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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787966/injection-drug-use-hiv-hcv-and-related-services-in-nonurban-areas-of-the-united-states-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Catherine E Paquette, Robin A Pollini
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use (IDU) in nonurban areas of the United States is a growing public health concern, but there has been no comprehensive assessment of existing research on injection-related HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) in nonurban communities. We conducted a systematic review to assess the current literature and identify knowledge gaps. METHODS: We systematically searched six databases for relevant articles published between January 1990 and June 2016 and screened, extracted, and analyzed the resulting data...
May 8, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781249/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-injection-site-skin-infections-among-people-who-inject-drugs-pwid-in-tehran
#2
Mehdi Noroozi, Bahram Armoon, Hesam Ghisvand, Alireza Noroozi, Mahmood Karimy, Mohammad Rafi Bazrafshan, Brandon D L Marshall, Bahman Dieji
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Injection drug use is one of the major public health problems in Iran. Injection drug use is associated with numerous negative health outcomes, such as blood-borne infections (HIV, HCV) and injection site skin infections (abscesses, cellulitis). The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of injection site skin infections and its associated risk factors among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from March to August 2016 in Tehran province...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770670/-final-evaluation-of-control-program-of-key-parasitic-diseases-in-jinhu-county-2006-2015-jiangsu-province
#3
Sun Dao-Kuan, Zhang Cui-Ping
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the implementation of the Control Program of Key Parasitic Diseases in Jinhu County from 2006 to 2015, so as to provide the evidence for the future work of prevention and control. METHODS: The historical data about key parasitoses were collected, and the organization management, financial support, capacity building, control effects, and so on were evaluated with the descriptive method. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2015, totally 19 technique educations were conducted, 844...
January 9, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751056/sex-and-trait-anxiety-differences-in-psychological-stress-are-modified-by-environment
#4
James Liu, John Scira, Simone Donaldson, Nina Kajiji, Gordon H Dash, S Tiffany Donaldson
Evidence-based research has revealed how physiological and emotional responses to acute stress are adaptive. However, under conditions of unpredictable or protracted stress, health and drug vulnerability can be compromised. In this study, we examined anxiety-like behavioral responses of 4th generation adolescent male and female Long Evans rats selectively bred for high (HAn) and low (LAn) anxiety-like behavior when housed in an isolated environment (IE) versus a social environment (SE). After 35 days in IE or SE, animals were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM), injected with amphetamine (AMPH: 0...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748748/an-initial-assessment-of-leon-county-florida-s-pre-arrest-adult-civil-citation-program
#5
Albert M Kopak
Momentum is building behind law enforcement-assisted diversion programs. Some of these programs have been designed specifically for drug-involved offenders, while others focus on adults who have no prior involvement in the criminal justice system. The Leon County Pre-Arrest Diversion program, which has been operating since March 2013, offers first-time arrestees the opportunity to participate in an alternative to arrest-as-usual. Successful completion of the program results in avoidance of a formal criminal arrest record...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739400/prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-prisoners-in-iran-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Masoud Behzadifar, Hasan Abolghasem Gorji, Aziz Rezapour, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major public health problems both in developed and developing countries. Prison represents a high-risk environment for prisoners, in that it is characterized by high-risk behaviors such as injecting drug use (IDU), tattooing, unprotected sexual intercourses, or sharing syringes. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the prevalence of HCV among Iranian prisoners conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched different scholarly databases including Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI/Web of Sciences, the Cochrane library, Scopus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO as well as Iranian bibliographic thesauri (namely, Barakatns, MagIran, and SID) up to December 2017...
May 9, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717393/hypertension-in-developing-countries-a-major-challenge-for-the-future
#7
REVIEW
M Mohsen Ibrahim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Outline recent epidemiologic data regarding hypertension in developing countries, distinguish differences from developed countries, and identify challenges in management and future perspectives. RECENT FINDINGS: Increased sugar intake, air and noise pollution, and low birth weight are emerging hypertension risk factors. The major challenges in management are difficulties in accurate diagnosis of hypertension and adequate blood pressure control...
