Read by QxMD icon Read

a historical perspective on the discovery

Keymanthri Moodley, Shenuka Singh
BACKGROUND: Biobanks are precariously situated at the intersection of science, genetics, genomics, society, ethics, the law and politics. This multi-disciplinarity has given rise to a new discourse in health research involving diverse stakeholders. Each stakeholder is embedded in a unique context and articulates his/her biobanking activities differently. To researchers, biobanks carry enormous transformative potential in terms of advancing scientific discovery and knowledge. However, in the context of power asymmetries in Africa and a distrust in science born out of historical exploitation, researchers must balance the scientific imperative of collecting, storing and sharing high quality biological samples with obligations to donors/participants, communities, international collaborators, regulatory and ethics authorities...
October 10, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Amrita Singh, Debojyoti Chakraborty, Souvik Maiti
The CRISPR-Cas9 system has revolutionized the process of making changes to the DNA sequence of organisms. Relying on a simplistic model of RNA guided DNA binding and cleavage, this molecular toolbox has found application in nearly every branch of biological sciences. The story of CRISPR-Cas9 is one of discovery and development where a component of bacterial adaptive immunity has been harnessed to address important biological questions using significant inputs from physicochemical structure-function studies...
September 14, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Sheila E Crowell, Erin A Kaufman
Over the past 2 decades there has been a dramatic shift in understanding of personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). What was historically viewed as an entrenched pattern of antagonistic, interpersonally dependent, and uncorrectable conduct is now seen as the outcome of complex-yet modifiable-developmental processes. The borderline label, which once inspired such harsh opprobrium in clinical communities that early diagnosis was considered taboo, is now increasingly applied to adolescents who are receiving effective treatment and desisting from a borderline trajectory...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
Etienne Cavaignac, David Ancelin, Philippe Chiron, Jean-Louis Tricoire, Karine Wytrykowski, Marie Faruch, Elodie Chantalat
: There is a lively debate about the existence, origins and discoverer of the anterolateral ligament of the knee. The complex anatomy of the lateral aspect of the knee has made it difficult to differentiate between various structures such as the iliotibial band, capsulo-osseous layer, Kaplan's fibres and the anterolateral capsule. The "discovery" of a new anterolateral structure in 2013 was the culmination of many historical studies. In 1879, Paul Ferdinand Segond described a tibial plateau fracture in which he noted a pearly band reinforcing the joint capsule...
October 3, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Eun-Young Karen Choi, Henry D Appelman
This article offers a historical perspective on the discovery of 3 types of serrated colorectal polyps recognized in the past 60 years. The first to be discovered was the hyperplastic polyp, which is still the most commonly encountered serrated polyp. In the past 20 years, the carcinoma-associated sessile serrated adenoma/polyp has been recognized, but its diagnosis can be difficult owing to overlapping histologic features with hyperplastic polyps. Less is known about the third type, the traditional serrated adenoma, because it is far less common than the other 2 types, and its association with cancer is currently under investigation...
October 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Helena Sá, Rita Leal, Manuel Santos Rosa
To deride the hope of progress is the ultimate fatuity, the last word in poverty of spirit and meanness of mind. There is no need to be dismayed by the fact that we cannot yet envisage a definitive solution of our problems, a resting-place beyond which we need not try to go. -P.B. Medawar, 1969* [Formula: see text] Thomas E. Starlz, also known as the Father of Clinical Transplantation, once said that organ transplantation was the supreme exception to the rule that most major advances in medicine spring from discoveries in basic science [Starzl T...
September 28, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Janine Aucamp, Abel J Bronkhorst, Christoffel P S Badenhorst, Piet J Pretorius
The discovery of quantitative and qualitative differences of the circulating DNA (cirDNA) between healthy and diseased individuals inclined researchers to investigate these molecules as potential biomarkers for non-invasive diagnosis and prognosis of various pathologies. However, except for some prenatal tests, cirDNA analyses have not been readily translated to clinical practice due to a lack of knowledge regarding its composition, function, and biological and evolutionary origins. We believe that, to fully grasp the nature of cirDNA and the extracellular vesicles (EVs) and protein complexes with which it is associated, it is necessary to probe the early and badly neglected work that contributed to the discovery and development of these concepts...
September 20, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Viviane A Bastos, Francisco Gomes-Neto, Jonas Perales, Ana Gisele C Neves-Ferreira, Richard H Valente
The research on natural snake venom metalloendopeptidase inhibitors (SVMPIs) began in the 18th century with the pioneering work of Fontana on the resistance that vipers exhibited to their own venom. During the past 40 years, SVMPIs have been isolated mainly from the sera of resistant animals, and characterized to different extents. They are acidic oligomeric glycoproteins that remain biologically active over a wide range of pH and temperature values. Based on primary structure determination, mammalian plasmatic SVMPIs are classified as members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) supergene protein family, while the one isolated from muscle belongs to the ficolin/opsonin P35 family...
2016: Toxins
Edward T H Yeh, Hui-Ming Chang
Importance: Oncocardiology is a medical discipline that focuses on the identification, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular complications related to cancer therapy. This discipline has gained interest from the cardiology community in recent years because of a remarkable increase in the number of cancer survivors and the proliferation of new cancer therapies causing cardiovascular complications, such as hypertension, heart failure, vascular complications, and cardiac arrhythmia...
August 17, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
Eduardo Nava, Silvia Llorens
During the last quarter of the past century, the leading role the endocrine and nervous systems had on the regulation of vasomotion, shifted towards a more paracrine-based regulation. This begun with the recognition of endothelial cells as active players of vascular control, when the vessel's intimal layer was identified as the main source of prostacyclin and was followed by the discovery of an endothelium-derived smooth muscle cell relaxing factor (EDRF). The new position acquired by endothelial cells prompted the discovery of other endothelium-derived regulatory products: vasoconstrictors, generally known as EDCFs, endothelin, and other vasodilators with hyperpolarizing properties (EDHFs)...
