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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920043/a-historical-perspective-on-crush-syndrome-the-clinical-application-of-its-pathogenesis-established-by-the-study-of-wartime-crush-injuries
#1
REVIEW
Dilini Peiris
Crush syndrome is a fine example of how pathology can play a direct role in revealing the best treatment and management for diseases. It can occur when crush injuries are sustained. Skeletal muscle becomes damaged under the weight of a heavy object, and victims experience severe shock and renal failure. The discovery of the pathology of crush syndrome belongs to two individuals: Seigo Minami and Eric Bywaters. They separately helped to define the pathogenesis of crush syndrome during World Wars I and II. Seigo Minami is believed to have been the first to record the pathogenesis of crush syndrome...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916641/ucp1-the-mitochondrial-uncoupling-protein-of-brown-adipocyte-a-personal-contribution-and-a-historical-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Daniel Ricquier
The present text summarizes what was my contribution, starting in 1975, to the research on the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), the mitochondrial uncoupler of brown adipocytes. The research on UCP1 aimed at identifying the mechanisms of heat production by brown adipocytes that occurs in mammals either at birth or during cold exposure and arousal in hibernators. With others and in particular Dr. David Nicholls, I participated in the first experiments that contributed to the identification of UCP1. Important steps were the obtention of UCP1 antibodies followed with my main collaborator and friend Frédéric Bouillaud with the initial cloning of the UCP1 cDNA and gene from rats and humans...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913843/molecular-evolution-in-historical-perspective
#3
Edna Suárez-Díaz
In the 1960s, advances in protein chemistry and molecular genetics provided new means for the study of biological evolution. Amino acid sequencing, nucleic acid hybridization, zone gel electrophoresis, and immunochemistry were some of the experimental techniques that brought about new perspectives to the study of the patterns and mechanisms of evolution. New concepts, such as the molecular evolutionary clock, and the discovery of unexpected molecular phenomena, like the presence of repetitive sequences in eukaryotic genomes, eventually led to the realization that evolution might occur at a different pace at the organismic and the molecular levels, and according to different mechanisms...
December 2016: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891621/animal-cryptochromes-divergent-roles-in-light-perception-circadian-timekeeping-and-beyond
#4
Alicia K Michael, Jennifer L Fribourgh, Russell N Van Gelder, Carrie L Partch
Cryptochromes are evolutionarily related to the light-dependent DNA repair enzyme photolyase, serving as major regulators of circadian rhythms in insects and vertebrate animals. There are two types of cryptochromes in the animal kingdom: Drosophila-like CRYs that act as non-visual photopigments linking circadian rhythms to the environmental light/dark cycle, and vertebrate-like CRYs that do not appear to sense light directly, but control the generation of circadian rhythms by acting as transcriptional repressors...
November 28, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864548/from-ige-to-omalizumab
#5
Toshiaki Kawakami, Ulrich Blank
IgE is the least abundant Ig isotype, yet it plays a critical role in allergic reactions and host protection from helminth infection. Although IgE was discovered 50 years ago, the ultimate evidence for its role in human allergic diseases was obtained by the efficacy of anti-IgE therapy in many clinical trials on asthma and other allergic diseases. Beginning from the discovery of IgE 50 y ago, followed by studies of IgE receptors and activation mechanisms, this review provides a historic perspective of allergy research that has led to the development of anti-IgE therapy and other strategies targeting IgE and its receptors...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859304/from-mfd-to-trcf-and-back-again-a-perspective-on-bacterial-transcription-coupled-nucleotide-excision-repair
#6
Alexandra M Deaconescu, Margaret M Suhanovsky
Photochemical and other reactions on DNA cause damage and corrupt genetic information. To counteract this damage, organisms have evolved intricate repair mechanisms that often crosstalk with other DNA-based processes, such as transcription. Intriguing observations in the late 1980s and early 1990s led to the discovery of transcription-coupled repair (TCR), a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER). TCR, found in all domains of life prioritizes for repair lesions located in the transcribed DNA strand, directly read by RNA polymerase...
November 12, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828722/genetics-of-combined-pituitary-hormone-deficiency-roadmap-into-the-genome-era
#7
Qing Fang, Akima S George, Michelle L Brinkmeier, Amanda H Mortensen, Peter Gergics, Leonard Y M Cheung, Alexandre Z Daly, Adnan Ajmal, María Ines Pérez Millán, A Bilge Ozel, Jacob O Kitzman, Ryan E Mills, Jun Z Li, Sally A Camper
The genetic basis for combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) is complex, involving 30 genes in a variety of syndromic and nonsyndromic presentations. Molecular diagnosis of this disorder is valuable for predicting disease progression, avoiding unnecessary surgery, and family planning. We expect that the application of high throughput sequencing will uncover additional contributing genes and eventually become a valuable tool for molecular diagnosis. For example, in the last 3 years, six new genes have been implicated in CPHD using whole-exome sequencing...
