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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924461/life-satisfaction-and-hemodynamic-reactivity-to-mental-stress
#1
Andreas Schwerdtfeger, Kerstin Gaisbachgrabner, Claudia Traunmüller
BACKGROUND: Satisfaction with life has been considered a health-protective variable, which could impact cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have examined the physiological pathways involved in the potentially salutary effect of life satisfaction. It was hypothesized that life satisfaction should be associated with a cardiovascular response profile that signals challenge (i.e., higher cardiac output, lower peripheral resistance), rather than threat during a mental stress task...
December 6, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917141/neural-basis-of-working-memory-enhancement-after-acute-aerobic-exercise-fmri-study-of-preadolescent-children
#2
Ai-Guo Chen, Li-Na Zhu, Jun Yan, Heng-Chan Yin
Working memory lies at the core of cognitive function and plays a crucial role in children's learning, reasoning, problem solving, and intellectual activity. Behavioral findings have suggested that acute aerobic exercise improves children's working memory; however, there is still very little knowledge about whether a single session of aerobic exercise can alter working memory's brain activation patterns, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Therefore, we investigated the effect of acute moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on working memory and its brain activation patterns in preadolescent children, and further explored the neural basis of acute aerobic exercise on working memory in these children...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917117/training-on-working-memory-and-inhibitory-control-in-young-adults
#3
Maria J Maraver, M Teresa Bajo, Carlos J Gomez-Ariza
Different types of interventions have focused on trying to improve Executive Functions (EFs) due to their essential role in human cognition and behavior regulation. Although EFs are thought to be diverse, most training studies have targeted cognitive processes related to working memory (WM), and fewer have focused on training other control mechanisms, such as inhibitory control (IC). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the differential impact of training WM and IC as compared with control conditions performing non-executive control activities...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909981/the-effect-of-working-memory-load-on-the-snarc-effect-maybe-tasks-have-a-word-to-say
#4
Zhijun Deng, Yinghe Chen, Xiaoshuang Zhu, Yanjun Li
We investigated the effect of working memory load on the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect under different number judgment tasks (parity judgment and magnitude comparison), using a novel dual task. Instead of exerting load over the whole block of number judgment trials, in this dual task, number judgment trials were inserted into each interstimulus interval of an n-back task, which served as the working memory load. We varied both load type (verbal and spatial) and amount (1-load, 2-load, and 3-load)...
December 1, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903719/the-segregation-and-integration-of-distinct-brain-networks-and-their-relationship-to-cognition
#5
Jessica R Cohen, Mark D'Esposito
: A critical feature of the human brain that gives rise to complex cognition is its ability to reconfigure its network structure dynamically and adaptively in response to the environment. Existing research probing task-related reconfiguration of brain network structure has concluded that, although there are many similarities in network structure during an intrinsic, resting state and during the performance of a variety of cognitive tasks, there are meaningful differences as well. In this study, we related intrinsic, resting state network organization to reconfigured network organization during the performance of two tasks: a sequence tapping task, which is thought to probe motor execution and likely engages a single brain network, and an n-back task, which is thought to probe working memory and likely requires coordination across multiple networks...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897670/boosting-cognition-effects-of-multiple-session-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-working-memory
#6
Lotte J Talsma, Henryk A Kroese, Heleen A Slagter
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising tool for neurocognitive enhancement. Several studies have shown that just a single session of tDCS over the left dorsolateral pFC (lDLPFC) can improve the core cognitive function of working memory (WM) in healthy adults. Yet, recent studies combining multiple sessions of anodal tDCS over lDLPFC with verbal WM training did not observe additional benefits of tDCS in subsequent stimulation sessions nor transfer of benefits to novel WM tasks posttraining...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890144/classification-of-a-driver-s-cognitive-workload-levels-using-artificial-neural-network-on-ecg-signals
#7
Amir Tjolleng, Kihyo Jung, Wongi Hong, Wonsup Lee, Baekhee Lee, Heecheon You, Joonwoo Son, Seikwon Park
An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed in the present study to classify the level of a driver's cognitive workload based on electrocardiography (ECG). ECG signals were measured on 15 male participants while they performed a simulated driving task as a primary task with/without an N-back task as a secondary task. Three time-domain ECG measures (mean inter-beat interval (IBI), standard deviation of IBIs, and root mean squared difference of adjacent IBIs) and three frequencydomain ECG measures (power in low frequency, power in high frequency, and ratio of power in low and high frequencies) were calculated...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877122/changes-in-neural-activity-underlying-working-memory-after-computerized-cognitive-training-in-older-adults
#8
Erich S Tusch, Brittany R Alperin, Eliza Ryan, Phillip J Holcomb, Abdul H Mohammed, Kirk R Daffner
