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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352668/the-effect-of-single-and-repeated-prefrontal-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-on-cortical-reactivity-and-working-memory
#1
Sung Wook Chung, Nigel C Rogasch, Kate E Hoy, Paul B Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: With an increasing interest in the use of theta burst stimulation (TBS) as a cognitive enhancer and a potential therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders, there is a need to identify optimal parameters of TBS in the prefrontal cortex. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: This study examined the effect of two blocks of prefrontal intermittent TBS (iTBS) on cortical reactivity and working memory performance, compared to one block of iTBS and sham stimulation. We hypothesized that greater cortical effects would be obtained with two blocks of iTBS...
January 8, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348927/improved-cognitive-performance-and-event-related-potential-changes-following-working-memory-training-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Thomas J Covey, Janet L Shucard, Ralph Hb Benedict, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, David W Shucard
Background: Few studies of cognitive rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis (MS) have targeted working memory specifically. Objective: We examined the effects of n-back working memory training on cognitive performance and brain function in patients with MS. Methods: Patients with MS (n = 12) and healthy controls (HC; n = 12) underwent 20 sessions of n-back working memory training. Before and after training (pre- and posttest) cognitive event-related potential (ERP) measures were obtained during a 3-back task...
January 2018: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342446/the-impact-of-happy-and-angry-faces-on-working-memory-in-depressed-adolescents
#3
Laura Wante, Sven C Mueller, Sofie Cromheeke, Caroline Braet
Recent cognitive models suggest that the ability to control emotional information in working memory (WM) may be implicated in the etiology and maintenance of depression. However, few studies have examined the effects of processing relevant and irrelevant emotional stimuli on WM performance in depressed adolescents. In the current study, depressed adolescents (n = 27) and healthy adolescents (n = 49) completed two versions of an emotional n-back task: a low WM load (0-back) task and a high WM load (2-back) task...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339147/neural-signatures-for-active-maintenance-and-interference-during-working-memory-updating
#4
Adrià Vilà-Balló, Juha Salmi, Anna Soveri, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Minna Lehtonen, Matti Laine
Although working memory (WM) is amongst the most studied neurocognitive functions, temporal patterns of its component processes are not fully understood. We examined the neural underpinnings of active maintenance and interference management in the n-back task by manipulating load (1-back vs 3-back) and including so-called lure stimuli. ERPs of 27 young adults revealed that the 1-back condition enabling active maintenance showed a positive slow wave (PSW) prior to the next stimulus (-600-0 ms) and augmented P2 (190-290 ms) and P3b (330-430 ms) responses after the stimulus appeared, albeit the latter effects were driven by the initial PSW...
January 12, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339077/how-context-features-modulate-the-involvement-of-the-working-memory-system-during-discourse-comprehension
#5
Xiaohong Yang, Xiuping Zhang, Yufang Yang, Nan Lin
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the effects of context features on the involvement of the working memory (WM) system during discourse comprehension. During the fMRI scan, participants were asked to read two-sentence discourses in which the topic of the second sentence was either maintained, or was shifted from, the topic of the first. Changes in the level of coherence between the two sentences as well as context length were also investigated across discourse items. The WM system was identified with a verbal N-back task...
January 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334834/mild-jugular-compression-collar-ameliorated-changes-in-brain-activation-of-working-memory-after-one-soccer-season-in-female-high-school-athletes
#6
Weihong Yuan, Jonathan Dudley, Kim Barber-Foss, Jonathan D Ellis, Staci Thomas, Ryan T Galloway, Christopher DiCesare, James Leach, Janet Adams, Thomas Maloney, Brooke Gadd, David Smith, Jeff Epstein, Dustin R Grooms, Kelsey Logan, David R Howell, Mekibib Altaye, Gregory D Myer
Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that repetitive sub-concussive head impacts, even after only one sport season, may lead to pre- to post-season structural and functional alterations in male high school football athletes. However, data on female atheletes is limited. In the current investigation, we aimed to (1) assess the longitudinal pre- to post-season changes in fMRI of working memory and working memory performance, (2) quantify the association between the pre- to post-season change in fMRI of working memory and the exposure to head impact and working memory performance, and (3) assess whether wearing a neck collar designed to reduce intracranial slosh via mild compression of the jugular veins can ameliorate the changes in fMRI brain activation observed in the non-collar group after a full soccer season...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331727/individual-variation-in-working-memory-is-associated-with-fear-extinction-performance
#7
Daniel M Stout, Dean T Acheson, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, Dewleen G Baker, Mark A Geyer, Victoria B Risbrough
PTSD has been associated consistently with abnormalities in fear acquisition and extinction learning and retention. Fear acquisition refers to learning to discriminate between threat and safety cues. Extinction learning reflects the formation of a new inhibitory-memory that competes with a previously learned threat-related memory. Adjudicating the competition between threat memory and the new inhibitory memory during extinction may rely, in part, on cognitive processes such as working memory (WM). Despite significant shared neural circuits and signaling pathways the relationship between WM, fear acquisition, and extinction is poorly understood...