December 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784742/allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-historical-and-scientific-overview
#8
REVIEW
Anurag K Singh, Joseph P McGuirk
The field of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) has made ground-breaking progress in the treatment of many malignant and nonmalignant conditions. It has also pioneered the concepts of stem cell therapy and immunotherapy as a tool against cancer. The success of transplant for hematologic malignancies derives both from the ability to treat patients with intensive chemoradiotherapy and from potent graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects mediated by donor immunity. Additionally, HSCT has been a curative therapy for several nonmalignant hematologic disorders through the provision of donor-derived hematopoiesis and immunity...
October 26, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783852/mitochondrial-actions-of-thyroid-hormone
#9
Antonia Lanni, Maria Moreno, Fernando Goglia
The hypermetabolic effects of thyroid hormones (THs), the major endocrine regulators of metabolic rate, are widely recognized. Although, the cellular mechanisms underlying these effects have been extensively investigated, much has yet to be learned about how TH regulates diverse cellular functions. THs have a profound impact on mitochondria, the organelles responsible for the majority of cellular energy production, and several studies have been devoted to understand the respective importance of the nuclear and mitochondrial pathways for organelle activity...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724893/-it-s-all-about-trust-reflections-of-researchers-on-the-complexity-and-controversy-surrounding-biobanking-in-south-africa
#10
Keymanthri Moodley, Shenuka Singh
BACKGROUND: Biobanks are precariously situated at the intersection of science, genetics, genomics, society, ethics, the law and politics. This multi-disciplinarity has given rise to a new discourse in health research involving diverse stakeholders. Each stakeholder is embedded in a unique context and articulates his/her biobanking activities differently. To researchers, biobanks carry enormous transformative potential in terms of advancing scientific discovery and knowledge. However, in the context of power asymmetries in Africa and a distrust in science born out of historical exploitation, researchers must balance the scientific imperative of collecting, storing and sharing high quality biological samples with obligations to donors/participants, communities, international collaborators, regulatory and ethics authorities...
October 10, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711765/crispr-cas9-a-historical-and-chemical-biology-perspective-of-targeted-genome-engineering
#11
Amrita Singh, Debojyoti Chakraborty, Souvik Maiti
The CRISPR-Cas9 system has revolutionized the process of making changes to the DNA sequence of organisms. Relying on a simplistic model of RNA guided DNA binding and cleavage, this molecular toolbox has found application in nearly every branch of biological sciences. The story of CRISPR-Cas9 is one of discovery and development where a component of bacterial adaptive immunity has been harnessed to address important biological questions using significant inputs from physicochemical structure-function studies...
September 14, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709989/borderline-personality-disorder-and-the-emerging-field-of-developmental-neuroscience
#12
Sheila E Crowell, Erin A Kaufman
Over the past 2 decades there has been a dramatic shift in understanding of personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). What was historically viewed as an entrenched pattern of antagonistic, interpersonally dependent, and uncorrectable conduct is now seen as the outcome of complex-yet modifiable-developmental processes. The borderline label, which once inspired such harsh opprobrium in clinical communities that early diagnosis was considered taboo, is now increasingly applied to adolescents who are receiving effective treatment and desisting from a borderline trajectory...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699439/historical-perspective-on-the-discovery-of-the-anterolateral-ligament-of-the-knee
#13
Etienne Cavaignac, David Ancelin, Philippe Chiron, Jean-Louis Tricoire, Karine Wytrykowski, Marie Faruch, Elodie Chantalat
: There is a lively debate about the existence, origins and discoverer of the anterolateral ligament of the knee. The complex anatomy of the lateral aspect of the knee has made it difficult to differentiate between various structures such as the iliotibial band, capsulo-osseous layer, Kaplan's fibres and the anterolateral capsule. The "discovery" of a new anterolateral structure in 2013 was the culmination of many historical studies. In 1879, Paul Ferdinand Segond described a tibial plateau fracture in which he noted a pearly band reinforcing the joint capsule...