August 12, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Erin S Kelleher
Transposable elements (TEs) are both important drivers of genome evolution and genetic parasites with potentially dramatic consequences for host fitness. The recent explosion of research on regulatory RNAs reveals that small RNA-mediated silencing is a conserved genetic mechanism through which hosts repress TE activity. The invasion of the Drosophila melanogaster genome by P elements, which happened on a historical timescale, represents an incomparable opportunity to understand how small RNA-mediated silencing of TEs evolves...
August 2016: Genetics
Steffen Klasberg, Tristan Bitard-Feildel, Ludovic Mallet
While it has long been thought that all genomic novelties are derived from the existing material, many genes lacking homology to known genes were found in recent genome projects. Some of these novel genes were proposed to have evolved de novo, ie, out of noncoding sequences, whereas some have been shown to follow a duplication and divergence process. Their discovery called for an extension of the historical hypotheses about gene origination. Besides the theoretical breakthrough, increasing evidence accumulated that novel genes play important roles in evolutionary processes, including adaptation and speciation events...
2016: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Nadia Benmoussa, Jennifer Kerner, Patrice Josset, Patrick Conan, Philippe Charlier
Joseph Gensoul was a pioneer of ENT surgery. In 1827, he performed the first total maxillectomy on 17-year-old boy. His work inspired many surgeons, who were previously unwilling to remove maxillary tumours. A paleopathological study performed in the Dupuytren museum allowed us to identify a skull from the early 19th century, with a large maxillar tumour. There were indications that this skull was operated according to Gensoul's technique. The aim of this study is to confirm that this patient had, in fact, received this surgical treatment...
July 4, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Noori Kim, Yong-Jin Yoon, Jont B Allen
This article reviews the development of metamaterials (MM), starting from Newton's discovery of the wave equation, and ends with a discussion of the need for a technical taxonomy (classification) of these materials, along with a better defined definition of metamaterials. It is intended to be a technical definition of metamaterials, based on a historical perspective. The evolution of MMs began with the discovery of the wave equation, traceable back to Newton's calculation of the speed of sound. The theory of sound evolved to include quasi-statics (Helmholtz) and the circuit equations of Kirchhoff's circuit laws, leading to the ultimate development of Maxwell's equations and the equation for the speed of light...
June 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
C David Allis, Thomas Jenuwein
Over the past 20 years, breakthrough discoveries of chromatin-modifying enzymes and associated mechanisms that alter chromatin in response to physiological or pathological signals have transformed our knowledge of epigenetics from a collection of curious biological phenomena to a functionally dissected research field. Here, we provide a personal perspective on the development of epigenetics, from its historical origins to what we define as 'the modern era of epigenetic research'. We primarily highlight key molecular mechanisms of and conceptual advances in epigenetic control that have changed our understanding of normal and perturbed development...
August 2016: Nature Reviews. Genetics
Birgit Waltenberger, Andrei Mocan, Karel Šmejkal, Elke H Heiss, Atanas G Atanasov
Natural products have always been exploited to promote health and served as a valuable source for the discovery of new drugs. In this review, the great potential of natural compounds and medicinal plants for the treatment or prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, global health problems with rising prevalence, is addressed. Special emphasis is laid on natural products for which efficacy and safety have already been proven and which are in clinical trials, as well as on plants used in traditional medicine...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Giangiacomo Torri, Annamaria Naggi
On the centenary of the discovery of heparin, the International Journal of Cardiology agreed to publish a collection of mini reviews that summarize the historical development of this ever-young life-saving drug. The present articles deal not only with the historical milestones, but also with current and future perspectives regarding the development of heparin in terms of its structure, as well as on-going biochemical, biological and clinical research. Attention is focused on recent applications of heparin derivatives to non-anticoagulant or antithrombotic therapies, providing particular emphasis on their inhibitory activities, including their potential as anti-cancer agents...
June 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Hellmut G Augustin
Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for tumor growth and metastatic progression. The discovery of the first specific angiogenic cytokine, VEGF, in 1989 paved the way for the clinical approval of the first antiangiogenic tumor drug 15 years later. This brief commentary highlights and puts into historical perspective the 1985 G.H.A. Clowes Memorial Award Lecture delivered by Dr. Judah Folkman. Thirty years later, this award lecture is a lively testimony of the visionary mind of Dr. Folkman, whose legacy continues to inspire contemporary angiogenesis research...
May 15, 2016: Cancer Research
K L Townsend, Y-H Tseng
Recently, there has been great attention given to the possibility of combating obesity by targeting brown fat activity or increasing differentiation of brown adipocytes in white fat depots through a process termed 'browning'. Sympathetic innervation of brown and white adipose tissues provides adrenergic input that drives thermogenesis and regulates fatty acid metabolism, as well as stimulating adipogenesis of recruitable brown adipocyte tissue (rBAT, also known as beige or brite) in white fat. Other factors acting in an endocrine or autocrine/paracrine manner in adipose tissue may also stimulate browning...
August 2015: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
F A Murphy
A historic review of the discovery of new viruses leads to reminders of traditions that have evolved over 118 years. One such tradition gives credit for the discovery of a virus to the investigator(s) who not only carried out the seminal experiments but also correctly interpreted the findings (within the technological context of the day). Early on, ultrafiltration played a unique role in "proving" that an infectious agent was a virus, as did a failure to find any microscopically visible agent, failure to show replication of the agent in the absence of viable cells, thermolability of the agent, and demonstration of a specific immune response to the agent so as to rule out duplicates and close variants...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"