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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334138/working-memory-modulation-of-frontoparietal-network-connectivity-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#1
Jesper Duemose Nielsen, Kristoffer H Madsen, Zheng Wang, Zhening Liu, Karl J Friston, Yuan Zhou
Working memory (WM) impairment is regarded as a core aspect of schizophrenia. However, the neural mechanisms behind this cognitive deficit remain unclear. The connectivity of a frontoparietal network is known to be important for subserving WM. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the current study investigated whether WM-dependent modulation of effective connectivity in this network is affected in a group of first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients compared with similarly performing healthy participants during a verbal n-back task...
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326058/reporting-and-interpreting-working-memory-performance-in-n-back-tasks
#2
Adrian Meule
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323092/the-effect-of-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-on-executive-functions-impaired-verbal-fluency-and-intact-updating-planning-and-conflict-resolution-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Gyula Demeter, István Valálik, Péter Pajkossy, Agnes Szőllősi, Ágnes Lukács, Ferenc Kemény, Mihály Racsmány
Although the improvement of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) after Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is well documented, there are open questions regarding its impact on cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of bilateral DBS of the STN on executive functions in PD patients using a DBS wait-listed PD control group. Ten PD patients with DBS implantation (DBS group) and ten PD wait-listed patients (Clinical control group) participated in the study...
March 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317230/cortical-surface-based-threshold-free-cluster-enhancement-and-cortexwise-mediation
#4
Tristram A Lett, Lea Waller, Heike Tost, Ilya M Veer, Arash Nazeri, Susanne Erk, Eva J Brandl, Katrin Charlet, Anne Beck, Sabine Vollstädt-Klein, Anne Jorde, Falk Kiefer, Andreas Heinz, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, M Mallar Chakravarty, Henrik Walter
Threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) is a sensitive means to incorporate spatial neighborhood information in neuroimaging studies without using arbitrary thresholds. The majority of methods have applied TFCE to voxelwise data. The need to understand the relationship among multiple variables and imaging modalities has become critical. We propose a new method of applying TFCE to vertexwise statistical images as well as cortexwise (either voxel- or vertexwise) mediation analysis. Here we present TFCE_mediation, a toolbox that can be used for cortexwise multiple regression analysis with TFCE, and additionally cortexwise mediation using TFCE...
March 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302573/stair-walking-is-more-energizing-than-low-dose-caffeine-in-sleep-deprived-young-women
#5
Derek D Randolph, Patrick J O'Connor
INTRODUCTION: The acute energizing effect of exercise and caffeine has never been examined in a single study of adults with chronic sleep deprivation but evidence from a study of this type could help individuals choose between these two common alertness-enhancing options. AIM: The apriori primary aim of this experiment was to compare the influence of 10-min of low-to-moderate intensity stair walking to the consumption of capsules containing 50mg caffeine or flour (placebo) on feelings of energy in physically active, college female caffeine users with chronic insufficient sleep...
March 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291572/noradrenaline-transporter-blockade-increases-fronto-parietal-functional-connectivity-relevant-for-working-memory
#6
Dennis Hernaus, Marta Ma Casales Santa, Jan Stefan Offermann, Thérèse Van Amelsvoort
Experimental animal work has demonstrated that dopamine and noradrenaline play an essential role in modulating prefrontal cortex-mediated networks underlying working memory performance. Studies of functional connectivity have been instrumental in extending such notions to humans but, so far, have almost exclusively focussed on pharmacological agents with a predominant dopaminergic mechanism of action. Here, we investigate the effect of a single dose of atomoxetine 60mg, a noradrenaline transporter inhibitor, on working memory performance and associated functional connectivity during an n-back task in 19 healthy male volunteers...
