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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320898/a-personal-historic-perspective-on-the-role-of-chloride-in-skeletal-and-cardiac-muscle
#1
REVIEW
Otto F Hutter
During the early decades of the last century, skeletal muscle was held to be impermeable to chloride ions. This theory, based on shaky grounds, was famously falsified by Boyle and Conway in 1941. Two decades later and onwards, the larger part of the resting conductance of skeletal muscle was found to be due to chloride ions, sensitive to the chemical environment, and to be time-and-voltage dependent. So, much of the groundwork for the physiological role of chloride ions in skeletal muscle was laid before the game-changing discovery of chloride channels...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245890/one-hundred-years-of-neglect-in-paediatric-schistosomiasis
#2
Amaya L Bustinduy, Stephen Wright, Elizabeth C Joekes, Narcis B Kabatereine, Jutta Reinhard-Rupp, Charles H King, J Russell Stothard
Early in the history of schistosomiasis research, children under 5 years of age were known to be infected. Although this problem was recognized over 100 years ago, insufficient action has been taken to address this issue. Under current policy, such infected children only receive their first antiparasitic treatment (praziquantel - PZQ) upon entry into primary school as current mass drug administration programmes typically target school-aged children. For many infected children, they will wait up to 6 years before receiving their first medication and significant schistosomiasis-related morbidity may have already established...
March 1, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188197/teaching-a-changing-paradigm-in-physiology-a-historical-perspective-on-gut-interstitial-cells
#3
REVIEW
Bernard T Drumm, Salah A Baker
The study and teaching of gastrointestinal (GI) physiology necessitates an understanding of the cellular basis of contractile and electrical coupling behaviors in the muscle layers that comprise the gut wall. Our knowledge of the cellular origin of GI motility has drastically changed over the last 100 yr. While the pacing and coordination of GI contraction was once thought to be solely attributable to smooth muscle cells, it is now widely accepted that the motility patterns observed in the GI tract exist as a result of a multicellular system, consisting of not only smooth muscle cells but also enteric neurons and distinct populations of specialized interstitial cells that all work in concert to ensure proper GI functions...
March 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186463/diagnosis-of-some-genital-tract-infections-part-1-an-historical-perspective
#4
David Taylor-Robinson, Anna Pallecaros, Patrick Horner
Making a prompt and accurate diagnosis of genital tract infections is the key to instituting appropriate treatment and the linchpin of sexually transmitted infection control. We present a brief history, not covering syphilis, of diagnostic events for each of six bacteria and one protozoan from the time of discovery up to the molecular revolution. The latter is touched upon but its impact will form the substance of a further presentation. Here, hindsight is helpful in understanding the way in which progress was made over 135 years, often when microbiology, not even seen as a distinct discipline, had a difficult time in providing what was required in terms of dependable diagnostic techniques...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095771/the-100-most-cited-articles-on-aortic-dissection
#5
Ping Lai, Yuan-Hui Liu, Jin-Hua Xue, Peng-Cheng He, Yue-Qun Qiu
BACKGROUND: To identify and characterize the most frequently cited articles that have been published on aortic dissection. METHODS: A list of the 100 most frequently cited publications (T100) about aortic dissection was generated by performing a searching of the Science Citation Index--Expanded using "aortic dissection" as the search term. Basic information about the articles was recorded, including number of citations, journal title, journal impact factor, time since publication, first author's country, topic/subspecialty of the research, and publication type...
January 17, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077788/androgen-receptor-splice-variants-and-prostate-cancer-from-bench-to-bedside
#6
REVIEW
Kristine M Wadosky, Shahriar Koochekpour
Therapeutic interventions for advanced prostate cancer (PCa) center on inhibiting androgen receptor (AR) and downstream signaling pathways. Resistance to androgen deprivation therapy and/or AR antagonists is inevitable and molecular mechanisms driving castration-resistant PCa (CR-PCa) primarily involve alterations in AR expression and activity. Detailed molecular biology work over the past decade, discussed at length in this review article, has revealed several AR transcripts that result from alternative splicing...
