cravo, Diana Dias da Silva, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Carlos Afonso, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Helena Carmo
The quantification of drugs of abuse in keratinized matrices is becoming of special relevance for monitoring consumption and for post-mortem investigations. We aimed to implement an analytical method for the simultaneous detection of morphine (MORF), 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), methadone (MET), 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and 2-ethyl-5-methyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EMDP) in nails. After decontamination, the nail samples (30 mg) were submitted to an alkaline digestion followed by a two-step liquid-liquid and SPE extraction using mixed-mode cation exchange cartridges...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241093/quantitative-analysis-of-drugs-in-hair-by-uhplc-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#11
Robert Kronstrand, Malin Forsman, Markus Roman
Liquid chromatographic methods coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry are increasingly used to identify compounds in various matrices including hair but there are few recommendations regarding the parameters and their criteria to identify a compound. In this study we present a method for the identification and quantification of a range of drugs and discuss the parameters used to identify a compound with high resolution mass spectrometry. Drugs were extracted from hair by incubation in a buffer:solvent mixture at 37°C during 18h...
December 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216524/multiple-fatalities-in-the-north-of-england-associated-with-synthetic-fentanyl-analogue-exposure-detection-and-quantitation-a-case-series-from-early-2017
#12
Laura Hikin, Paul R Smith, Eleanor Ringland, Simon Hudson, Stephen R Morley
BACKGROUND: Synthetic fentanyl analogues are highly potent opioid drugs which have no pharmaceutical use in humans. We detected the synthetic fentanyl analogues; carfentanil, butyryl fentanyl, fluorobutyrylfentanyl, furanylfentanyl, and alfentanil as well as fentanyl itself in 25 cases in early 2017. There have been no previous reports of synthetic fentanyl deaths in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: Cases in which the history clearly stated drug use but where a post mortem blood morphine concentration was lower than would be expected to explain the sudden death, were referred for further analysis by high resolution accurate mass (HRAM) mass spectrometry...
January 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201010/microglia-and-brain-plasticity-in-acute-psychosis-and-schizophrenia-illness-course-a-meta-review
#13
REVIEW
Livia J De Picker, Manuel Morrens, Steven A Chance, Delphine Boche
Objective: Schizophrenia poses a tremendous health, social, and economic burden upon patients and society, indicating current treatment options remain inadequate. Recent findings from several lines of evidence have pointed to the importance of immune system involvement in not only premorbid neurodevelopmental but also subsequent symptom generation and aging processes of brain change in schizophrenia. In this meta-review, we use the summarized evidence from recent quantitative systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses of several subspecialties to critically evaluate the hypothesis that immune-related processes shape the symptomatic presentation and illness course of schizophrenia, both directly and indirectly through altered neuroplasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190510/predicted-activity-of-ugt2b7-abcb1-oprm1-and-comt-using-full-gene-haplotypes-and-their-association-with-the-cyp2d6-inferred-metabolizer-phenotype
#14
Frank R Wendt, Antti Sajantila, Bruce Budowle
The pharmacogene, CYP2D6, is commonly used to infer metabolizer phenotype of many marketed drugs and endogenous toxins in ante- and post-mortem patients but only represents the efficiency of phase 1 metabolism. Downstream metabolic enzymes encoded by UGT2B7, ABCB1, OPRM1, and COMT also have been implicated in variable individual response to drugs due to their activity at different stages of the tramadol ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) process. While commonly studied as single genes using targeted genotyping approaches, a more comprehensive tramadol metabolism profile has not been evaluated...
November 26, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187753/subchronic-olanzapine-exposure-leads-to-increased-expression-of-myelination-related-genes-in-rat-fronto-medial-cortex
#15
Kari M Ersland, Silje Skrede, Christine Stansberg, Vidar M Steen
Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder with severe and disabling symptoms, such as hallucinations, delusions, blunted affect and social withdrawal. The neuropathology remains elusive, but disturbances in immunity-related processes, neuronal connectivity and myelination have consistently been linked to schizophrenia. Antipsychotic drugs can be efficient in reducing symptoms, acting primarily on the dopamine system, but additional biological targets are likely to exist. Here we have screened for novel mechanisms of action in an animal model, using adult rats exposed to long-acting olanzapine, achieving stable and clinically relevant antipsychotic drug concentrations...
November 30, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178465/detection-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hepatitis-c-virus-and-hepatitis-b-virus-in-post-mortem-blood-specimens-using-infectious-disease-assays-licensed-for-cadaveric-donor-screening
#16
Melissa A Greenwald, Stephen Kerby, Kori Francis, Anna C Noller, William T Gormley, Robin Biswas, Richard A Forshee
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of assay performance on post-mortem blood specimens (obtained after cessation of the heartbeat) presents unique scientific and regulatory challenges. In the United States, assay performance is evaluated in part by spiking postmortem specimens. METHODS: Fifty-four specimens obtained from decedents known to be infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), or hepatitis B virus (HBV), including some coinfections, were tested for each virus using Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-licensed donor screening tests for nucleic acid, antibody, and antigen...
November 27, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175501/choice-of-a-suicide-method-trends-and-characteristics
#17
Kairi Kõlves, Matthew McDonough, David Crompton, Diego de Leo
The aim of this study was to examine (1) suicide trends by most prevalent methods in Queensland, Australia, during 2000-2015, and (2) characteristics of people by choice of suicide method in 2000-2013. Data were obtained from the Queensland Suicide Register, which includes police and toxicology reports, post-mortem autopsy and Coroner's findings. Poisson and Joinpoint regression were used to study the first aim, and uni-variate and multi-variate logistic regression analyses were applied to investigate the second aim...
November 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159046/imaging-of-glia-activation-in-people-with-primary-lateral-sclerosis
#18
Sabrina Paganoni, Mohamad J Alshikho, Nicole R Zürcher, Paul Cernasov, Suma Babu, Marco L Loggia, James Chan, Daniel B Chonde, David Izquierdo Garcia, Ciprian Catana, Caterina Mainero, Bruce R Rosen, Merit E Cudkowicz, Jacob M Hooker, Nazem Atassi
Background: Glia activation is thought to contribute to neuronal damage in several neurodegenerative diseases based on preclinical and human post-mortem studies, but its role in primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is unknown. Objectives: To localize and measure glia activation in people with PLS compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods: Ten participants with PLS and ten age-matched HCs underwent simultaneous magnetic resonance (MR) and proton emission tomography (PET)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151989/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-the-modelling-of-alzheimer-s-disease-the-human-brain-outside-the-dish
#19
REVIEW
Godwin Tong, Pablo Izquierdo, Rana Arham Raashid
Background: Neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are a global health issue primarily in the elderly. Although AD has been investigated using primary cultures, animal models and post-mortem human brain tissues, there are currently no effective treatments. Summary: With the advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) reprogrammed from fully differentiated adult cells such as skin fibroblasts, newer opportunities have arisen to study the pathophysiology of many diseases in more depth...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119924/deaths-in-the-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-united-kingdom-communities-associated-with-ghb-and-precursors
#20
John M Corkery, Barbara Loi, Hugh Claridge, Christine Goodair, Fabrizio Schifano
Background Misuse of gammahydroxybutrate (GHB) and its prodrugs gammabutyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4 butanediol (1,4-BD) has increased greatly since the early 1990s, particularly amongst lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals in recreational and sexual settings, e.g. 'chemsex'. Objective and method This paper presents an overview of GHB pharmacotoxicology and provides analyses of cases in the LGBT population associated with use of these substances extracted from the UK's National Programme on Substance Abuse Deaths database, to which notification is voluntary...
November 8, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
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