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relapse of TB in HIV

Phan Vuong Khac Thai, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Nguyen Thi Hanh, Jeremy Day, Sarah Dunstan, Nguyen Thi Quynh Nhu, Vo Sy Kiet, Nguyen Huu Lan, Nguyen Huy Dung, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan, Nguyen Thuong Thuong, Nguyen Ngoc Lan, Phạm Thị Thúy Liễu, Nguyễn Thị Hồng, Đào Công Điệp, Nguyễn Thị Kim Thanh, Nguyễn Văn Hội, Nguyễn Văn Nghĩa, Trương Ngọc Đại, Hoàng Quang Minh, Nguyễn Văn Thơm, Jeremy Farrar, Maxine Caws
BACKGROUND: Drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) is increasing in prevalence worldwide. Treatment failure and relapse is known to be high for patients with isoniazid resistant TB treated with standard first line regimens. However, risk factors for unfavourable outcomes and the optimal treatment regimen for isoniazid resistant TB are unknown. This cohort study was conducted when Vietnam used the eight month first line treatment regimen and examined risk factors for failure/relapse among patients with isoniazid resistant TB...
March 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Mayara Lisboa Bastos, Lorrayne Beliqui Cosme, Geisa Fregona, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Adelmo Inácio Bertolde, Eliana Zandonade, Mauro N Sanchez, Margareth Pretti Dalcolmo, Afrânio Kritski, Anete Trajman, Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a threat for the global TB epidemic control. Despite existing evidence that individualized treatment of MDR-TB is superior to standardized regimens, the latter are recommended in Brazil, mainly because drug-susceptibility tests (DST) are often restricted to first-line drugs in public laboratories. We compared treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients using standardized versus individualized regimens in Brazil, a high TB-burden, low resistance setting...
November 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jia Fan, Hedong Zhang, Duc T Nguyen, Christopher J Lyon, Charles D Mitchell, Zhen Zhao, Edward A Graviss, Ye Hu
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated immune defects inhibit tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, promote development of extrapulmonary TB and paucibacillary pulmonary TB cases with atypical radiographic features, and increase TB relapse rates. We therefore assessed the diagnostic performance of a novel assay that directly quantitates serum levels of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) virulence factor 10-kDa culture filtrate protein (CFP-10) to overcome limitations associated with detecting Mtb bacilli in sputum or tissue biopsies...
November 1, 2017: BMC Medicine
Laneke Luies, Ilse du Preez, Du Toit Loots
Despite the fact that tuberculosis (TB) is a curable disease, it still results in approximately 1.8 million deaths annually. Various inadequacies in the current TB treatment strategies are major contributors to this high disease prevalence, including the long duration of therapy, the severe side effects associated with TB drugs, treatment failure due to drug resistance, post-treatment disease relapse, and HIV co-infection. In this review, we describe how metabolomics has contributed toward better explaining/elucidating the mechanisms of drug action/metabolism, drug toxicity and microbial drug resistance, and how metabolite biomarkers may serve as prognostic indicators for predicting treatment outcome as well as for the development of new TB drugs...
November 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Neesha Rockwood, Diego L Costa, Eduardo P Amaral, Elsa Du Bruyn, Andre Kubler, Leonardo Gil-Santana, Kiyoshi F Fukutani, Charles A Scanga, JoAnne L Flynn, Sharon H Jackson, Katalin A Wilkinson, William R Bishai, Alan Sher, Robert J Wilkinson, Bruno B Andrade
The antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is implicated in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB) and has been proposed as a biomarker of active disease. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) induces HO-1 as well as how its expression is affected by HIV-1 coinfection and successful antitubercular therapy (ATT) are poorly understood. We found that HO-1 expression is markedly increased in rabbits, mice, and non-human primates during experimental Mtb infection and gradually decreased during ATT...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Nicholas Clark, Kate Dolan, David Farabee
Drug users are vastly overrepresented in prison populations. Once inside they face increased risks of acquiring infections such as HIV, hepatitis and TB, and on release they face an elevated risk of fatal overdose. Relapse and recidivism are the norm following release from prison. The implementation of evidence-based drug treatment programmes in prison is rare, yet drug treatment in prison reduces the transmission of infections, recidivism and fatal overdose on release. Recognising the negative returns associated with incarceration, many jurisdictions have begun to consider alternatives such as depenalisation of the personal use of illicit drugs, provision of treatment and social reintegration of drug offenders, and a shift in focus from supply reduction to demand and harm reduction measures in the community and in prison...
