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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213103/expression-and-characterization-of-haemathrins-madanin-like-thrombin-inhibitors-isolated-from-the-salivary-gland-of-tick-haemaphysalis-bispinosa-acari-ixodidae
#1
Rajeev Kungur Brahma, Guillaume Blanchet, Simran Kaur, R Manjunatha Kini, Robin Doley
Saliva of hematophagous animals, such as ticks, is an excellent source of anticoagulant proteins and polypeptides. Here we describe the identification and characterization of two thrombin inhibitors named as haemathrin 1 and 2 from the salivary gland of tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa using genomic approach. Haemathrins are cysteine-less peptide anticoagulants, which share about 65-70% identity with madanins, and belong to inhibitor I53 superfamily of inhibitors of the MEROPS database. Haemathrins were overexpressed in E...
January 31, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212035/ultrafast-time-resolved-x-ray-absorption-spectroscopy-of-ferrioxalate-photolysis-with-a-laser-plasma-x-ray-source-and-microcalorimeter-array
#2
Galen C O'Neil, Luis Miaja-Avila, Young Il Joe, Bradley K Alpert, Mahalingam Balasubramanian, Dodderi M Sagar, William Bertrand Doriese, Joseph W Fowler, Wilfred K Fullagar, Ning Chen, Gene C Hilton, Ralph Jimenez, Bruce Ravel, Carl D Reintsema, Dan R Schmidt, Kevin L Silverman, Daniel S Swetz, Jens Uhlig, Joel N Ullom
The detailed pathways of photoactivity on ultrafast timescales are a topic of contemporary interest. Using a tabletop apparatus based upon a laser plasma x-ray source and an array of cryogenic microcalorimeter x-ray detectors, we have measured a transient x-ray absorption spectrum during the ferrioxalate photoreduction reaction. With these high efficiency detectors we observe the Fe K edge move to lower energies, and the amplitude of the extended x-ray absorption fine structure reduce, consistent with a photoreduction mechanism in which electron transfer precedes disassociation...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211730/kinetic-turbulence-in-relativistic-plasma-from-thermal-bath-to-nonthermal-continuum
#3
Vladimir Zhdankin, Gregory R Werner, Dmitri A Uzdensky, Mitchell C Begelman
We present results from particle-in-cell simulations of driven turbulence in magnetized, collisionless, and relativistic pair plasmas. We find that the fluctuations are consistent with the classical k_{⊥}^{-5/3} magnetic energy spectrum at fluid scales and a steeper k_{⊥}^{-4} spectrum at sub-Larmor scales, where k_{⊥} is the wave vector perpendicular to the mean field. We demonstrate the development of a nonthermal, power-law particle energy distribution f(E)∼E^{-α}, with an index α that decreases with increasing magnetization and increases with an increasing system size (relative to the characteristic Larmor radius)...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205433/a-battery-operated-atomic-emission-analyzer-for-waterborne-arsenic-based-on-atmospheric-pressure-glow-discharge-excitation-source
#4
Chun Yang, Dong He, Zhenli Zhu, Huan Peng, Zhifu Liu, Guojun Wen, Jianghao Bai, Hongtao Zheng, Shenghong Hu, Yanxin Wang
In this paper, a sensitive atomic emission spectrometer (AES) based on a new low power and low argon consumption (< 8 W, 100 mL min(-1)) miniature direct current (DC) atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasma (3 mm×5 mm) excitation source was developed for the determination of arsenic in water samples. In this method, arsenic in water was reduced to AsH3 by hydride generation (HG), which was then transported to the APGD source for excitation and detected by a compact CCD (charge-coupled device) microspectrometer...