January 5, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329371/alcohol-use-in-adolescence-and-later-working-memory-findings-from-a-large-population-based-birth-cohort
#8
Liam Mahedy, Matt Field, Suzanne Gage, Gemma Hammerton, Jon Heron, Matt Hickman, Marcus R Munafò
Aims: The study aimed to examine the association between adolescent alcohol use and working memory (WM) using a large population sample. Methods: Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used to investigate the association between alcohol use at age 15 years and WM 3 years later, assessed using the N-back task (N ~ 3300). A three-category ordinal variable captured mutually exclusive alcohol groupings ranging in order of severity (i.e. low alcohol users, frequent drinkers and frequent/binge drinkers)...
January 10, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316819/hearing-aid-noise-suppression-and-working-memory-function
#9
Tobias Neher, Kirsten C Wagener, Rosa-Linde Fischer
OBJECTIVE: Research findings concerning the relation between benefit from hearing aid (HA) noise suppression and working memory function are inconsistent. The current study thus investigated the effects of three noise suppression algorithms on auditory working memory and the relation with reading span. DESIGN: Using a computer simulation of bilaterally fitted HAs, four settings were tested: (1) unprocessed, (2) directional microphones, (3) single-channel noise reduction, and (4) binaural coherence-based noise reduction...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284140/effective-connectivity-during-working-memory-and-resting-states-a-dcm-study
#10
Kyesam Jung, Karl J Friston, Chongwon Pae, Hanseul Choi, Sungho Tak, Yoon Kyoung Choi, Bumhee Park, Chan-A Park, Chaejoon Cheong, Hae-Jeong Park
Although the relationship between resting-state functional connectivity and task-related activity has been addressed, the relationship between task and resting-state directed or effective connectivity - and its behavioral concomitants - remains elusive. We evaluated effective connectivity under an N-back working memory task in 24 participants using stochastic dynamic causal modelling (DCM) of 7 Tesla fMRI data. We repeated the analysis using resting-state data, from the same subjects, to model connectivity among the same brain regions engaged by the N-back task...
December 25, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280107/neural-response-to-working-memory-demand-predicts-neurocognitive-deficits-in-hiv
#11
Ronald A Cohen, S Siegel, J M Gullett, E Porges, A J Woods, H Huang, Y Zhu, K Tashima, M-Z Ding
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to have adverse effects on cognition and the brain in many infected people, despite a reduced incidence of HIV-associated dementia with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Working memory is often affected, along with attention, executive control, and cognitive processing speed. Verbal working memory (VWM) requires the interaction of each of the cognitive component processes along with a phonological loop for verbal repetition and rehearsal. HIV-related functional brain response abnormalities during VWM are evident in functional MRI (fMRI), though the neural substrate underlying these neurocognitive deficits is not well understood...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249371/unilateral-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-differentially-affects-younger-and-older-adults-completing-a-verbal-working-memory-task
#12
Jessica Shields, Jeffrey Mock, Deidre Devier, Anne Foundas
Functional neuroimaging studies have found that lateralization of activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is reduced with aging. In the present study, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was used to disrupt dlPFC activity in order to test the relationship of dlPFC laterality and age in verbal working memory (WM). Young (n=36) and older (n=35) subjects received 1Hz-rTMS (sham or active) to left or right dlPFC and WM performance was assessed pre- and post-stimulation via the n-back task...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222695/the-effects-of-enhanced-attention-and-working-memory-on-smooth-pursuit-eye-movement
#13
Jacob L Stubbs, Sherryse L Corrow, Benjamin Kiang, William J Panenka, Jason J S Barton
It has long been suggested that increasing attentional demands can alter smooth pursuit eye movements, but the precise nature of the changes generated is not clear. Our goal was to examine smooth pursuit with a task that enhanced attention to the target and that increased demands on working memory, without distracting from the target. 15 subjects tracked a target moving around a predictable circular trajectory at a constant tangential velocity. An n-back task with two levels of additional working memory load was integrated into the pursuit target to increase cognitive demands...
December 8, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215468/task-based-metabolic-changes-in-the-left-dorsolateral-prefrontal-region-during-the-letter-n-back-working-memory-task-using-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#14
Anupa A Vijayakumari, Bejoy Thomas, Ramshekhar N Menon, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas
Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have consistently provided evidence on the role of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in working memory. Recent studies have shown that the changes in metabolites in the brain could be detected upon functional activation using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Therefore, we carried out a study in healthy control participants to understand the changes in metabolites during a letter N-back working memory task in the left dorsolateral prefrontal region. Single-voxel spectra were acquired from the left dorsolateral prefrontal region in 10 healthy control participants...
