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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772392/effects-of-task-repetition-but-no-transfer-of-inhibitory-control-training-in-healthy-adults
#1
Tobias Talanow, Ulrich Ettinger
Executive functions (EFs) comprise the updating, shifting and inhibition dimensions. According to the Unity and Diversity Model, the inhibition dimension is fully accounted for by a general EFs factor. This suggests that training of inhibition should transfer, in part, to updating and shifting. Therefore, we tested the effectiveness of a three-week inhibition training (high-conflict Stroop task) and explored near transfer effects to an untrained inhibition task (antisaccade task) and far transfer effects to untrained tasks demanding task-set shifting (number-letter-task), working memory updating (n-back task) and planning abilities (Stockings of Cambridge task)...
May 14, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771462/different-neural-activities-support-auditory-working-memory-in-musicians-and-bilinguals
#2
Claude Alain, Yasha Khatamian, Yu He, Yunjo Lee, Sylvain Moreno, Ada W S Leung, Ellen Bialystok
Musical training and bilingualism benefit executive functioning and working memory (WM)-however, the brain networks supporting this advantage are not well specified. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and the n-back task to assess WM for spatial (sound location) and nonspatial (sound category) auditory information in musician monolingual (musicians), nonmusician bilinguals (bilinguals), and nonmusician monolinguals (controls). Musicians outperformed bilinguals and controls on the nonspatial WM task...
May 17, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765102/the-effects-of-cannabidiol-on-impulsivity-and-memory-during-abstinence-in-cigarette-dependent-smokers
#3
C Hindocha, T P Freeman, M Grabski, H Crudgington, A C Davies, J B Stroud, R K Das, W Lawn, C J A Morgan, H V Curran
Acute nicotine abstinence in cigarette smokers results in deficits in performance on specific cognitive processes, including working memory and impulsivity which are important in relapse. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in cannabis, has shown pro-cognitive effects and preliminary evidence has indicated it can reduce the number of cigarettes smoked in dependent smokers. However, the effects of CBD on cognition have never been tested during acute nicotine withdrawal. The present study therefore aimed to investigate if CBD can improve memory and reduce impulsivity during acute tobacco abstinence...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761974/-the-analysis-of-event-related-potentials-in-normal-brain-aging-based-on-n-back-cognitive-tasks
#4
Cong Liu, Xiaodong Xu, Haoyun Dai, Fengzhen Hou
The purpose of this study is to investigate the change of the whole brain event-related potentials(P300) in normal brain aging based on N-back cognitive tasks. The P300 of 15 normal young people and 10 normal old people were evaluated based on N-back cognitive tasks and analyzed. The results showed that the P300 latency of old people was longer in whole brain than young people, and amplitude was increased in the frontal-central region, while significantly increased in the pre-frontal region in the same load cognitive tasks...
December 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758392/effects-of-mindfulness-and-psychoeducation-on-working-memory-in-adult-adhd-a-randomised-controlled-fmri-study
#5
Katharina Bachmann, Alexandra P Lam, Peter Sörös, Manuela Kanat, Eliza Hoxhaj, Swantje Matthies, Bernd Feige, Helge Müller, Jale Özyurt, Christiane M Thiel, Alexandra Philipsen
Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious mental disorder associated with impaired neurocognitive performance related to working memory function. Recent clinical trials have suggested that mindfulness is a promising intervention in adults with ADHD. We performed a randomised controlled clinical trial to investigate working memory (WM) with an n-back task in adults with ADHD during fMRI before and after an 8-week mindfulness intervention (MAP) compared with psychoeducation (PE). ADHD symptoms were assessed using the self- and observer-rated Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS)...
May 7, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742121/structural-and-functional-alterations-in-the-brain-during-working-memory-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#6
Jens Gisselgård, Alexander V Lebedev, Kathinka Dæhli Kurz, Inge Joa, Jan Olav Johannessen, Kolbjørn Brønnick
Several previous studies suggest that clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) is associated with prefrontal functional abnormalities and more widespread reduced grey matter in prefrontal, temporal and parietal areas. We investigated neural correlates to CHR in medication-naïve patients. 41 CHR patients and 37 healthy controls were examined with 1.5 Tesla MRI, yielding functional scans while performing an N-back task and structural T1-weighted brain images. Functional and structural data underwent automated preprocessing steps in SPM and Freesurfer, correspondingly...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738911/a-comprehensive-evaluation-of-increasing-temporal-resolution-with-multiband-accelerated-protocols-and-effects-on-statistical-outcome-measures-in-fmri
#7
Lysia Demetriou, Oliwia S Kowalczyk, Gabriella Tyson, Thomas Bello, Rexford D Newbould, Matthew B Wall
Accelerated functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) with 'multiband' protocols is now relatively widespread. These protocols can be used to dramatically reduce the repetition time (TR) and produce a time-series sampled at a higher temporal resolution, which may produce benefits in the statistical methods typically used to analyse fMRI data. We tested the effects of higher temporal resolutions for fMRI on statistical outcome measures in a comprehensive manner on two different MRI scanner platforms. Spatial resolution was maintained at a constant of 3 mm isotropic voxels, and an in-plane acceleration factor of 2 was used for all experiments...