February 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202759/relationship-between-measures-of-hiv-reactivation-and-the-decline-of-latent-reservoir-under-latency-reversing-agents
#5
Janka Petravic, Thomas A Rasmussen, Sharon R Lewin, Stephen J Kent, Miles P Davenport
Antiretroviral-free HIV remission requires substantial reduction of the number of latently infected cells and enhanced immune control of viremia. Latency-reversing agents (LRA) aim to eliminate latently infected cells by increasing the rate of reactivation of HIV transcription, which exposes these cells to killing by the immune system. As LRA are explored in clinical trials, it becomes increasingly important to assess the effect of increased HIV reactivation rate on the decline of latently infected cells, and estimate LRA efficacy in increasing virus reactivation...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199953/evaluation-of-single-and-stack-membraneless-enzymatic-fuel-cells-based-on-ethanol-in-simulated-body-fluids
#6
J Galindo-de-la-Rosa, N Arjona, A Moreno-Zuria, E Ortiz-Ortega, M Guerra-Balcázar, J Ledesma-García, L G Arriaga
The purpose of this work is to evaluate single and double-cell membraneless microfluidic fuel cells (MMFCs) that operate in the presence of simulated body fluids SBF, human serum and blood enriched with ethanol as fuels. The study was performed using the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme immobilised by covalent binding through an array composed of carbon Toray paper as support and a layer of poly(methylene blue)/tetrabutylammonium bromide/Nafion and glutaraldehyde (3D bioanode electrode). The single MMFC was tested in a hybrid microfluidic fuel cell using Pt/C as the cathode...
February 8, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199947/environmental-biomonitoring-of-essential-and-toxic-elements-in-human-scalp-hair-using-accelerated-microwave-assisted-sample-digestion-and-inductively-coupled-plasma-optical-emission-spectroscopy
#7
Hope Kumakli, A'ja V Duncan, Kiara McDaniel, Tsdale F Mehari, Jamira Stephenson, Lareisha Maple, Zaria Crawford, Calvin L Macemore, Carol M Babyak, Sayo O Fakayode
Human scalp hair samples were collected and used to assess exposure to toxic elements and essential elements in the state of North Carolina, USA using accelerated microwave assisted acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The figures-of-merit of the ICP-OES were appropriate for elemental analysis in scalp hair with detection limits as low as 0.0001 mg/L for Cd, good linearity (R(2) > 0.9978), and percent recoveries that ranged from 96 to 106% for laboratory-fortified-blanks and 88-112% for sample spike recovery study...
February 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199938/assessment-of-multiple-exposure-to-chemical-elements-and-health-risks-among-residents-near-huodehong-lead-zinc-mining-area-in-yunnan-southwest-china
#8
Yirun Wang, Ruming Wang, Liyun Fan, Tiantian Chen, Yahong Bai, Qianru Yu, Ying Liu
The contents of chemical elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) in 11 kinds of crop/vegetables and soils around the Huodehong lead-zinc mining area in Yunnan, Southwest China were determined by using inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results showed that element contents in soils decreased in the order of Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd. The high geo-accumulation indexes (Igeo) showed that cultivated soils near mine were practically polluted by Cd, Pb and Zn. The contents of Cd, Cr and Pb in crop/vegetables samples were significantly higher than the maximum permissible standard set by China...
