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relapse of TB in HIV

Prerna K Chawla, Zarir F Udwadia, Rajeev Soman, Ashok A Mahashur, Rohit A Amale, Alpa J Dherai, Rohan V Lokhande, Prasad R Naik, Tester F Ashavaid
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is a routinely practised clinical laboratory technique which aids the clinicians with a clear clinical judgement of the drug therapy and optimize the doses if necessary. Rifampicin is the most important and potent component of first line therapy of tuberculosis (TB). Several factors like age, weight, gender, doses and formulations, gastro-intestinal disorders, ethnicity etc alter the absorption and bioavailability of rifampicin thus altering the drug levels. Low plasma levels of rifampicin may play a plausible role in slow response to therapy, treatment failure or relapse or acquired drug resistance...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Zoë M McLaren, Amanda A Milliken, Amanda J Meyer, Alana R Sharp
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) now ranks alongside HIV as the leading infectious disease cause of death worldwide and incurs a global economic burden of over $12 billion annually. Directly observed therapy (DOT) recommends that TB patients complete the course of treatment under direct observation of a treatment supporter who is trained and overseen by health services to ensure that patients take their drugs as scheduled. Though the current WHO End TB Strategy does not mention DOT, only "supportive treatment supervision by treatment partners", many TB programs still use it despite the fact that the has not been demonstrated to be statistically significantly superior to self-administered treatment in ensuring treatment success or cure...
October 4, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Enos O Masini, Omar Mansour, Clare E Speer, Vittorio Addona, Christy L Hanson, Joseph K Sitienei, Hillary K Kipruto, Martin Muhingo Githiomi, Brenda Nyambura Mungai
Despite high tuberculosis (TB) treatment success rate, treatment adherence is one of the major obstacles to tuberculosis control in Kenya. Our objective was to identify patient-related factors that were associated with time to TB treatment interruption and the geographic distribution of the risk of treatment interruption by county. Data of new and retreatment patients registered in TIBU, a Kenyan national case-based electronic data recording system, between 2013 and 2014 was obtained. Kaplan-Meier curves and log rank tests were used to assess the adherence patterns...
2016: PloS One
Omar Salad Elmi, Habsah Hasan, Sarimah Abdullah, Mat Zuki Mat Jeab, Zilfalil Ba, Nyi Nyi Naing
BACKGROUND: Treating patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strains is more complicated, complex, toxic, expensive, than treating patients with susceptible TB strains. This study aims to compare the treatment outcomes and potential factors associated between patients with MDR-TB and non MDR TB infections in peninsular Malaysia. METHODS: This study was a retrospective cohort study. Data were collected from the medical records of all registered MDR-TB patients and Non-MDR-TB patients at five TB hospitals in peninsular Malaysia from January 2010 to January 2014...
July 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
J D Jenks, N Kumarasamy, C Ezhilarasi, S Poongulali, P Ambrose, T Yepthomi, C Devaraj, C A Benson
SETTING: Y R Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education, Chennai, India. OBJECTIVE: To compare anti-tuberculosis treatment outcomes in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) co-infection on atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) antiretroviral therapy (ART) plus daily rifabutin (RBT) 150 mg with those on ATV/r plus thrice-weekly RBT 150 mg. DESIGN: A retrospective study was conducted of two HIV-TB co-infected cohorts between 2003 and 2014...
September 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Tom Hiatt, Nobuyuki Nishikiori
INTRODUCTION: Since the year 2000, tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region decreased 36%. However, there were an estimated 1.6 million TB cases in the Region in 2013. This study describes a regional analysis using the WHO global TB database data from 2000 to 2013. METHODS: TB surveillance data are annually collected from 36 countries and areas in the Western Pacific Region using a web-based system. TB case notifications, treatment outcomes and information on TB/HIV coinfection are analysed descriptively...
April 2016: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Vania Celina Dezoti Micheletti, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, José Ueleres Braga
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical features and treatment outcomes of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, stratified by level of drug resistance. METHODS: This was a historical cohort study based on data from the II National Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Survey (2006-2007) collected at eight participating health care facilities in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. The cohort was followed for 3 years after the start of treatment. RESULTS: Of 299 cases of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis included in the study, 216 (72...
