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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351899/web-based-survey-application-to-collect-contextually-relevant-geographic-data-with-exposure-times-application-development-and-feasibility-testing
#1
Abby Rudolph, Karin Tobin, Jonathan Rudolph, Carl Latkin
BACKGROUND: Although studies that characterize the risk environment by linking contextual factors with individual-level data have advanced infectious disease and substance use research, there are opportunities to refine how we define relevant neighborhood exposures; this can in turn reduce the potential for exposure misclassification. For example, for those who do not inject at home, injection risk behaviors may be more influenced by the environment where they inject than where they live...
January 19, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326098/cognitive-and-behavioral-skills-exercises-completed-by-patients-with-major-depression-during-smartphone-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Toshi A Furukawa, Masaru Horikoshi, Hirokazu Fujita, Naohisa Tsujino, Ran Jinnin, Yuki Kako, Sei Ogawa, Hirotoshi Sato, Nobuki Kitagawa, Yoshihiro Shinagawa, Yoshio Ikeda, Hissei Imai, Aran Tajika, Yusuke Ogawa, Tatsuo Akechi, Mitsuhiko Yamada, Shinji Shimodera, Norio Watanabe, Masatoshi Inagaki, Akio Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: A strong and growing body of evidence has demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), either face-to-face, in person, or as self-help via the Internet, for depression. However, CBT is a complex intervention consisting of several putatively effective components, and how each component may or may not contribute to the overall effectiveness of CBT is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate how the users of smartphone CBT use and benefit from various components of the program...
January 11, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324726/hiv-infection-and-hiv-associated-behaviors-among-persons-who-inject-drugs-20-cities-united-states-2015
#3
Janet C Burnett, Dita Broz, Michael W Spiller, Cyprian Wejnert, Gabriela Paz-Bailey
In the United States, 9% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections diagnosed in 2015 were attributed to injection drug use (1). In 2015, 79% of diagnoses of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs occurred in urban areas (2). To monitor the prevalence of HIV infection and associated behaviors among persons who inject drugs, CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) conducts interviews and HIV testing in selected metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) (3). The prevalence of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs in 20 MSAs in 2015 was 7%...
January 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295811/stage-based-mobile-intervention-for-substance-use-disorders-in-primary-care-development-and-test-of-acceptability
#4
Deborah Levesque, Cindy Umanzor, Emma de Aguiar
BACKGROUND: In 2016, 21 million Americans aged 12 years and older needed treatment for a substance use disorder (SUD). However, only 10% to 11% of individuals requiring SUD treatment received it. Given their access to patients, primary care providers are in a unique position to perform universal Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) to identify individuals at risk, fill gaps in services, and make referrals to specialty treatment when indicated. Major barriers to SBIRT include limited time among providers and low motivation to change among many patients...
January 2, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294660/gender-differences-in-complex-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-and-their-relationship-to-mental-health-and-substance-abuse-outcomes-in-incarcerated-adults
#5
Paulette Giarratano, Julian D Ford, Thomas H Nochajski
Complex trauma (CT; for example, childhood abuse) has been associated with significant behavioral health problems (i.e., mental health and substance use disorders) and symptoms that are consistent with complex posttraumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD). CT is prevalent in adult forensic populations, and particularly important for women as they tend to report more adverse consequences of exposure to traumatic stressors and are entering the criminal justice system at a heightened rate compared with men. However, no studies have empirically tested the relationship among CT, C-PTSD, and behavioral health problems with gender among incarcerated adults...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289531/epileptic-seizures-are-reduced-by-autonomic-biofeedback-therapy-through-enhancement-of-fronto-limbic-connectivity-a-controlled-trial-and-neuroimaging-study
#6
Yoko Nagai, Julia Aram, Matthias Koepp, Louis Lemieux, Marco Mula, Hugo Critchley, Sanjay Sisodiya, Mara Cercignani
BACKGROUND: Thirty-percent of patients with epilepsy are drug-resistant, and might benefit from effective noninvasive therapeutic interventions. Evidence is accumulating on the efficacy of autonomic biofeedback therapy using galvanic skin response (GSR; an index of sympathetic arousal) in treating epileptic seizures. This study aimed to extend previous controlled clinical trials of autonomic biofeedback therapy with a larger homogeneous sample of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. In addition, we used neuroimaging to characterize neural mechanisms of change in seizure frequency following the therapy...