May 5, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732553/n-back-working-memory-task-meta-analysis-of-normative-fmri-studies-with-children
#8
Zachary Yaple, Marie Arsalidou
The n-back task is likely the most popular measure of working memory for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Despite accumulating neuroimaging studies with the n-back task and children, its neural representation is still unclear. fMRI studies that used the n-back were compiled, and data from children up to 15 years (n = 260) were analyzed using activation likelihood estimation. Results show concordance in frontoparietal regions recognized for their role in working memory as well as regions not typically highlighted as part of the working memory network, such as the insula...
May 7, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719382/can-cochlear-implantation-improve-neurocognition-in-the-aging-population
#9
Christiane Völter, Lisa Götze, Stefan Dazert, Michael Falkenstein, Jan Peter Thomas
Introduction: The relationship between cognition and the ability to hear is well known. Due to changes in demographics, the number of people with sensorineural hearing loss and cognitive impairment is increasing. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of hearing rehabilitation via cochlear implantation on cognitive decline among the aging population. Patients and methods: This prospective study included 60 subjects aged between 50 and 84 years (mean 65...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713274/theta-gamma-coupling-and-working-memory-in-alzheimer-s-dementia-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#10
Michelle S Goodman, Sanjeev Kumar, Reza Zomorrodi, Zaid Ghazala, Amay S M Cheam, Mera S Barr, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger, Corinne Fischer, Alastair Flint, Linda Mah, Nathan Herrmann, Christopher R Bowie, Benoit H Mulsant, Tarek K Rajji
Working memory deficits are common among individuals with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Yet, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these deficits. Theta-gamma coupling-the modulation of high-frequency gamma oscillations by low-frequency theta oscillations-is a neurophysiologic process underlying working memory. We assessed the relationship between theta-gamma coupling and working memory deficits in AD and MCI. We hypothesized that: (1) individuals with AD would display the most significant working memory impairments followed by MCI and finally healthy control (HC) participants; and (2) there would be a significant association between working memory performance and theta-gamma coupling across all participants...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698025/taxing-cognitive-capacities-reduces-choice-consistency-rather-than-preference-a-model-based-test
#11
Sebastian Olschewski, Jörg Rieskamp, Benjamin Scheibehenne
How do people make preferential choices in situations where their cognitive capacities are limited? Many studies link the manipulation of cognitive resources to qualitative changes in preferences. However, there is a widely overlooked alternative hypothesis, namely, that a reduction in cognitive capacities leads to an increase in choice inconsistency. We developed a mathematical model and followed a hierarchical Bayesian estimation approach to test to what extent a reduction in cognitive capacities leads to a shift in preference or an increase in choice inconsistency...
April 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694417/executive-function-impairments-in-fibromyalgia-syndrome-relevance-of-clinical-variables-and-body-mass-index
#12
Cristina Muñoz Ladrón de Guevara, María José Fernández-Serrano, Gustavo A Reyes Del Paso, Stefan Duschek
BACKGROUND: Several investigations suggest the presence of deterioration of executive function in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The study quantified executive functions in patients with FMS. A wide array of functions was assessed, including updating, shifting and inhibition, as well as decision making and mental planning. Moreover, clinical variables were investigated as possible mediators of executive dysfunction, including pain severity, psychiatric comorbidity, medication and body mass index (BMI)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687402/verbal-and-spatial-working-memory-among-drug-using-hiv-infected-men-and-women
#13
Eileen Martin, M K Keutmann, J S Fogel, P M Maki, R Gonzalez, J Vassileva, L H Rubin, D Hardy
Working memory (WM) is a critical component of many neurocognitive functions. The literature has demonstrated consistently that WM impairment is more frequent and severe among substance-dependent individuals (SDIs) infected with HIV compared with uninfected SDIs; however, the SDIs who participated in these previous studies were primarily male. There are few published data on WM performance among HIV+ women with or without substance use disorders, and essentially no direct comparisons of WM performance between HIV+ men and women, regardless of substance use...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686254/the-relationship-between-dopamine-receptor-blockade-and-cognitive-performance-in-schizophrenia-a-11-c-raclopride-pet-study-with-aripiprazole
#14
Sangho Shin, Seoyoung Kim, Seongho Seo, Jae Sung Lee, Oliver D Howes, Euitae Kim, Jun Soo Kwon
Aripiprazole's effects on cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia are unclear because of the difficulty in disentangling specific effects on cognitive function from secondary effects due to the improvement in other schizophrenic symptoms. One approach to address this is to use an intermediate biomarker to investigate the relationship between the drug's effect on the brain and change in cognitive function. This study aims to investigate aripiprazole's effect on working memory by determining the correlation between dopamine D2/3 (D2/3) receptor occupancy and working memory of patients with schizophrenia...
