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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437666/attentional-control-of-emotional-interference-in-children-with-adhd-and-typically-developing-children-an-emotional-n-back-study
#1
Thomas Villemonteix, Ivo Marx, Mathilde Septier, Christoph Berger, Thomas Hacker, Sara Bahadori, Eric Acquaviva, Isabelle Massat
Emotional interference control refers to the ability to remain focused on goal-oriented processes when confronted with disrupting but irrelevant emotional stimuli, a process that may be impaired in children and adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, emotional interference levels are known to be associated with trait anxiety, and patients with ADHD often display elevated levels of trait anxiety, such as these may have confounded previous findings of decreased emotional interference control in this population...
April 18, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437225/neck-collar-with-mild-jugular-vein-compression-ameliorates-brain-activation-changes-during-a-working-memory-task-after-a-season-of-high-school-football
#2
Weihong Yuan, James Leach, Thomas Maloney, Mekibib Altaye, David Smith, Paul Gubanich, Kim Barber-Foss, Staci Thomas, Christopher DiCesare, Adam Kiefer, Gregory D Myer
Emerging evidence indicates that repetitive head impacts, even at a sub-concussive level, may result in exacerbated or prolonged neurologic deficits in athletes. This study aimed to: 1) quantify the effect of repetitive head impacts on the alteration of neuronal activity based on fMRI of working memory after a high school football season; and 2) determine whether a neck collar that applies mild jugular vein compression to reduce brain energy absorption in head impact through slosh mitigation can ameliorate the altered fMRI activation during a working memory task...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432773/transition-of-the-functional-brain-network-related-to-increasing-cognitive-demands
#3
Karolina Finc, Kamil Bonna, Monika Lewandowska, Tomasz Wolak, Jan Nikadon, Joanna Dreszer, Włodzisław Duch, Simone Kühn
Network neuroscience provides tools that can easily be used to verify main assumptions of the global workspace theory (GWT), such as the existence of highly segregated information processing during effortless tasks performance, engagement of multiple distributed networks during effortful tasks and the critical role of long-range connections in workspace formation. A number of studies support the assumptions of GWT by showing the reorganization of the whole-brain functional network during cognitive task performance; however, the involvement of specific large scale networks in the formation of workspace is still not well-understood...
April 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432349/augmentation-of-working-memory-training-by-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs
#4
Steffen Philipp Ruf, Andreas J Fallgatter, Christian Plewnia
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) can modulate working memory (WM) performance. However, evidence regarding the enhancement of WM training, its sustainability and transferability is ambiguous. Since WM functioning appears to be lateralized in respect to stimulus characteristics, this study examined the difference between task-congruent (spatial-right, verbal-left), task-incongruent (spatial-left, verbal-right) and sham tDCS in regards to the efficacy of WM training...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429289/the-nature-and-consequences-of-cognitive-deficits-among-tobacco-smokers-with-hiv-a-comparison-to-tobacco-smokers-without-hiv
#5
Joseph D Harrison, Jessica A Dochney, Sonja Blazekovic, Frank Leone, David Metzger, Ian Frank, Robert Gross, Anita Hole, Karam Mounzer, Steven Siegel, Robert A Schnoll, Rebecca L Ashare
HIV-infected smokers lose more years of life to tobacco-related disease than HIV. Since neurocognitive deficits are common among those with HIV and are associated with smoking persistence, these deficits may be a unique barrier to smoking cessation among HIV-infected smokers. Documenting unique differences in and correlates of cognition among HIV-infected smokers is a critical step towards developing a population-specific tobacco cessation treatment. We compared neurocognitive function between HIV-infected (n = 103) and HIV-uninfected smokers (n = 70), accounting for demographic and smoking-related variables...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424602/assessing-the-driver-s-current-level-of-working-memory-load-with-high-density-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-a-realistic-driving-simulator-study
#6
Anirudh Unni, Klas Ihme, Meike Jipp, Jochem W Rieger
Cognitive overload or underload results in a decrease in human performance which may result in fatal incidents while driving. We envision that driver assistive systems which adapt their functionality to the driver's cognitive state could be a promising approach to reduce road accidents due to human errors. This research attempts to predict variations of cognitive working memory load levels in a natural driving scenario with multiple parallel tasks and to reveal predictive brain areas. We used a modified version of the n-back task to induce five different working memory load levels (from 0-back up to 4-back) forcing the participants to continuously update, memorize, and recall the previous 'n' speed sequences and adjust their speed accordingly while they drove for approximately 60 min on a highway with concurrent traffic in a virtual reality driving simulator...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424597/working-memory-after-traumatic-brain-injury-the-neural-basis-of-improved-performance-with-methylphenidate
#7
Anne E Manktelow, David K Menon, Barbara J Sahakian, Emmanuel A Stamatakis