October 3, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684980/a-historical-perspective-and-expos%C3%A3-on-serrated-polyps-of-the-colorectum
#14
Eun-Young Karen Choi, Henry D Appelman
This article offers a historical perspective on the discovery of 3 types of serrated colorectal polyps recognized in the past 60 years. The first to be discovered was the hyperplastic polyp, which is still the most commonly encountered serrated polyp. In the past 20 years, the carcinoma-associated sessile serrated adenoma/polyp has been recognized, but its diagnosis can be difficult owing to overlapping histologic features with hyperplastic polyps. Less is known about the third type, the traditional serrated adenoma, because it is far less common than the other 2 types, and its association with cancer is currently under investigation...
October 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682364/renal-transplant-immunology-in-the-last-20-years-a-revolution-towards-graft-and-patient-survival-improvement
#15
Helena Sá, Rita Leal, Manuel Santos Rosa
To deride the hope of progress is the ultimate fatuity, the last word in poverty of spirit and meanness of mind. There is no need to be dismayed by the fact that we cannot yet envisage a definitive solution of our problems, a resting-place beyond which we need not try to go. -P.B. Medawar, 1969* [Formula: see text] Thomas E. Starlz, also known as the Father of Clinical Transplantation, once said that organ transplantation was the supreme exception to the rule that most major advances in medicine spring from discoveries in basic science [Starzl T...
September 28, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652382/a-historical-and-evolutionary-perspective-on-the-biological-significance-of-circulating-dna-and-extracellular-vesicles
#16
Janine Aucamp, Abel J Bronkhorst, Christoffel P S Badenhorst, Piet J Pretorius
The discovery of quantitative and qualitative differences of the circulating DNA (cirDNA) between healthy and diseased individuals inclined researchers to investigate these molecules as potential biomarkers for non-invasive diagnosis and prognosis of various pathologies. However, except for some prenatal tests, cirDNA analyses have not been readily translated to clinical practice due to a lack of knowledge regarding its composition, function, and biological and evolutionary origins. We believe that, to fully grasp the nature of cirDNA and the extracellular vesicles (EVs) and protein complexes with which it is associated, it is necessary to probe the early and badly neglected work that contributed to the discovery and development of these concepts...
September 20, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571103/natural-inhibitors-of-snake-venom-metalloendopeptidases-history-and-current-challenges
#17
REVIEW
Viviane A Bastos, Francisco Gomes-Neto, Jonas Perales, Ana Gisele C Neves-Ferreira, Richard H Valente
The research on natural snake venom metalloendopeptidase inhibitors (SVMPIs) began in the 18th century with the pioneering work of Fontana on the resistance that vipers exhibited to their own venom. During the past 40 years, SVMPIs have been isolated mainly from the sera of resistant animals, and characterized to different extents. They are acidic oligomeric glycoproteins that remain biologically active over a wide range of pH and temperature values. Based on primary structure determination, mammalian plasmatic SVMPIs are classified as members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) supergene protein family, while the one isolated from muscle belongs to the ficolin/opsonin P35 family...
2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541948/oncocardiology-past-present-and-future-a-review
#18
Edward T H Yeh, Hui-Ming Chang
Importance: Oncocardiology is a medical discipline that focuses on the identification, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular complications related to cancer therapy. This discipline has gained interest from the cardiology community in recent years because of a remarkable increase in the number of cancer survivors and the proliferation of new cancer therapies causing cardiovascular complications, such as hypertension, heart failure, vascular complications, and cardiac arrhythmia...
August 17, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530204/the-paracrine-control-of-vascular-motion-a-historical-perspective
#19
Eduardo Nava, Silvia Llorens
During the last quarter of the past century, the leading role the endocrine and nervous systems had on the regulation of vasomotion, shifted towards a more paracrine-based regulation. This begun with the recognition of endothelial cells as active players of vascular control, when the vessel's intimal layer was identified as the main source of prostacyclin and was followed by the discovery of an endothelium-derived smooth muscle cell relaxing factor (EDRF). The new position acquired by endothelial cells prompted the discovery of other endothelium-derived regulatory products: vasoconstrictors, generally known as EDCFs, endothelin, and other vasodilators with hyperpolarizing properties (EDHFs)...
August 12, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516614/reexamining-the-p-element-invasion-of-drosophila-melanogaster-through-the-lens-of-pirna-silencing
#20
REVIEW
Erin S Kelleher
Transposable elements (TEs) are both important drivers of genome evolution and genetic parasites with potentially dramatic consequences for host fitness. The recent explosion of research on regulatory RNAs reveals that small RNA-mediated silencing is a conserved genetic mechanism through which hosts repress TE activity. The invasion of the Drosophila melanogaster genome by P elements, which happened on a historical timescale, represents an incomparable opportunity to understand how small RNA-mediated silencing of TEs evolves...
August 2016: Genetics
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