January 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199209/photosystem-ii-and-terminal-respiratory-oxidases-molecular-machines-operating-in-opposite-directions
#9
Sergey A Siletsky, Vitaliy B Borisov, Mahir D Mamedov
In the thylakoid membrane of green plants, cyanobacteria and algae, photosystem II (PSII) uses light energy to split water and generate molecular oxygen. In the opposite process of the biochemical transformation of dioxygen, in heterotrophs, the terminal respiratory oxidases (TRO) are at the end of the respiratory chain in mitochondria and in plasma membrane of many aerobic bacteria reducing dioxygen back to water. Despite the different sources of free energy (light or oxidation of the substrates), energy conversion by these enzymes is based on the spatial organization of enzymatic reactions in which the conversion of water to dioxygen (and vice versa) involves the transfer of protons and electrons in opposite directions across the membrane, which is accompanied by generation of proton-motive force...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198640/novel-applications-of-laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopy
#10
Amy J Ray Bauer, Steven G Buckley
The goal of this review article is to provide a description of recent and novel laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) applications and developments, especially those discussed during the NASLIBS Conference, held during SciX in Providence, RI, in September 2015. This topic was selected in view of the numerous recent overall review papers that have successfully given a broad view of the current understanding of laser-material interactions and plasma development and have also discussed the wide landscape of analytical applications of LIBS...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196859/dietary-nitrite-reverses-features-of-postmenopausal-metabolic-syndrome-induced-by-high-fat-diet-and-ovariectomy-in-mice
#11
Kazuo Ohtake, Nobuyuki Ehara, Hiroshige Chiba, Genya Nakano, Kunihiro Sonoda, Junta Ito, Hiroyuki Uchida, Jun Kobayashi
Menopausal women are at greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome with reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. Hormone replacement therapy increases eNOS activity and normalizes some characteristics of metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that nitric oxide (NO) supplementation should have a therapeutic effect in this syndrome. We examined the effect of dietary nitrite on mice model with postmenopausal metabolic syndrome induced by ovariectomy (OVX) with high fat diet (HF). C57BL/6 female mice were divided into five groups, sham+normal fat diet (NF), sham+ HF, OVX+HF without or with sodium nitrite (50mg and 150mg/L) in drinking water...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195677/plasma-prefractionation-methods-for-proteomic-analysis-and-perspectives-in-clinical-applications
#12
Somchai Chutipongtanate, Supawat Chatchen, Jisnuson Svasti
Plasma is a rich source of biomarkers with clinical relevance. However, the wide dynamic range of protein concentration hinders the detection of low abundance proteins. Plasma prefractionation methods serve as indispensable tools to reduce plasma complexity, allowing the opportunity to explore tissue-derived proteins which leak into the circulation. This review summarizes common approaches in plasma prefractionation methods for proteomic analysis and then discusses some considerations in plasma prefractionation for clinical applications, reviewing some examples of its use in clinical situations...
February 14, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193696/astrocytic-orosomucoid-2-modulates-microglial-activation-and-neuroinflammation
#13
Myungjin Jo, Jong-Heon Kim, Gyunjee Song, Minchul Seo, Eun Mi Hwang, Kyoungho Suk
Orosomucoid (ORM) is an acute-phase protein that belongs to the immunocalin subfamily, a group of small-molecule binding proteins with immunomodulatory functions. Little is known about the role of ORM proteins in the central nervous system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the brain expression of ORM and its role in neuroinflammation. Expression of Orm2, but not Orm1 or Orm3, was highly induced in the mouse brain after systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Plasma levels of ORM2 were also significantly higher in patients with cognitive impairment than in normal subjects...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192370/a-c3-h20-recycling-pathway-is-a-component-of-the-intracellular-complement-system
#14
Michelle Elvington, M Kathryn Liszewski, Paula Bertram, Hrishikesh S Kulkarni, John P Atkinson
An intracellular complement system (ICS) has recently been described in immune and nonimmune human cells. This system can be activated in a convertase-independent manner from intracellular stores of the complement component C3. The source of these stores has not been rigorously investigated. In the present study, Western blotting identified a band corresponding to C3 in freshly isolated human peripheral blood cells that was absent in corresponding cell lines. One difference between native cells and cell lines was the time absent from a fluid-phase complement source; therefore, we hypothesized that loading C3 from plasma was a route of establishing intracellular C3 stores...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189071/blood-lead-levels-following-consumption-of-game-meat-in-italy
#15
Silvia Fustinoni, Sabrina Sucato, Dario Consonni, Pier Mannuccio Mannucci, Angelo Moretto
The aim of this study was to measure lead (Pb) levels in blood (Pb-blood) in consumers of game meat, taking into account other possible sources of lead exposure. A spot blood sample was obtained from 95 subjects, and a questionnaire was used to collect general information and data on game meat consumption, hunting, wine drinking and other possible sources of lead exposure. Pb-blood was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Pb-blood was not influenced by age, sex, residence in an urban or rural area, consumption of game meat, tobacco smoking or hobbies associated with potential exposure to lead, and median Pb-blood was 1...