2016: PloS One
Mehdi Kazempour-Dizaji, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Payam Tabarsi, Farid Zayeri
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic bacterial disease, which despite the presence of effective drug strategies, still remains a serious health problem worldwide. Estimation of survival rate is an appropriate indicator for prognosis in patients with pulmonary TB. Therefore, this research was designed with the aim of accurate estimation of the survival of patients by taking both the death event and relapse into consideration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on a retrospective cohort study, information of 2,299 patients with pulmonary TB that had been referred to and treated in Masih Daneshvari Hospital from 2005 to 2015 was reviewed...
2016: Tanaffos
Carmen R Gallardo, David Rigau Comas, Angélica Valderrama Rodríguez, Marta Roqué i Figuls, Lucy Anne Parker, Joan Caylà, Xavier Bonfill Cosp
BACKGROUND: People who are newly diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) typically receive a standard first-line treatment regimen that consists of two months of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol followed by four months of isoniazid and rifampicin. Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of these drugs are widely recommended. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of anti-tuberculosis regimens given as fixed-dose combinations compared to single-drug formulations for treating people with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Naira Dekhil, Nedra Meftahi, Besma Mhenni, Saloua Ben Fraj, Raja Haltiti, Sameh Belhaj, Helmi Mardassi
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) outbreaks that evolve, from the outset, in a context strictly negative for HIV infection deserve special consideration since they reflect the true intrinsic epidemic potential of the causative strain. To our knowledge, the long-term evolution of such exceptional outbreaks and the treatment outcomes for the involved patients has never been reported hitherto. Here we provide a thorough description, over an 11-year period, of an MDR-TB outbreak that emerged and expanded in an HIV-negative context, Northern Tunisia...
2016: PloS One
Serge Ade, Omer Adjibodé, Prudence Wachinou, Narcisse Toundoh, Bérénice Awanou, Gildas Agodokpessi, Dissou Affolabi, Gabriel Adè, Anthony D Harries, Séverin Anagonou
Objective. To determine among retreatment tuberculosis patients in Benin baseline characteristics, culture, and drug sensitivity testing (DST) results and treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods. A retrospective national cohort study of all retreatment tuberculosis patients in Benin in 2013 using registers and treatment cards. Results. Of 3957 patients with tuberculosis, 241 (6%) were retreatment cases. Compared to new pulmonary bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (NPBCT) patients, there were significantly higher numbers of males (P = 0...
2016: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Simon Pollett, Pamela Banner, Matthew V N O'Sullivan, Anna P Ralph
OBJECTIVES: Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is relatively neglected and increasing in incidence, in comparison to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in low-burden settings. It poses particular diagnostic and management challenges. We aimed to determine the characteristics of EPTB in Western Sydney, Australia, and to conduct a quality assurance investigation of adherence to guidelines among Infectious Diseases (ID) practitioners managing EPTB cases. METHODS: All adult EPTB cases managed by a large ID service during 01/01/2008-31/12/2011 were eligible for inclusion in the retrospective review...
2016: PloS One
Nathália Mota de Faria Gomes, Meire Cardoso da Mota Bastos, Renata Magliano Marins, Aline Alves Barbosa, Luiz Clóvis Parente Soares, Annelise Maria de Oliveira Wilken de Abreu, João Tadeu Damian Souto Filho
OBJECTIVES: To identify the risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment and mortality in tuberculosis (TB) patients. METHODS: This study was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2002 and 2008 in a TB reference center. RESULTS: A total of 1,257 patients were evaluated, with 69.1% men, 54.4% under 40 years of age, 18.9% with extrapulmonary disease, and 9.3% coinfected with HIV...