December 13, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284807/a-clinical-study-of-opioid-substitution-therapy-in-a-tertiary-care-center-of-eastern-india
#7
Satyakam Mohapatra, Mihir Ranjan Nayak, Manaswini Dash
Background: Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is an evidence-based intervention for opiate-dependent persons that replaces illicit drug use with medically prescribed, orally administered opiates such as buprenorphine and methadone. OST reduces HIV risk behaviors and harms associated with injecting opioid. Most of the evidence for OST effectiveness has been generated in middle- and high-income countries where programs are mostly located in dedicated health-care settings; evidence regarding the outcomes of OST programs in low-income countries where OST is often provided in grassroots settings such as drop-in centers is limited...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283390/genotypic-and-phylogenetic-insights-on-prevention-of-the-spread-of-hiv-1-and-drug-resistance-in-real-world-settings
#8
REVIEW
Bluma G Brenner, Ruxandra-Ilinca Ibanescu, Isabelle Hardy, Michel Roger
HIV continues to spread among vulnerable heterosexual (HET), Men-having-Sex with Men (MSM) and intravenous drug user (IDU) populations, influenced by a complex array of biological, behavioral and societal factors. Phylogenetics analyses of large sequence datasets from national drug resistance testing programs reveal the evolutionary interrelationships of viral strains implicated in the dynamic spread of HIV in different regional settings. Viral phylogenetics can be combined with demographic and behavioral information to gain insights on epidemiological processes shaping transmission networks at the population-level...
December 28, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276587/association-between-route-of-illicit-drug-administration-and-hospitalizations-for-infective-endocarditis
#9
Olubunmi Olubamwo, Ifeoma N Onyeka, Alex Aregbesola, Kimmo Ronkainen, Jari Tiihonen, Jaana Föhr, Jussi Kauhanen
Objective: This study examined the association between the route of drug administration and being hospitalized for infective endocarditis among 4817 treatment-seeking illicit drug users in Finland. Methods: Cox regression models were used to examine the association between the route of drug administration and infective endocarditis hospitalization, adjusted for age, gender, and homelessness. Cases of infective endocarditis as a primary/main diagnosis were tracked using the 10th version of the International Classification of Disease code I33...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273458/testing-environment-shape-differentially-modulates-baseline-and-nicotine-induced-changes-in-behavior-sex-differences-hypoactivity-and-behavioral-sensitization
#10
J M Illenberger, C F Mactutus, R M Booze, S B Harrod
In those who use nicotine, the likelihood of dependence, negative health consequences, and failed treatment outcomes differ as a function of gender. Women may be more sensitive to learning processes driven by repeated nicotine exposure that influence conditioned approach and craving. Sex differences in nicotine's influence over overt behaviors (i.e. hypoactivity or behavioral sensitization) can be examined using passive drug administration models in male and female rats. Following repeated intravenous (IV) nicotine injections, behavioral sensitization is enhanced in female rats compared to males...
December 19, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249049/tramadol-ameliorates-behavioural-biochemical-mitochondrial-and-histological-alterations-in-icv-stz-induced-sporadic-dementia-of-alzheimer-s-type-in-rats
#11
Dinesh K Dhull, Anil Kumar
Alzheimer disease represents a major public health issue with limited therapeutic interventions. We explored the possibility of therapeutic approach by repurposing of tramadol in a sporadic animal model of Alzheimer's type. Streptozocin (STZ 3 mg/kg; bilaterally) was injected to male SD rats through intracerebroventricular (ICV) route. Drug treatment was started just after streptozocin administration and continued for 3 weeks. The rats were killed on the 21st day following the last behavioral test, and cytoplasmic fractions of the hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex were prepared for the quantification of acetylcholinesterase, oxidative stress parameter, mitochondrial enzymes activity and histological examination...
December 16, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238510/epidemiology-transmission-diagnosis-and-outcome-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#12
REVIEW
Seyed Hamid Moosavy, Parivash Davoodian, Mirza Ali Nazarnezhad, Abdolazim Nejatizaheh, Ebrahim Eftekhar, Hamidreza Mahboobi
Hepatitis C infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disorders worldwide. Nearly three percent (3%) of the world population has an HCV infection. Prevalence of HCV infection was higher in some groups such as injected drug users (IDUs) and HIV positive populations. Acute hepatitis has proven asymptomatic in most cases, and delay of diagnosis might lead to late onset of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Some host characteristics such as age, gender, body mass index, and viral properties are associated with HCV outcome hepatitis...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237577/randomized-controlled-trials-of-technology-based-hiv-sti-and-drug-abuse-preventive-interventions-for-african-american-and-hispanic-youth-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
David Córdova, Frania Mendoza Lua, Lauretta Ovadje, Ethan Hong, Berenice Castillo, Christopher P Salas-Wright
BACKGROUND: HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and drug abuse remain significant public health concerns in the United States, and African American and Hispanic youth are disproportionately affected. Although technology-based interventions are efficacious in preventing and reducing HIV/STI and licit/illicit drug use behaviors, relatively little is known regarding the state of the science of these interventions among African American and Hispanic youth. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to identify and examine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of technology-based HIV/STI and/or drug abuse preventive interventions for African American and Hispanic youth...