February 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188029/peptidylarginine-deiminase-2-is-required-for-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-induced-citrullination-and-arthritis-but-not-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation
#16
Mandar Bawadekar, Daeun Shim, Chad J Johnson, Thomas F Warner, Ryan Rebernick, Dres Damgaard, Claus H Nielsen, Ger J M Pruijn, Jeniel E Nett, Miriam A Shelef
Citrullination, the post-translational conversion of arginines to citrullines, may contribute to rheumatoid arthritis development given the generation of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs). However, it is not known which peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) catalyzes the citrullination seen in inflammation. PAD4 exacerbates inflammatory arthritis and is critical for neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs display citrullinated antigens targeted by ACPAs and thus may be a source of citrullinated protein...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187434/interface-between-breast-cancer-cells-and-the-tumor-microenvironment-using-platelet-rich-plasma-to-promote-tumor-angiogenesis-influence-of-platelets-and-fibrin-bundles-on-the-behavior-of-breast-tumor-cells
#17
Sheila Siqueira Andrade, Joana Tomomi Sumikawa, Eloísa Dognani Castro, Fabricio Pereira Batista, Edgar Paredes-Gamero, Lilian Carolina Oliveira, Izabel Monastério Guerra, Giovani Bravin Peres, Renan Pelluzzi Cavalheiro, Luiz Juliano, Afonso Pinto Nazário, Gil Facina, Siu Mui Tsai, Maria Luiza Vilela Oliva, Manoel João Batista Castello Girão
Cancer progression is associated with an evolving tissue interface of direct epithelial-tumor microenvironment interactions. In biopsies of human breast tumors, extensive alterations in molecular pathways are correlated with cancer staging on both sides of the tumor-stroma interface. These interactions provide a pivotal paracrine signaling to induce malignant phenotype transition, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We explored how the direct contact between platelets-fibrin bundles primes metastasis using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a source of growth factors and mimics the provisional fibrin matrix between actively growing breast cancer cells and the tumor stroma...
February 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187377/simultaneous-quantification-of-reparixin-and-paclitaxel-in-plasma-and-urine-using-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectroscopy-uhplc-ms-ms-application-to-a-preclinical-pharmacokinetic-study-in-rats
#18
Sarandeep Malhi, Nicholas Stesco, Samaa Alrushaid, Ted M Lakowski, Neal M Davies, Xiaochen Gu
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed and validated to simultaneously quantify anticancer drugs reparixin and paclitaxel in this study. The compounds were extracted from plasma and urine samples by protein precipitation with acetone (supplemented with 0.1% formic acid). Chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 column, and drug molecules were ionized using dual ion source electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DUIS: ESI-APCI). Reparixin and paclitaxel were quantified using negative and positive multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, respectively...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186204/nitrogen-doped-amorphous-carbon-silicon-core-shell-structures-for-high-power-supercapacitor-electrodes
#19
S A Safiabadi Tali, S Soleimani-Amiri, Z Sanaee, S Mohajerzadeh
We report successful deposition of nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon films to realize high-power core-shell supercapacitor electrodes. A catalyst-free method is proposed to deposit large-area stable, highly conformal and highly conductive nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon (a-C:N) films by means of a direct-current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (DC-PECVD). This approach exploits C2H2 and N2 gases as the sources of carbon and nitrogen constituents and can be applied to various micro and nanostructures...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186113/strain-gated-bilayer-molybdenum-disulfide-field-effect-transistor-with-edge-contacts
#20
Yu Chai, Shanshan Su, Dong Yan, Mihrimah Ozkan, Roger Lake, Cengiz S Ozkan
Silicon nitride stress capping layer is an industry proven technique for increasing electron mobility and drive currents in n-channel silicon MOSFETs. Herein, the strain induced by silicon nitride is firstly characterized through the changes in photoluminescence and Raman spectra of a bare bilayer MoS2 (Molybdenum disulfide). To make an analogy of the strain-gated silicon MOSFET, strain is exerted to a bilayer MoS2 field effect transistor (FET) through deposition of a silicon nitride stress liner that warps both the gate and the source-drain area...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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