2015: Pulmonary Medicine
E dos Santos Dias, T N do Prado, A L da Silva Guimarães, M C Ramos, C M M Sales, E de Fátima Almeida Lima, C C Sant'Anna, M Sanchez, E L Maciel
SETTING: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may impact tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, clinical presentation and treatment outcomes in children as the signs and symptoms of both diseases overlap. OBJECTIVE: To compare the sociodemographic and clinical profiles of childhood TB according to HIV status in Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of data on subjects aged <15 years retrieved from the Brazilian National Electronic Disease Registry (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação) database on TB to compare TB-HIV coinfected patients and patients with TB only registered between 2007 and 2011...
November 2015: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Dibuseng P Ramaema, Ines Buccimazza, Richard J Hift
BACKGROUND: Breast tuberculosis (BTB) is uncommon, but not rare. Knowledge of the ways in which it can present can prevent unnecessary invasive procedures and delay in diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical and radiological findings in patients with BTB, including evaluation of current treatment methods. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 65 patients diagnosed with BTB at Addington and King Edward VIII hospitals, Durban, South Africa, between 2000 and 2013...
October 2015: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
L Kuksa, V Riekstina, V Leimane, I Ozere, G Skenders, R Van den Bergh, K Kremer, C D Acosta, A D Harries
SETTING: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is an important public health problem in Latvia. OBJECTIVE: To document trends, characteristics and treatment outcomes of registered patients with multi-drug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR-) TB in Latvia from 2000 to 2010. DESIGN: A retrospective national cohort study. RESULTS: Of 1779 patients, 1646 (92%) had MDR- and 133 (8%) XDR-TB. Over 11 years, the proportion of XDR-TB among MDR-TB patients increased from 2% to 18%...
October 21, 2014: Public Health Action
Mary G Nabukenya-Mudiope, Herman Joseph Kawuma, Miranda Brouwer, Peter Mudiope, Anna Vassall
BACKGROUND: Many of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa are still largely dependent on microscopy as the mainstay for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) including patients with previous history of TB treatment. The available guidance in management of TB retreatment cases is focused on bacteriologically confirmed TB retreatment cases leaving out those classified as retreatment 'others'. Retreatment 'others' refer to all TB cases who were previously treated but with unknown outcome of that previous treatment or who have returned to treatment with bacteriologically negative pulmonary or extra-pulmonary TB...
2015: BMC Public Health
Philip Erik Wikman-Jorgensen, Alejandra Morales-Cartagena, Jara Llenas-García, Tomàs Maria Pérez-Porcuna, Michael Hobbins, Jochen Ehmer, Manuel Aly Mussa, Rosa Abellana, Carlos Ascaso
BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify challenges and to propose solutions for the implementation of tuberculosis (TB) programmes in rural Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) by evaluating the outcomes of the TB programme in the Ancuabe district in rural Northern Mozambique. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive study of the patients included in the TB programme in 2012-2013. Follow-up was continued till June 2014. RESULTS: Three hundred nineteen patients were registered, 62...
July 2015: Pathogens and Global Health
Maria Korzeniewska-Koseła
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the main features of TB epidemiology in 2013 in Poland and to compare with the corresponding EU/EEA data. METHODS: Analysis of case- based clinical and demographic data on TB patients from Central TB Register, of data submitted by laboratories on anti-TB drug susceptibility testing results in cases notified in 2013, data from National Institute of Public Health- National Institute of Hygiene on cases of tuberculosis as AIDS-defining disease, from Central Statistical Office on deaths from tuberculosis based on death certificates, data from ECDC report "European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control/WHO Regional Office for Europe...
2015: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Raman Mahajan, Pradeep Das, Petros Isaakidis, Temmy Sunyoto, Karuna D Sagili, Marıa Angeles Lima, Gaurab Mitra, Deepak Kumar, Krishna Pandey, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden, Marleen Boelaert, Sakib Burza
BACKGROUND: There are considerable numbers of patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the VL-endemic areas of Bihar, India. These patients are at higher risk of relapse and death, but there are still no evidence-based guidelines on how to treat them. In this study, we report on treatment outcomes of coinfected patients up to 18 months following treatment with a combination regimen. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included all patients with confirmed HIV-VL coinfection receiving combination treatment for VL at a Médecins Sans Frontières treatment center between July 2012 and September 2014...
October 15, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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