March 10, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286477/transfer-effects-to-a-multimodal-dual-task-after-working-memory-training-and-associated-neural-correlates-in-older-adults-a-pilot-study
#7
Stephan Heinzel, Jérôme Rimpel, Christine Stelzel, Michael A Rapp
Working memory (WM) performance declines with age. However, several studies have shown that WM training may lead to performance increases not only in the trained task, but also in untrained cognitive transfer tasks. It has been suggested that transfer effects occur if training task and transfer task share specific processing components that are supposedly processed in the same brain areas. In the current study, we investigated whether single-task WM training and training-related alterations in neural activity might support performance in a dual-task setting, thus assessing transfer effects to higher-order control processes in the context of dual-task coordination...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278267/potentiation-of-motor-sub-networks-for-motor-control-but-not-working-memory-interaction-of-dacc-and-sma-revealed-by-resting-state-directed-functional-connectivity
#8
Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Avisa Asemi, Ashley Burgess, Asadur Chowdury, Steven L Bressler
The dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC) and the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) are known to interact during motor coordination behavior. We previously discovered that the directional influences underlying this interaction in a visuo-motor coordination task are asymmetric, with the dACC→SMA influence being significantly greater than that in the reverse direction. To assess the specificity of this effect, here we undertook an analysis of the interaction between dACC and SMA in two distinct contexts. In addition to the motor coordination task, we also assessed these effects during a (n-back) working memory task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277736/evidence-of-systematic-attenuation-in-the-measurement-of-cognitive-deficits-in-schizophrenia
#9
Michael L Thomas, Virginie M Patt, Andrew Bismark, Joyce Sprock, Melissa Tarasenko, Gregory A Light, Gregory G Brown
Cognitive tasks that are too hard or too easy produce imprecise measurements of ability, which, in turn, attenuates group differences and can lead to inaccurate conclusions in clinical research. We aimed to illustrate this problem using a popular experimental measure of working memory-the N-back task-and to suggest corrective strategies for measuring working memory and other cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Samples of undergraduates (n = 42), community controls (n = 25), outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 33), and inpatients with schizophrenia (n = 17) completed the N-back...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269110/assessment-of-mental-workload-by-eeg-fnirs
#10
Haleh Aghajani, Ahmet Omurtag
We investigated the use of a multimodal functional neuroimaging system in quantifying mental workload of healthy human volunteers. We recorded behavioral performance measures as well as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) simultaneously from subjects performing n-back tasks. The EEG and fNIRS signals were used in feature generation and classification offline using support vector machines. We examined the classification accuracy of three distinct systems: EEG based; fNIRS based; and Hybrid, which contained features from the first two systems as based on their interactions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268689/brain-activation-profiles-in-mtbi-evidence-from-erp-activity-of-working-memory-response
#11
Lianyang Li, Xianghong Arakaki, Thao Tran, Michael Harrington, Nikhil Padhye, George Zouridakis
In this study we analyzed event related potentials (ERPs) obtained in an N-back working memory test that varied in difficulty from 0- to 2-back. We collected 21 channels of activity from 11 mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients and 7 normal controls, on three different visits, and used the amplitude and latency of the P300 component to characterize the subjects. A preprocessing procedure based on independent component analysis was used first to identify and eliminate electrophysiological noise on a single trial basis...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261128/passage-of-time-judgments-is-relative-to-temporal-expectation
#12
Ryosuke Tanaka, Yuko Yotsumoto
Time seems to pass quickly sometimes or slowly at other times. While this belief is prevalent, the psychological bases of such judgments on speed of time have remained unclear. In this study, we tested following two hypotheses: (1) the passage of time judgment (POTJ) is a function of the discrepancy between felt duration and temporal expectation of events and (2) POTJ is based on two distinct components: post hoc comparison of expected and felt durations and online anticipation of the end of an event. In four experiments, participants engaged in N-back tasks for several minutes and rated their POTJ during the tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242539/neural-patterns-underlying-the-effect-of-negative-distractors-on-working-memory-in-older-adults
#13
Noga Oren, Elissa L Ash, Ricardo Tarrasch, Talma Hendler, Nir Giladi, Irit Shapira-Lichter
Working memory (WM) declines with age. Older adults, however, perform similar to younger adults in WM tasks with negative distractors at low WM load. To clarify the neural basis of this phenomenon, older (n = 28) and younger (n = 24) adults performed an emotional n-back task during an fMRI scan, and activity in task-related regions was examined. Comparing negative with neutral distraction at low WM load, older adults demonstrated shorter reaction times (RT) and reduced activation in frontoparietal regions: bilateral middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and left parietal cortex...