May 1, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715513/characterization-of-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticle-induced-apoptosis-in-pc12-cells-and-mouse-hippocampus-and-striatum
#8
Yutong Liu, Juan Li, Kaige Xu, Jingjing Gu, Lu Huang, Lei Zhang, N Liu, Jiming Kong, Malcolm Xing, Lin Zhang, Lu Zhang
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been widely used as theranostic drug-carrier and MRI contrast agent. Their potential effects are still in blank while SPIONs are used for brain. The present study aims to investigate SPIONs' neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo using stereotaxic technique. By co-incubating SPIONs with dopaminergic neuronal PC12 cells, we found that SPIONs had a dose-dependent cytotoxic in PC12 cells at 60-200 ug/mL but not at 10-50 ug/mL, it reduced cell viability, decreased the capacity of PC12 cells to extend neurites in response to nerve growth factor (NGF), induced a reduction of the tyrosine hydroxylase protein, while increasing PC12 cell apoptosis...
April 28, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713235/antimalarial-drug-prescribing-by-healthcare-workers-when-malaria-testing-is-negative-a-qualitative-study-in-madagascar
#9
David Harimbola Rakotonandrasana, Takahiro Tsukahara, Noriko Yamamoto-Mitani
Background: Despite the World Health Organization and the National Malaria Program of Madagascar recommending that antimalarial drugs only be prescribed for patients with positive results on malaria rapid diagnostic tests, healthcare workers continue to prescribe these drugs for cases with negative test results. We explored why and how primary healthcare workers in Madagascar continue to prescribe antimalarial drugs despite this guidance. Methods: We purposively selected 14 medical doctors and 2 nurses from 11 primary health facilities (6 public, 5 private) in Toliara, Madagascar, and interviewed them regarding their antimalarial prescribing behaviors...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702681/knowledge-of-hepatitis-c-status-moderates-the-relationship-between-history-of-drug-treatment-and-sterile-syringe-use
#10
Kiva Ariani Fisher, Laura Michele Cahill, Stephanie Broyles, Marion Rorke, William Thomas Robinson
High-risk injection related behavior including use of non-sterile syringes is associated with negative health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). Drug treatment programs have been reported to curb hepatitis C (HCV) transmission. This study aims to assess the role of drug treatment programs and knowledge of HCV status, and how they influence current injection-related risk. Data were collected in 2012 by the New Orleans arm of the CDC funded National HIV Behavioral Surveillance. Respondent driven sampling was used to recruit a sample of PWID...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693508/to-report-or-not-to-report-exploring-healthy-volunteers-rationales-for-disclosing-adverse-events-in-phase-i-drug-trials
#11
Lisa McManus, Jill A Fisher
BACKGROUND: Phase I trials test the safety and tolerability of investigational drugs and often use healthy volunteers as research participants. Adverse events (AEs) are collected in part through participants' self-reports of any symptoms they experience during the trial. In some cases, experiencing AEs can result in trial participation being terminated. Because of the economic incentives underlying their motivation to participate, there is concern that healthy volunteers routinely fail to report AEs and, thereby, jeopardize the validity of the trial results...
April 25, 2018: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681519/blunted-frontostriatal-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals-predict-stimulant-and-marijuana-use
#12
Melanie A Blair, Jennifer L Stewart, April C May, Martina Reske, Susan F Tapert, Martin P Paulus
BACKGROUND: Occasional recreational stimulant (amphetamine and cocaine) use is an important public health problem among young adults because 16% of those who experiment develop stimulant use disorder. This study aimed to determine whether behavioral and/or neural processing measures can forecast the transition from occasional to problematic stimulant use. METHODS: Occasional stimulant users completed a Risky Gains Task during functional magnetic resonance imaging and were followed up 3 years later...
March 21, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671504/buprenorphine-therapy-for-opioid-use-disorder
#13
Roger Zoorob, Alicia Kowalchuk, Maria Mejia de Grubb
Opioid misuse, including the use of heroin and the overprescribing, misuse, and diversion of opioid pain medications, has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. As a result, there has been a dramatic increase in opioid use disorder and associated overdoses and deaths. Addiction is a chronic brain disease with a genetic component that affects motivation, inhibition, and cognition. Patient characteristics associated with successful buprenorphine maintenance treatment include stable or controlled medical or psychiatric comorbidities and a safe, substance-free environment...
March 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656919/trends-and-gaps-in-awareness-of-direct-to-consumer-genetic-tests-from-2007-to-2014
#14
Nate C Apathy, Terri Menser, Lindsay M Keeran, Eric W Ford, Christopher A Harle, Timothy R Huerta
INTRODUCTION: Direct-to-consumer genetic tests for inherited disease risks have gained recent approvals from the Food and Drug Administration, and interest in these tests has continued to grow. Broad use of these tests coupled with planning and discussion with health providers regarding genetic risks and potential protective behavior changes have been proposed as preventive tools to reduce health disparities and improve equity in health outcomes. However, awareness of direct-to-consumer genetic testing has historically demonstrated differences by education, income, and race; these disparities could jeopardize potential benefits by limiting access and use...