May 1, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Amanda McIvor, Hendrik Koornhof, Bavesh Davandra Kana
Tuberculosis (TB) disease can be characterized by genotypic and phenotypic complexity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli within a single patient. This microbiological heterogeneity has become an area of intense study due its perceived importance in drug tolerance, drug resistance and as a surrogate measure of transmission rates. This review presents a descriptive analysis of research describing the prevalence of mixed-strain TB infections in geographically distinct locations. Despite significant variation in disease burden and a rampant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-TB co-epidemic, there was no difference in the prevalence range of mixed infections reported in African countries when compared to the rest of the world...
April 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
Simon Tiberi, Anna Cristina C Carvalho, Giorgia Sulis, Devan Vaghela, Adrian Rendon, Fernanda C de Q Mello, Ananna Rahman, Nashaba Matin, Ali Zumla, Emanuele Pontali
The tuberculosis (TB) and HIV syndemic continues to rage and are a major public health concern worldwide. This deadly association raises complexity and represent a significant barrier towards TB elimination. TB continues to be the leading cause of death amongst HIV-infected people. This paper reports the challenges that lay ahead and outlines some of the current and future strategies that may be able to address this co-epidemic efficiently. Improved diagnostics, cheaper and more effective drugs, shorter treatment regimens for both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant TB are discussed...
March 2017: La Presse Médicale
Mehdi Kazempour Dizaji, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Payam Tabarsi, Farid Zayeri
INTRODUCTION: Although tuberculosis (TB) is curable, the rate of failure and mortality is high in comparison to other infectious diseases worldwide. It has been shown that majority of TB patients leave treatment before completing the therapeutic regimen. The aftermath of incomplete regimens might result in drug resistant-TB bacilli (DR-TB), relapses, and death. For this reason, proper knowledge about the disease and associated risk factor is crucial to decreasing TB cases among the general population...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Renata Báez-Saldaña, Guadalupe Delgado-Sánchez, Lourdes García-García, Luis Pablo Cruz-Hervert, Marlene Montesinos-Castillo, Leticia Ferreyra-Reyes, Miriam Bobadilla-Del-Valle, Sergio Canizales-Quintero, Elizabeth Ferreira-Guerrero, Norma Téllez-Vázquez, Rogelio Montero-Campos, Mercedes Yanes-Lane, Norma Mongua-Rodriguez, Rosa Areli Martínez-Gamboa, José Sifuentes-Osornio, Alfredo Ponce-de-León
BACKGROUND: Isoniazid mono-resistance (IMR) is the most common form of mono-resistance; its world prevalence is estimated to range between 0.0 to 9.5% globally. There is no consensus on how these patients should be treated. OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of IMR tuberculosis (TB) on treatment outcome and survival among pulmonary TB patients treated under programmatic conditions in Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of pulmonary TB patients in Southern Mexico...
2016: PloS One
Maria Korzeniewska-Koseła
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the main features of TB epidemiology in 2014 in Poland and to compare with the data on the same phenomena in EU/EEA countries. METHODS: Analysis of case- based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drugsusceptibility testing results in cases notified in 2014, data from National Institute of Public Health- NationalInstitute of Hygiene on cases of tuberculosis as AIDS-defining disease, data from Central Statistical Office ondeaths from tuberculosis based on death certificates, data from ECDC report „ European Centre for DiseasePrevention and Control/WHO Regional Office for Europe...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Sophie Jullien, Siddharth Jain, Hannah Ryan, Vineet Ahuja
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) of the gastrointestinal tract and any other organ within the abdominal cavity is abdominal TB, and most guidelines recommend the same six-month regimen used for pulmonary TB for people with this diagnosis. However, some physicians are concerned whether a six-month treatment regimen is long enough to prevent relapse of the disease, particularly in people with gastrointestinal TB, which may sometimes cause antituberculous drugs to be poorly absorbed. On the other hand, longer regimens are associated with poor adherence, which could increase relapse, contribute to drug resistance developing, and increase costs to patients and health providers...