January 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057304/drosophila-as-a-model-for-human-diseases-focus-on-innate-immunity-in-barrier-epithelia
#7
P Bergman, S Seyedoleslami Esfahani, Y Engström
Epithelial immunity protects the host from harmful microbial invaders but also controls the beneficial microbiota on epithelial surfaces. When this delicate balance between pathogen and symbiont is disturbed, clinical disease often occurs, such as in inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, or atopic dermatitis, which all can be in part linked to impairment of barrier epithelia. Many innate immune receptors, signaling pathways, and effector molecules are evolutionarily conserved between human and Drosophila...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995377/novel-insights-into-the-molecular-mechanism-of-sperm-egg-fusion-via-izumo1
#8
Naokazu Inoue
When a spermatozoon fertilizes an oocyte in mammals, there must be an extremely precise regulation system for successful gamete fusion to occur, which is the final step of fertilization. Using gene-modified animals, IZUMO1 on the sperm side and its receptor, JUNO, on the ovum side, have been unveiled as indispensable factors for triggering membrane fusion. We recently analyzed the detailed molecular machinery of the IZUMO1-JUNO recognition system and clarified the tertiary architecture of the IZUMO1-JUNO complex based on the crystal structure...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920043/a-historical-perspective-on-crush-syndrome-the-clinical-application-of-its-pathogenesis-established-by-the-study-of-wartime-crush-injuries
#9
REVIEW
Dilini Peiris
Crush syndrome is a fine example of how pathology can play a direct role in revealing the best treatment and management for diseases. It can occur when crush injuries are sustained. Skeletal muscle becomes damaged under the weight of a heavy object, and victims experience severe shock and renal failure. The discovery of the pathology of crush syndrome belongs to two individuals: Seigo Minami and Eric Bywaters. They separately helped to define the pathogenesis of crush syndrome during World Wars I and II. Seigo Minami is believed to have been the first to record the pathogenesis of crush syndrome...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916641/ucp1-the-mitochondrial-uncoupling-protein-of-brown-adipocyte-a%C3%A2-personal-contribution-and-a-historical-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Daniel Ricquier
The present text summarizes what was my contribution, starting in 1975, to the research on the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), the mitochondrial uncoupler of brown adipocytes. The research on UCP1 aimed at identifying the mechanisms of heat production by brown adipocytes that occurs in mammals either at birth or during cold exposure and arousal in hibernators. With others and in particular Dr. David Nicholls, I participated in the first experiments that contributed to the identification of UCP1. Important steps were the obtention of UCP1 antibodies followed with my main collaborator and friend Frédéric Bouillaud with the initial cloning of the UCP1 cDNA and gene from rats and humans...
March 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913843/molecular-evolution-in-historical-perspective
#11
Edna Suárez-Díaz
In the 1960s, advances in protein chemistry and molecular genetics provided new means for the study of biological evolution. Amino acid sequencing, nucleic acid hybridization, zone gel electrophoresis, and immunochemistry were some of the experimental techniques that brought about new perspectives to the study of the patterns and mechanisms of evolution. New concepts, such as the molecular evolutionary clock, and the discovery of unexpected molecular phenomena, like the presence of repetitive sequences in eukaryotic genomes, eventually led to the realization that evolution might occur at a different pace at the organismic and the molecular levels, and according to different mechanisms...
December 2016: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891621/animal-cryptochromes-divergent-roles-in-light-perception-circadian-timekeeping-and-beyond
#12
REVIEW
Alicia K Michael, Jennifer L Fribourgh, Russell N Van Gelder, Carrie L Partch
Cryptochromes are evolutionarily related to the light-dependent DNA repair enzyme photolyase, serving as major regulators of circadian rhythms in insects and vertebrate animals. There are two types of cryptochromes in the animal kingdom: Drosophila-like CRYs that act as nonvisual photopigments linking circadian rhythms to the environmental light/dark cycle, and vertebrate-like CRYs that do not appear to sense light directly, but control the generation of circadian rhythms by acting as transcriptional repressors...
November 28, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864548/from-ige-to-omalizumab
#13
Toshiaki Kawakami, Ulrich Blank
IgE is the least abundant Ig isotype, yet it plays a critical role in allergic reactions and host protection from helminth infection. Although IgE was discovered 50 years ago, the ultimate evidence for its role in human allergic diseases was obtained by the efficacy of anti-IgE therapy in many clinical trials on asthma and other allergic diseases. Beginning from the discovery of IgE 50 y ago, followed by studies of IgE receptors and activation mechanisms, this review provides a historic perspective of allergy research that has led to the development of anti-IgE therapy and other strategies targeting IgE and its receptors...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859304/from-mfd-to-trcf-and-back-again-a-perspective-on-bacterial-transcription-coupled-nucleotide-excision-repair
#14
REVIEW
Alexandra M Deaconescu, Margaret M Suhanovsky
Photochemical and other reactions on DNA cause damage and corrupt genetic information. To counteract this damage, organisms have evolved intricate repair mechanisms that often crosstalk with other DNA-based processes such as transcription. Intriguing observations in the late 1980s and early 1990s led to the discovery of transcription-coupled repair (TCR), a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair. TCR, found in all domains of life, prioritizes for repair lesions located in the transcribed DNA strand, directly read by RNA polymerase...