April 12, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625621/expanding-harm-reduction-to-include-fentanyl-urine-testing-results-from-a-pilot-in-rural-british-columbia
#15
Silvina C Mema, Chloe Sage, Serge Popoff, Jessica Bridgeman, Deanne Taylor, Trevor Corneil
BACKGROUND: Harm reduction has been at the forefront of the response to the opioid overdose public health emergency in British Columbia (BC). The unprecedented number of opioid overdose deaths in the province calls for an expansion of harm reduction services. The purpose of this study was to determine the acceptability of a fentanyl urine drug test among people who use drugs (PWUD) and explore whether testing introduced any changes in participants' attitudes and behaviors towards their drug use...
April 6, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617633/reducing-racial-ethnic-tobacco-cessation-disparities-via-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-design-of-a-dualsite-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Monica Webb Hooper, David J Lee, Vani N Simmons, Karen O Brandon, Michael H Antoni, Marina Unrod, Taghrid Asfar, John B Correa, Tulay Koru-Sengul, Thomas H Brandon
Racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco cessation are such that U.S. minorities have greater difficulty quitting compared to White non-Hispanics. Group differences in distress (i.e., perceived stress and depressive symptoms) may contribute to cessation disparities. The allostasis model of health suggests that the toll of chronic stress experienced by racial/ethnic minorities may lead to dysregulation of the physiological stress system and drug use. Previous research suggests that group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for tobacco cessation addresses distress as a modifiable mechanism and has the potential to reduce/eliminate disparities...
April 1, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615861/lead-induced-atypical-parkinsonism-in-rats-behavioral-electrophysiological-and-neurochemical-evidence-for-a-role-of-noradrenaline-depletion
#17
Mariam Sabbar, Claire Delaville, Philippe De Deurwaerdère, Nouria Lakhdar-Ghazal, Abdelhamid Benazzouz
Background: Lead neurotoxicity is a major health problem known as a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, including the manifestation of parkinsonism-like disorder. While lead is known to preferentially accumulate in basal ganglia, the mechanisms underlying behavioral disorders remain unknown. Here, we investigated the neurophysiological and biochemical correlates of motor deficits induced by sub-chronic injections of lead. Methods: Sprague Dawely rats were exposed to sub-chronic injections of lead (10 mg/kg, i...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608136/effects-of-risk-disclosure-prominence-in-direct-to-consumer-advertising-dtca-of-prescription-drugs-an-integrative-cognitive-process-model
#18
Ilwoo Ju, Jin Seong Park
The literature shows that the prominence of risk disclosure influences consumer responses to direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs. However, little is known about the psychological process whereby disclosure prominence exerts its influences on health beliefs and behavior. Based on a review of the literature on health cognition and behavior, the current study proposed and tested a model to show that risk disclosure prominence affects consumers' drug choice intention through the mediating roles of awareness of drug adverse reactions (ARs), perceived control over ARs, and perceived risk of ARs...
January 2018: Health Marketing Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606226/a-pilot-study-of-a-smartphone-application-supporting-recovery-from-drug-addiction
#19
Di Liang, Hui Han, Jiang Du, Min Zhao, Yih-Ing Hser
BACKGROUND: Mobile health (mHealth) technologies have the potential to facilitate self-monitoring and self-management for individuals with substance use disorders (SUD). S-Health is a bilingual smartphone application based on cognitive behavioral principles and is designed to support recovery from drug addiction by trigger recognition so as to allow practice in-the-moment coping to prevent relapse. METHOD: For this pilot randomized controlled study, 75 participants were recruited from methadone maintenance treatment clinics and the social worker consortium in Shanghai, China...
May 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606129/adherence-intervention-for-hiv-infected-persons-who-use-drugs-adaptation-open-trial-and-pilot-randomized-hybrid-type-1-trial-protocol
#20
Kasey Claborn, Sara Becker, Don Operario, Steve Safren, Josiah D Rich, Susan Ramsey
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected people who use drugs (PWUD) exhibit the highest rates of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people living with HIV. This contributes to poor treatment outcomes, increased morbidity and mortality, and HIV transmission. However, current interventions fail to address the unique barriers to adherence faced by this population. Life Steps is a brief, single session intervention that demonstrated increased ART adherence among HIV-infected individuals...
April 2, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
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