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in cognitive impairments for patients. The aim of this proof of concept study was to establish the nature of abnormalities, in terms of activity and connectivity, in the working memory network of TBI patients and how these relate to compromised behavioral outcomes. Further, this study examined the neural correlates of working memory improvement following the administration of methylphenidate. We report behavioral, functional and structural MRI data from a group of 15 Healthy Controls (HC) and a group of 15 TBI patients, acquired during the execution of the N-back task...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424596/non-interfering-effects-of-active-post-encoding-tasks-on-episodic-memory-consolidation-in-humans
#8
Samarth Varma, Atsuko Takashima, Sander Krewinkel, Maaike van Kooten, Lily Fu, W Pieter Medendorp, Roy P C Kessels, Sander M Daselaar
So far, studies that investigated interference effects of post-learning processes on episodic memory consolidation in humans have used tasks involving only complex and meaningful information. Such tasks require reallocation of general or encoding-specific resources away from consolidation-relevant activities. The possibility that interference can be elicited using a task that heavily taxes our limited brain resources, but has low semantic and hippocampal related long-term memory processing demands, has never been tested...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416813/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-val-66-met-genotype-and-ovarian-steroids-interactively-modulate-working-memory-related-hippocampal-function-in-women-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study
#9
S-M Wei, E B Baller, P D Kohn, J S Kippenhan, B Kolachana, S J Soldin, D R Rubinow, P J Schmidt, K F Berman
Preclinical evidence suggests that the actions of ovarian steroid hormones and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are highly convergent on brain function. Studies in humanized mice document an interaction between estrus cycle-related changes in estradiol secretion and BDNF Val(66)Met genotype on measures of hippocampal function and anxiety-like behavior. We believe our multimodal imaging data provide the first demonstration in women that the effects of the BDNF Val/Met polymorphism on hippocampal function are selectively modulated by estradiol...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397576/association-between-sluggish-cognitive-tempo-symptoms-and-attentional-network-and-working-memory-in-primary-schoolchildren
#10
E Camprodon-Rosanas, N Ribas-Fitó, S Batlle, C Persavento, M Alvarez-Pedrerol, J Sunyer, J Forns
BACKGROUND: Few consistent data are available in relation to the cognitive and neuropsychological processes involved in sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms. The objective of this study was to determine the association of working memory and attentional networks with SCT symptoms in primary schoolchildren. METHODS: The participants were schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years ( n = 183) from primary schools in Catalonia (Spain). All the participants completed a working memory task (n-back) and an attentional network task (ANT)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391116/improving-cognitive-control-in-adolescents-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd
#11
Susanne Schweizer, Zobair Samimi, Jafar Hasani, Alireza Moradi, Fatemeh Mirdoraghi, Mohammad Khaleghi
The adverse impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the developing mind in adolescence can extend well into adulthood. The developmental malleability of cognitive control capacity in this age group, however, may hold particular promise for cognitive training interventions. The present study investigated the effects of affective working memory (aWMT) compared to placebo-training on cognitive and affective functioning in adolescents with PTSD. 30 treatment-seeking adolescents trained for 20 days on either an affective dual n-back task (aWMT; n = 15) or a feature match task (placebo; n = 15)...
June 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390970/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-can-enhance-working-memory-in-huntington-s-disease
#12
Clare M Eddy, Kimron Shapiro, Andrew Clouter, Peter C Hansen, Hugh E Rickards
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with a cognitive task can enhance targeted aspects of cognitive functioning in clinical populations. The movement disorder Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with progressive cognitive impairment. Deficits in working memory (WM) can be apparent early in the disease and impact functional capacity. We investigated whether tDCS combined with cognitive training could improve WM in patients with HD, and if baseline clinical or cognitive measures may predict efficacy...
April 5, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390165/default-mode-and-task-positive-networks-connectivity-during-the-n-back-task-in-remitted-depressed-patients-with-or-without-emotional-residual-symptoms
#13
Pauline Delaveau, Tiago Arruda Sanchez, Ricardo Steffen, Karine Deschet, Maritza Jabourian, Vincent Perlbarg, Emerson Leandro Gasparetto, Stéphanie Dubal, Jorge Costa E Silva, Philippe Fossati
Clinical remission of depression may be associated with emotional residual symptoms. We studied the association of emotional blunting, rumination with neural networks dynamics in remitted depressed patients and cognitive performance during an N-Back task. Twenty-six outpatients in remission of depression (Hamilton Depressive rating scale score <7) performed an N-Back task during fMRI assessment. All patients had been treated by paroxetine for a minimum of 4 months. Two subgroups of patients [Nonemotionally blunted (NEB) = 14 and emotionally blunted (EB) = 12] were determined...