November 12, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828722/genetics-of-combined-pituitary-hormone-deficiency-roadmap-into-the-genome-era
#15
Qing Fang, Akima S George, Michelle L Brinkmeier, Amanda H Mortensen, Peter Gergics, Leonard Y M Cheung, Alexandre Z Daly, Adnan Ajmal, María Ines Pérez Millán, A Bilge Ozel, Jacob O Kitzman, Ryan E Mills, Jun Z Li, Sally A Camper
The genetic basis for combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) is complex, involving 30 genes in a variety of syndromic and nonsyndromic presentations. Molecular diagnosis of this disorder is valuable for predicting disease progression, avoiding unnecessary surgery, and family planning. We expect that the application of high throughput sequencing will uncover additional contributing genes and eventually become a valuable tool for molecular diagnosis. For example, in the last 3 years, six new genes have been implicated in CPHD using whole-exome sequencing...
December 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784742/allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-historical-and-scientific-overview
#16
REVIEW
Anurag K Singh, Joseph P McGuirk
The field of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) has made ground-breaking progress in the treatment of many malignant and nonmalignant conditions. It has also pioneered the concepts of stem cell therapy and immunotherapy as a tool against cancer. The success of transplant for hematologic malignancies derives both from the ability to treat patients with intensive chemoradiotherapy and from potent graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects mediated by donor immunity. Additionally, HSCT has been a curative therapy for several nonmalignant hematologic disorders through the provision of donor-derived hematopoiesis and immunity...
October 26, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783852/mitochondrial-actions-of-thyroid-hormone
#17
Antonia Lanni, Maria Moreno, Fernando Goglia
The hypermetabolic effects of thyroid hormones (THs), the major endocrine regulators of metabolic rate, are widely recognized. Although, the cellular mechanisms underlying these effects have been extensively investigated, much has yet to be learned about how TH regulates diverse cellular functions. THs have a profound impact on mitochondria, the organelles responsible for the majority of cellular energy production, and several studies have been devoted to understand the respective importance of the nuclear and mitochondrial pathways for organelle activity...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724893/-it-s-all-about-trust-reflections-of-researchers-on-the-complexity-and-controversy-surrounding-biobanking-in-south-africa
#18
Keymanthri Moodley, Shenuka Singh
BACKGROUND: Biobanks are precariously situated at the intersection of science, genetics, genomics, society, ethics, the law and politics. This multi-disciplinarity has given rise to a new discourse in health research involving diverse stakeholders. Each stakeholder is embedded in a unique context and articulates his/her biobanking activities differently. To researchers, biobanks carry enormous transformative potential in terms of advancing scientific discovery and knowledge. However, in the context of power asymmetries in Africa and a distrust in science born out of historical exploitation, researchers must balance the scientific imperative of collecting, storing and sharing high quality biological samples with obligations to donors/participants, communities, international collaborators, regulatory and ethics authorities...
October 10, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711765/crispr-cas9-a-historical-and-chemical-biology-perspective-of-targeted-genome-engineering
#19
Amrita Singh, Debojyoti Chakraborty, Souvik Maiti
The CRISPR-Cas9 system has revolutionized the process of making changes to the DNA sequence of organisms. Relying on a simplistic model of RNA guided DNA binding and cleavage, this molecular toolbox has found application in nearly every branch of biological sciences. The story of CRISPR-Cas9 is one of discovery and development where a component of bacterial adaptive immunity has been harnessed to address important biological questions using significant inputs from physicochemical structure-function studies...
December 21, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709989/borderline-personality-disorder-and-the-emerging-field-of-developmental-neuroscience
#20
Sheila E Crowell, Erin A Kaufman
Over the past 2 decades there has been a dramatic shift in understanding of personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). What was historically viewed as an entrenched pattern of antagonistic, interpersonally dependent, and uncorrectable conduct is now seen as the outcome of complex-yet modifiable-developmental processes. The borderline label, which once inspired such harsh opprobrium in clinical communities that early diagnosis was considered taboo, is now increasingly applied to adolescents who are receiving effective treatment and desisting from a borderline trajectory...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
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