Computerized cognitive training (CCT) may counter the impact of aging on cognition, but both the efficacy and neurocognitive mechanisms underlying CCT remain controversial. In this study, 35 older individuals were randomly assigned to Cogmed adaptive working memory (WM) CCT or an active control CCT, featuring five weeks of five ∼40 min sessions per week. Before and after the 5-week intervention, event-related potentials were measured while subjects completed a visual n-back task with three levels of demand (0-back, 1-back, 2-back)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844294/effects-of-cognitive-training-on-the-structure-of-intelligence
#9
John Protzko
Targeted cognitive training, such as n-back or speed of processing training, in the hopes of raising intelligence is of great theoretical and practical importance. The most important theoretical contribution, however, is not about the malleability of intelligence. Instead, I argue the most important and novel theoretical contribution is understanding the causal structure of intelligence. The structure of intelligence, most often taken as a hierarchical factor structure, necessarily prohibits transfer from subfactors back up to intelligence...
November 14, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829086/altered-brain-activity-in-unipolar-depression-revisited-meta-analyses-of-neuroimaging-studies
#10
Veronika I Müller, Edna C Cieslik, Ilinca Serbanescu, Angela R Laird, Peter T Fox, Simon B Eickhoff
Importance: During the past 20 years, numerous neuroimaging experiments have investigated aberrant brain activation during cognitive and emotional processing in patients with unipolar depression (UD). The results of those investigations, however, vary considerably; moreover, previous meta-analyses also yielded inconsistent findings. Objective: To readdress aberrant brain activation in UD as evidenced by neuroimaging experiments on cognitive and/or emotional processing...
November 9, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827445/decrease-in-fmri-brain-activation-during-working-memory-performed-after-sleeping-under-10-lux-light
#11
Seung-Gul Kang, Ho-Kyoung Yoon, Chul-Hyun Cho, Soonwook Kwon, June Kang, Young-Min Park, Eunil Lee, Leen Kim, Heon-Jeong Lee
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exposure to dim light at night (dLAN) when sleeping on functional brain activation during a working-memory tasks. We conducted the brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis on 20 healthy male subjects. All participants slept in a polysomnography laboratory without light exposure on the first and second nights and under a dim-light condition of either 5 or 10 lux on the third night. The fMRI scanning was conducted during n-back tasks after second and third nights...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815094/gaming-is-related-to-enhanced-working-memory-performance-and-task-related-cortical-activity
#12
M Moisala, V Salmela, L Hietajärvi, S Carlson, V Vuontela, K Lonka, K Hakkarainen, K Salmela-Aro, K Alho
Gaming experience has been suggested to lead to performance enhancements in a wide variety of working memory tasks. Previous studies have, however, mostly focused on adult expert gamers and have not included measurements of both behavioral performance and brain activity. In the current study, 167 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24 years) with different amounts of gaming experience performed an n-back working memory task with vowels, with the sensory modality of the vowel stream switching between audition and vision at random intervals...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812334/comparable-cerebral-oxygenation-patterns-in-younger-and-older-adults-during-dual-task-walking-with-increasing-load
#13
Sarah A Fraser, Olivier Dupuy, Philippe Pouliot, Frédéric Lesage, Louis Bherer
The neuroimaging literature on dual-task gait clearly demonstrates increased prefrontal cortex (PFC) involvement when performing a cognitive task while walking. However, findings from direct comparisons of the cerebral oxygenation patterns of younger (YA) and older (OA) adults during dual-task walking are mixed and it is unclear how YA and OA respond to increasing cognitive load (difficulty) while walking. This functional near infra-red (fNIRS) study examined cerebral oxygenation of YA and OA during self-paced dual-task treadmill walking at two different levels of cognitive load (auditory n-back)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807037/two-days-of-calorie-deprivation-induced-by-underfeeding-and-aerobic-exercise-degrades-mood-and-lowers-interstitial-glucose-but-does-not-impair-cognitive-function-in-young-adults
#14
Harris R Lieberman, Asma S Bukhari, John A Caldwell, Marques A Wilson, Caroline R Mahoney, Stefan M Pasiakos, James P McClung, Tracey J Smith
BACKGROUND: In studies assessing the effects of acute undernutrition on cognitive function, volunteers are sedentary and findings are equivocal, even though glucose concentrations fall substantially. However, military personnel and endurance athletes often are underfed when physical demands, and consequently energy expenditure, are substantial. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether 2 d of near-total calorie deprivation combined with aerobic exercise degraded cognitive performance and mood...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794449/yoga-practice-improves-executive-function-by-attenuating-stress-levels
#15
Neha Gothe, Rahul K Keswani, Edward McAuley
BACKGROUND: Prolonged activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system is thought to have deleterious effects on brain function. Neuroendocrine studies suggest that brain exposure to higher cortisol concentrations contribute to cognitive deficits as we age. Mind-body techniques such as yoga have shown to improve stress levels by restoring the body's sympathetic-parasympathetic balance. The objective of this study was to determine whether yoga practice moderated the stress response resulting in improved executive function...