December 13, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236522/risky-sex-drugs-sensation-seeking-and-callous-unemotional-traits-in-justice-involved-male-adolescents
#14
Laura C Thornton, Paul J Frick, James V Ray, Tina D Wall Myers, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman
The current study examined whether callous-unemotional (CU) traits predicted risky sexual behavior (i.e., unprotected sex, casual sex) and whether substance use and sensation seeking mediated this relationship over 24 months in justice-involved young men. Participants (N = 1,216) were an ethnically and racially diverse sample (46.3% White Latino, 38% Black, 15.7% White non-Latino) of first-time offending male adolescents (ages 13-17 years) from 3 U.S. cities. Participants completed 5 self-reported interviews at 6-month intervals over 2 years...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232644/past-15-year-trends-in-lifetime-cocaine-use-among-us-high-school-students
#15
Kristin E Schneider, Noa Krawczyk, Ziming Xuan, Renee M Johnson
BACKGROUND: Most recent research on adolescent drug use has focused on alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Less is known about the recent epidemiology of adolescent cocaine use, which has serious health consequences. PURPOSE: To describe recent trends in cocaine use by U.S. high school students, and identify differences in lifetime and repeated use across sex and racial/ethnic groups. METHODS: We used data from the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) from 1999 to 2015...
December 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225892/correlates-of-second-line-type-2-diabetes-medication-selection-in-the-usa
#16
Ronald T Ackermann, Amisha Wallia, Matthew J O'Brien, Raymond Kang, Andrew Cooper, Margaret R Moran, David T Liss
Objective: Past research provides insufficient evidence to inform second-line diabetes medication prescribing when metformin is no longer sufficient. We evaluated patient, prescriber, and health plan characteristics associated with selection of second-line diabetes medications in the USA. Research design and methods: We used a multiple case-comparison study design to identify characteristics associated with the probability of starting each of six second-line diabetes medication alternatives within 77 744 adults enrolled in commercial or Medicare Advantage health plans from 2011 to 2015...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223915/marijuana-buyers-in-the-united-states-2010-2014
#17
Alejandro Azofeifa, Laura J Sherman, Margaret E Mattson, Rosalie L Pacula
BACKGROUND: Obtaining or purchasing marijuana in the U.S. can be done only in certain states via a lawful market, for medical or non-medical (recreational) purposes, or via an unlawful market ("black market") by home cultivation and unlicensed vendors and individuals. Given the evolving U.S. state marijuana legislation landscape, the objective of this study is to describe individuals who report buying marijuana in the past year by selected characteristics and U.S. geographical location...
December 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212628/mobile-health-intervention-to-increase-oral-cancer-therapy-adherence-in-patients-with-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-the-remind-system-clinical-feasibility-and-acceptability-assessment
#18
Amanda Pereira-Salgado, Jennifer A Westwood, Lahiru Russell, Anna Ugalde, Bronwen Ortlepp, John F Seymour, Phyllis Butow, Lawrence Cavedon, Kevin Ong, Sanchia Aranda, Sibilah Breen, Suzanne Kirsa, Andrew Dunlevie, Penelope Schofield
BACKGROUND: Optimal dosing of oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy is critical to treatment success and survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Drug intolerance secondary to toxicities and nonadherence are significant factors in treatment failure. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and pilot-test the clinical feasibility and acceptability of a mobile health system (REMIND) to increase oral drug adherence and patient symptom self-management among people with CML (chronic phase)...
December 6, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203336/spontaneous-recovery-of-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-functional-deficits-is-not-hindered-by-daily-administration-of-lorazepam
#19
Jeffrey P Cheng, Jacob B Leary, Darik A O'Neil, Elizabeth A Meyer, Kristin E Free, Corina O Bondi, Anthony E Kline
Agitation and aggression are common sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and pose a challenge to physicians and other health providers during acute patient care and subsequent neurorehabilitation. Antipsychotic drugs (APDs) are routinely administered to manage TBI patients displaying such maladaptive behaviors despite several clinical and preclinical studies demonstrating that they hinder recovery. A potentially viable alternative to APDs may be the benzodiazepines, which have differing mechanisms of action...
February 26, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197115/effect-of-hazardous-alcohol-use-during-pregnancy-on-growth-outcomes-at-birth-findings-from-a-south-african-cohort-study
#20
Bronwyn Myers, Nastassja Koen, Kirsten A Donald, Raymond T Nhapi, Lesley Workman, Whitney Barnett, Nadia Hoffman, Sheri Koopowitz, Heather J Zar, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: Cohort studies have noted associations between hazardous alcohol use during pregnancy and infant growth outcomes, but many have not controlled for potential psychosocial confounders. To assess the unique contribution of hazardous alcohol use, we examined its effect on infant growth outcomes while controlling for maternal psychosocial stressors and hazardous tobacco and drug use in a cohort of 986 pregnant South African women enrolled into the Drakenstein Child Health Study between 2012 and 2015...
December 2, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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