November 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Prerna K Chawla, Zarir F Udwadia, Rajeev Soman, Ashok A Mahashur, Rohit A Amale, Alpa J Dherai, Rohan V Lokhande, Prasad R Naik, Tester F Ashavaid
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is a routinely practised clinical laboratory technique which aids the clinicians with a clear clinical judgement of the drug therapy and optimize the doses if necessary. Rifampicin is the most important and potent component of first line therapy of tuberculosis (TB). Several factors like age, weight, gender, doses and formulations, gastro-intestinal disorders, ethnicity etc alter the absorption and bioavailability of rifampicin thus altering the drug levels. Low plasma levels of rifampicin may play a plausible role in slow response to therapy, treatment failure or relapse or acquired drug resistance...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Zoë M McLaren, Amanda A Milliken, Amanda J Meyer, Alana R Sharp
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) now ranks alongside HIV as the leading infectious disease cause of death worldwide and incurs a global economic burden of over $12 billion annually. Directly observed therapy (DOT) recommends that TB patients complete the course of treatment under direct observation of a treatment supporter who is trained and overseen by health services to ensure that patients take their drugs as scheduled. Though the current WHO End TB Strategy does not mention DOT, only "supportive treatment supervision by treatment partners", many TB programs still use it despite the fact that the has not been demonstrated to be statistically significantly superior to self-administered treatment in ensuring treatment success or cure...
October 4, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Enos O Masini, Omar Mansour, Clare E Speer, Vittorio Addona, Christy L Hanson, Joseph K Sitienei, Hillary K Kipruto, Martin Muhingo Githiomi, Brenda Nyambura Mungai
Despite high tuberculosis (TB) treatment success rate, treatment adherence is one of the major obstacles to tuberculosis control in Kenya. Our objective was to identify patient-related factors that were associated with time to TB treatment interruption and the geographic distribution of the risk of treatment interruption by county. Data of new and retreatment patients registered in TIBU, a Kenyan national case-based electronic data recording system, between 2013 and 2014 was obtained. Kaplan-Meier curves and log rank tests were used to assess the adherence patterns...
2016: PloS One
Omar Salad Elmi, Habsah Hasan, Sarimah Abdullah, Mat Zuki Mat Jeab, Zilfalil Ba, Nyi Nyi Naing
BACKGROUND: Treating patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strains is more complicated, complex, toxic, expensive, than treating patients with susceptible TB strains. This study aims to compare the treatment outcomes and potential factors associated between patients with MDR-TB and non MDR TB infections in peninsular Malaysia. METHODS: This study was a retrospective cohort study. Data were collected from the medical records of all registered MDR-TB patients and Non-MDR-TB patients at five TB hospitals in peninsular Malaysia from January 2010 to January 2014...
July 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
J D Jenks, N Kumarasamy, C Ezhilarasi, S Poongulali, P Ambrose, T Yepthomi, C Devaraj, C A Benson
SETTING: Y R Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education, Chennai, India. OBJECTIVE: To compare anti-tuberculosis treatment outcomes in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) co-infection on atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) antiretroviral therapy (ART) plus daily rifabutin (RBT) 150 mg with those on ATV/r plus thrice-weekly RBT 150 mg. DESIGN: A retrospective study was conducted of two HIV-TB co-infected cohorts between 2003 and 2014...
September 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Tom Hiatt, Nobuyuki Nishikiori
INTRODUCTION: Since the year 2000, tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region decreased 36%. However, there were an estimated 1.6 million TB cases in the Region in 2013. This study describes a regional analysis using the WHO global TB database data from 2000 to 2013. METHODS: TB surveillance data are annually collected from 36 countries and areas in the Western Pacific Region using a web-based system. TB case notifications, treatment outcomes and information on TB/HIV coinfection are analysed descriptively...
April 2016: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Vania Celina Dezoti Micheletti, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, José Ueleres Braga
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical features and treatment outcomes of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, stratified by level of drug resistance. METHODS: This was a historical cohort study based on data from the II National Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Survey (2006-2007) collected at eight participating health care facilities in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. The cohort was followed for 3 years after the start of treatment. RESULTS: Of 299 cases of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis included in the study, 216 (72...
2016: PloS One
Mehdi Kazempour-Dizaji, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Payam Tabarsi, Farid Zayeri
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic bacterial disease, which despite the presence of effective drug strategies, still remains a serious health problem worldwide. Estimation of survival rate is an appropriate indicator for prognosis in patients with pulmonary TB. Therefore, this research was designed with the aim of accurate estimation of the survival of patients by taking both the death event and relapse into consideration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on a retrospective cohort study, information of 2,299 patients with pulmonary TB that had been referred to and treated in Masih Daneshvari Hospital from 2005 to 2015 was reviewed...
2016: Tanaffos
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