February 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239531/brain-structure-working-memory-and-response-inhibition-in-childhood-leukemia-survivors
#14
Ellen van der Plas, Russell J Schachar, Johann Hitzler, Jennifer Crosbie, Sharon L Guger, Brenda J Spiegler, Shinya Ito, Brian J Nieman
INTRODUCTION: Survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) approach 95%. At the same time, there is growing concern that chemotherapy causes alterations in brain development and cognitive abilities. We performed MRI measurements of white and gray matter volume to explore how variation in brain structure may be related to cognitive abilities in ALL survivors and healthy controls. METHODS: The sample included 24 male ALL survivors who had completed contemporary treatment 3-11 years prior, and 21 age- and sex-matched controls...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239519/white-matter-integrity-of-the-medial-forebrain-bundle-and-attention-and-working-memory-deficits-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Jacqueline A Owens, Gershon Spitz, Jennie L Ponsford, Alicia R Dymowski, Nicholas Ferris, Catherine Willmott
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The medial forebrain bundle (MFB) contains ascending catecholamine fibers that project to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Damage to these fibers following traumatic brain injury (TBI) may alter extracellular catecholamine levels in the PFC and impede attention and working memory ability. This study investigated white matter microstructure of the medial MFB, specifically the supero-lateral branch (slMFB), following TBI, and its association with performance on attention and working memory tasks...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237018/electrocardiographic-features-for-the-measurement-of-drivers-mental-workload
#16
Tobias Heine, Gustavo Lenis, Patrick Reichensperger, Tobias Beran, Olaf Doessel, Barbara Deml
This study examines the effect of mental workload on the electrocardiogram (ECG) of participants driving the Lane Change Task (LCT). Different levels of mental workload were induced by a secondary task (n-back task) with three levels of difficulty. Subjective data showed a significant increase of the experienced workload over all three levels. An exploratory approach was chosen to extract a large number of rhythmical and morphological features from the ECG signal thereby identifying those which differentiated best between the levels of mental workload...
May 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231478/event-related-brain-potential-indices-of-cognitive-function-and-brain-resource-reallocation-during-working-memory-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Thomas J Covey, Janet L Shucard, David W Shucard
OBJECTIVE: To examine event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) during a visual n-back working memory (WM) task, and test the hypothesis that compensatory brain function may be associated with variance in task performance in MS patients. METHODS: Midline ERPs for 25MS patients and 18 HCs were obtained for a visual n-back task that placed increasing demands on WM. N-back behavioral measures and neuropsychological performance measures of WM were also obtained...
April 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227336/assessment-of-mental-workload-by-eeg-fnirs
#18
Haleh Aghajani, Ahmet Omurtag, Haleh Aghajani, Ahmet Omurtag, Ahmet Omurtag, Haleh Aghajani
We investigated the use of a multimodal functional neuroimaging system in quantifying mental workload of healthy human volunteers. We recorded behavioral performance measures as well as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) simultaneously from subjects performing n-back tasks. The EEG and fNIRS signals were used in feature generation and classification offline using support vector machines. We examined the classification accuracy of three distinct systems: EEG based; fNIRS based; and Hybrid, which contained features from the first two systems as based on their interactions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226876/brain-activation-profiles-in-mtbi-evidence-from-erp-activity-of-working-memory-response
#19
Lianyang Li, Xianghong Arakaki, Thao Tran, Michael Harrington, Nikhil Padhye, George Zouridakis, Lianyang Li, Xianghong Arakaki, Thao Tran, Michael Harrington, Nikhil Padhye, George Zouridakis, Nikhil Padhye, Xianghong Arakaki, Thao Tran, Michael Harrington, George Zouridakis, Lianyang Li
In this study we analyzed event related potentials (ERPs) obtained in an N-back working memory test that varied in difficulty from 0- to 2-back. We collected 21 channels of activity from 11 mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients and 7 normal controls, on three different visits, and used the amplitude and latency of the P300 component to characterize the subjects. A preprocessing procedure based on independent component analysis was used first to identify and eliminate electrophysiological noise on a single trial basis...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219259/the-role-of-cognitive-load-in-intentional-forgetting-using-the-think-no-think-task
#20
Saima Noreen, Jan W de Fockert
We investigated the role of cognitive control in intentional forgetting by manipulating working memory load during the think/no-think task. In two experiments, participants learned a series of cue-target word pairs and were asked to recall the target words associated with some cues or to avoid thinking about the target associated with other cues. In addition to this, participants also performed a modified version of the n-back task which required them to respond to the identity of a single target letter present in the currently presented cue word (n = 0 condition, low working memory load), and in either the previous cue word (n = 1 condition, high working memory load, Experiment 1) or the cue word presented two trials previously (n = 2 condition, high working memory load, Experiment 2)...
January 2017: Experimental Psychology
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