April 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384480/l-tyrosine-administration-modulates-the-effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-working-memory-in-healthy-humans
#14
Bryant J Jongkees, Roberta Sellaro, Christian Beste, Michael A Nitsche, Simone Kühn, Lorenza S Colzato
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an increasingly popular method of modulating cognitive functions in humans. However, some doubt its efficacy as findings are inconsistent or remain unreplicated. It is speculated dopamine (DA) might play an important role in this inconsistency, by determining the direction and strength of the cognitive-behavioral effects of tDCS. However, so far evidence for this hypothesis has been correlational in nature, precluding definitive conclusions...
March 10, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376413/neurophysiological-capacity-in-a-working-memory-task-differentiates-dependent-from-nondependent-heavy-drinkers-and-controls
#15
Michael J Wesley, Joshua A Lile, Mark T Fillmore, Linda J Porrino
BACKGROUND: Determining the neurobehavioral profiles that differentiate heavy drinkers who are and are not alcohol dependent will inform treatment efforts. Working memory is linked to substance use disorders and can serve as a representation of the demand placed on the neurophysiology associated with cognitive control. METHODS: Behavior and brain activity (via fMRI) were recorded during an N-Back working memory task in controls (CTRL), nondependent heavy drinkers (A-ND) and dependent heavy drinkers (A-D)...
March 21, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361685/sparse-feature-selection-for-classification-and-prediction-of-metastasis-in-endometrial-cancer
#16
Mehmet Eren Ahsen, Todd P Boren, Nitin K Singh, Burook Misganaw, David G Mutch, Kathleen N Moore, Floor J Backes, Carolyn K McCourt, Jayanthi S Lea, David S Miller, Michael A White, Mathukumalli Vidyasagar
BACKGROUND: Metastasis via pelvic and/or para-aortic lymph nodes is a major risk factor for endometrial cancer. Lymph-node resection ameliorates risk but is associated with significant co-morbidities. Incidence in patients with stage I disease is 4-22% but no mechanism exists to accurately predict it. Therefore, national guidelines for primary staging surgery include pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection for all patients whose tumor exceeds 2cm in diameter. We sought to identify a robust molecular signature that can accurately classify risk of lymph node metastasis in endometrial cancer patients...
March 27, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349772/stress-coping-executive-function-and-brain-activation-in-adolescent-offspring-of-depressed-and-nondepressed-mothers
#17
Michelle M Reising, Alexandra H Bettis, Jennifer P Dunbar, Kelly H Watson, Meredith Gruhn, Kristen R Hoskinson, Bruce E Compas
This study examined the associations among chronic stress, activation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), executive function, and coping with stress in at-risk and a comparison sample of adolescents. Adolescents (N = 16; age 12-15) of mothers with (n = 8) and without (n = 8) a history of depression completed questionnaires, neurocognitive testing, and functional neuroimaging in response to a working memory task (N-back). Children of depressed mothers demonstrated less activation in the anterior PFC (APFC) and both greater and less activation than controls in distinct areas within the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in response to the N-back task...
March 28, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338977/effects-of-augmenting-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-signaling-on-working-memory-and-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-study-using-acute-d-cycloserine
#18
Jennifer K Forsyth, Peter Bachman, Daniel H Mathalon, Brian J Roach, Elissa Ye, Robert F Asarnow
Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have been hypothesized to reflect N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction. However, the mechanisms through which the NMDAR contributes to individual cognitive functions differ. To explore how NMDAR signaling relates to specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, we tested the effects of enhancing NMDAR signaling on working memory and experience-dependent plasticity using d-cycloserine (DCS). Plasticity was assessed using an EEG paradigm that utilizes high-frequency visual stimulation (HFvS) to induce neural potentiation, and 2 learning tasks, the information integration (IIT) and weather prediction (WPT) tasks...
March 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334138/working-memory-modulation-of-frontoparietal-network-connectivity-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#19
Jesper Duemose Nielsen, Kristoffer H Madsen, Zheng Wang, Zhening Liu, Karl J Friston, Yuan Zhou
Working memory (WM) impairment is regarded as a core aspect of schizophrenia. However, the neural mechanisms behind this cognitive deficit remain unclear. The connectivity of a frontoparietal network is known to be important for subserving WM. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the current study investigated whether WM-dependent modulation of effective connectivity in this network is affected in a group of first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients compared with similarly performing healthy participants during a verbal n-back task...
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326058/reporting-and-interpreting-working-memory-performance-in-n-back-tasks
#20
Adrian Meule
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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