April 24, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676536/core-networks-and-their-reconfiguration-patterns-across-cognitive-loads
#15
Nianming Zuo, Zhengyi Yang, Yong Liu, Jin Li, Tianzi Jiang
Different cognitively demanding tasks recruit globally distributed but functionally specific networks. However, the configuration of core networks and their reconfiguration patterns across cognitive loads remain unclear, as does whether these patterns are indicators for the performance of cognitive tasks. In this study, we analyzed functional magnetic resonance imaging data of a large cohort of 448 subjects, acquired with the brain at resting state and executing N-back working memory (WM) tasks. We discriminated core networks by functional interaction strength and connection flexibility...
April 20, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672741/multimodal-brain-changes-in-first-episode-mania-a-voxel-based-morphometry-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-connectivity-study
#16
José M Goikolea, Danai Dima, Ramón Landín-Romero, Imma Torres, Giuseppe DelVecchio, Marc Valentí, Benedikt L Amann, Caterina Mar Bonnín, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Sophia Frangou, Eduard Vieta
Background: Brain structural and functional changes in bipolar disorder (BD) are well-established findings, but it is uncertain whether these changes are already present in first episode mania (FEM). Methods: We compared 31 FEM subjects, with 31 healthy individuals matched for age, sex, and premorbid IQ. Whole-brain voxel-wise morphometry, functional magnetic resonance imaging during the n-back task, and a functional connectivity analysis were performed. Results: There were no volumetric differences between the 2 groups...
April 17, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670515/impaired-working-memory-updating-for-emotional-stimuli-in-depressed-patients
#17
Dandan Zhang, Hui Xie, Zhenhong He, Zhaoguo Wei, Ruolei Gu
Although two previous studies have demonstrated that depressed individuals showed deficits in working memory (WM) updating of both negative and positive contents, the effects were confounded by shifting dysfunctions and the detailed neural mechanism associated with the failure in N-back task is not clear. Using a 2-back task, the current study examined the WM updating of positive, negative and neutral contents in depressed patients. It is found that depressed patients performed poorer than healthy controls only when updating positive material...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668852/meg-working-memory-n-back-task-reveals-functional-deficits-in-combat-related-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Ming-Xiong Huang, Sharon Nichols, Ashley Robb-Swan, Annemarie Angeles-Quinto, Deborah L Harrington, Angela Drake, Charles W Huang, Tao Song, Mithun Diwakar, Victoria B Risbrough, Scott Matthews, Royce Clifford, Chung-Kuan Cheng, Jeffrey W Huang, Anusha Sinha, Kate A Yurgil, Zhengwei Ji, Imanuel Lerman, Roland R Lee, Dewleen G Baker
Combat-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of sustained cognitive impairment in military service members and Veterans. However, the mechanism of persistent cognitive deficits including working memory (WM) dysfunction is not fully understood in mTBI. Few studies of WM deficits in mTBI have taken advantage of the temporal and frequency resolution afforded by electromagnetic measurements. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and an N-back WM task, we investigated functional abnormalities in combat-related mTBI...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667704/investigating-the-other-race-effect-in-working-memory
#19
Marleen Stelter, Juliane Degner
People have difficulties in remembering other-race faces; this so-called other-race effect (ORE) has been frequently observed in long-term recognition memory (LTM). Several theories argue that the ORE in LTM is caused by differences in earlier processing stages, such as encoding of ingroup and outgroup faces. We test this hypothesis by exploring whether the ORE can already be observed in visual working memory (VWM)-an intermediate system located between encoding processes and LTM storage. In four independent experiments, we observed decreased performance for outgroup faces compared to ingroup faces using three different VWM tasks: an adaptive N-back task, a self-ordered pointing task, and a change detection task...
April 18, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663129/effects-of-cogmed-working-memory-training-on-cognitive-performance
#20
Joseph L Etherton, Crystal D Oberle, Jayson Rhoton, Ashley Ney
Research on the cognitive benefits of working memory training programs has produced inconsistent results. Such research has frequently used laboratory-specific training tasks, or dual-task n-back training. The current study used the commercial Cogmed Working Memory (WM) Training program, involving several different training tasks involving visual and auditory input. Healthy college undergraduates were assigned to either the full Cogmed training program of 25, 40-min training sessions; an abbreviated Cogmed program of 25, 20-min training sessions; or a no-contact control group...
April 16, 2018: Psychological Research
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