December 5, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199636/identifying-adhd-children-using-hemodynamic-responses-during-a-working-memory-task-measured-by-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#15
Yue Gu, Shuo Miao, Junxia Han, Zhenhu Liang, Gaoxiang Ouyang, Jian Yang, Xiaoli Li
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting children and adults. Previous studies found that functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) can reveal significant group differences in several brain regions between ADHD children and healthy controls during working memory tasks. This study aimed to use fNIRS activation patterns to identify ADHD children from healthy controls. Approach. FNIRS signals from 25 ADHD children and 25 healthy controls performing the n-back task were recorded; then, multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) was used to discriminate ADHD individuals from healthy controls, and classification performance was evaluated for significance by the permutation test...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185837/effects-of-negative-affect-urge-to-smoke-and-working-memory-performance-n-back-on-nicotine-dependence
#16
William V Lechner, Rachel L Gunn, Alexia Minto, Noah S Philip, Richard A Brown, Lisa A Uebelacker, Lawrence H Price, Ana M Abrantes
BACKGROUND: Three key domains including negative emotionality, incentive salience, and executive function form the core functional elements of addictive behaviors. Variables related to these broader domains have been studied extensively in relation to one another; however, no studies to date, have examined models including variables from all three domains, in relation to nicotine dependence. METHOD: Smokers (N = 117), 65.8% female, 78% white, mean age of 44.4 (SD = 10...
November 29, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185480/initial-cross-over-test-of-a-positive-allosteric-modulator-of-alpha-7-nicotinic-receptors-to-aid-cessation-in-smokers-with-or-without-schizophrenia
#17
Kenneth A Perkins, Kn Roy Chengappa, Joshua L Karelitz, Margaret C Boldry, Valerie Michael, Taylor Herb, Jessica Gannon, Jaspreet Brar, Lisa Ford, Stephanie Rassnick, Darlene Brunzell
Preclinical research shows that compounds acting at α7 nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) can reduce nicotine self-administration, suggesting that a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of α7 receptors, JNJ-39393406, may aid smoking cessation. Moreover, individuals with schizophrenia, who have very high rates of smoking, have reduced expression of α7 nAChRs and may particularly benefit from this compound. In two parallel studies using a within-subject crossover design, 36 healthy smokers (Study 1) and 62 smokers with schizophrenia (Study 2), both groups high in quit interest, attempted to initiate quitting temporarily during each of two 3-week phases...
November 29, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175513/sleep-augments-training-induced-improvement-in-working-memory-in-children-and-adults
#18
Katharina Zinke, Hannes Noack, Jan Born
Sleep plays an important role in forming procedural motor memories. Whether sleep plays a similar role for cognitive procedures related to working memory function, is not yet clear. Here we investigated if sleep enhances training-induced improvements in working memory in children. Because children show more intense slow wave sleep (e.g., higher slow wave activity, more spindles) we expected sleep-related improvements to be greater than in adults. Twenty-four children (10-12 years) and 24 adults were trained on three sessions of an n-back task comprising three runs of blocks (6 blocks with 20 responses each) presented in ascending levels of difficulty...
November 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168741/dose-dependent-effects-of-oral-tyrosine-administration-on-plasma-tyrosine-levels-and-cognition-in-aging
#19
Ondine van de Rest, Mirjam Bloemendaal, Rianne de Heus, Esther Aarts
The effects of tyrosine on plasma response and cognition in aging are unknown. We assessed the dose-dependent response to tyrosine administration in older adults in both plasma tyrosine concentrations and working memory performance. In this double blind randomized cross-over trial 17 older adults (aged 60-75 years) received a single administration of 100, 150, or 200 mg/kg body weight of tyrosine. For comparison, 17 young adults (aged 18-35 years) received a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight of tyrosine. Tyrosine plasma concentrations were determined before and 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 min after tyrosine intake...
November 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164774/task-related-changes-in-degree-centrality-and-local-coherence-of-the-posterior-cingulate-cortex-after-major-cardiac-surgery-in-older-adults
#20
Jeffrey N Browndyke, Miles Berger, Patrick J Smith, Todd B Harshbarger, Zachary A Monge, Viral Panchal, Tiffany L Bisanar, Donald D Glower, John H Alexander, Roberto Cabeza, Kathleen Welsh-Bohmer, Mark F Newman, Joseph P Mathew
OBJECTIVES: Older adults often display postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) after surgery, yet it is unclear to what extent functional connectivity (FC) alterations may underlie these deficits. We examined for postoperative voxel-wise FC changes in response to increased working memory load demands in cardiac surgery patients and nonsurgical controls. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Older cardiac surgery patients (n = 25) completed a verbal N-back working memory task during MRI scanning and cognitive testing before and 6 weeks after surgery; nonsurgical controls with cardiac disease (n = 26) underwent these assessments at identical time intervals...
November 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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