October 26, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794195/influence-of-cognitive-rehabilitation-on-pelvic-floor-muscle-contraction-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Anne Villot, Xavier Deffieux, Sylvie Billecocq, Laurent Auclair, Gérard Amarenco, Thibault Thubert
AIM: Distraction task (DT), which led to a modification of voluntary and involuntary reflex pelvic floor muscle (PFM) activation, might potentiate urinary incontinence, through an alteration of the temporal course between intra-abdominal pressure and PFM contraction. We evaluated whether cognitive rehabilitation (dual-task method) could prevent the effect of a mental distraction task on the reaction time of PFM contraction. METHODS: Thirty-nine healthy volunteers underwent two sessions of electromyographic (EMG) PFM recordings separated by a 2-week interval...
October 29, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784013/reduced-frontal-activations-at-high-working-memory-load-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#17
Michael K Yeung, Sophia L Sze, Jean Woo, Timothy Kwok, David H K Shum, Ruby Yu, Agnes S Chan
BACKGROUND: Some functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported altered activations in the frontal cortex during working memory (WM) performance in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but the findings have been mixed. The objective of the present study was to utilize near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an alternative imaging technique, to examine neural processing during WM performance in individuals with MCI. METHODS: Twenty-six older adults with MCI (7 males; mean age 69...
2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776002/muscular-and-aerobic-fitness-working-memory-and-academic-achievement-in-children
#18
Shih-Chun Kao, Daniel R Westfall, Andrew C Parks, Matthew B Pontifex, Charles H Hillman
PURPOSE: This study investigated the relationship between aerobic and muscular fitness with working memory and academic achievement in preadolescent children. METHODS: Seventy-nine 9-11 year old children completed an aerobic fitness assessment using a graded exercise test; a muscular fitness assessment consisting of upper body, lower body, and core exercises; a serial n-back task to assess working memory; and an academic achievement test of mathematics and reading...
October 21, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766586/brain-structure-and-function-in-patients-with-ovarian-cancer-treated-with-first-line-chemotherapy-a-pilot-study
#19
D D Correa, J C Root, M Kryza-Lacombe, M Mehta, S Karimi, M L Hensley, N Relkin
Women with ovarian cancer often undergo chemotherapy involving multiple agents. However, little is known about treatment-related central neurotoxicity in this population. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to assess brain structure and function and neurocognitive abilities in patients with ovarian cancer following first-line chemotherapy. Eighteen patients with ovarian, peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer and eighteen healthy controls matched for gender, age and education participated in the study...
October 20, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756695/enhanced-working-memory-performance-via-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-the-possibility-of-near-and-far-transfer
#20
Michael C Trumbo, Laura E Matzen, Brian A Coffman, Michael A Hunter, Aaron P Jones, Charles S H Robinson, Vincent P Clark
Although working memory (WM) training programs consistently result in improvement on the trained task, benefit is typically short-lived and extends only to tasks very similar to the trained task (i.e., near transfer). It is possible that pairing repeated performance of a WM task with brain stimulation encourages plasticity in brain networks involved in WM task performance, thereby improving the training benefit. In the current study, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was paired with performance of a WM task (n-back)...
October 15, 2016: Neuropsychologia
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