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Sophida Boonsathorn, Iek Cheng, Frank Kloprogge, Carlos Alonso, Charmion Lee, Bilyana Doncheva, John Booth, Robert Chiesa, Adam Irwin, Joseph F Standing
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate the population pharmacokinetics of posaconazole in immunocompromised children, evaluate the influence of patient characteristics on posaconazole exposure and perform simulations to recommend optimal starting doses. METHODS: Posaconazole plasma concentrations from paediatric patients undergoing therapeutic drug monitoring were extracted from a tertiary paediatric hospital database. These were merged with covariates collected from electronic sources and case-note reviews...
April 20, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Hyeon Jin Seo, Ki-Hwan Hwang, Young Hoon Na, Jin-Hyo Boo
This study focused on the photocatalytic degradation effect of the μ-dielectric barrier discharge (μ-DBD) plasma treated titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on environmental contaminant such as formaldehyde. TiO2 nanoparticles were treated by a μ-DBD plasma source with nitrogen gas. We analyzed the degradation of formaldehyde with the plasma treated TiO2 nanoparticles by UV-visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS), and demonstrated that the photocatalytic activity of the μ-DBD plasma-treated TiO2 nanoparticles showed significantly high catalytic efficiency rather than without plasma treated TiO2 nanoparticles...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Joost H N Schuitemaker, Thomas I F H Cremers, Maria G Van Pampus, Sicco A Scherjon, Marijke M Faas
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the levels of endothelial cell specific molecule 1 (ESM-1) during pregnancy and preeclampsia. METHODS: Plasma and placental samples were collected from women with a control pregnancy, early- or late-onset preeclamptic women and non-pregnant women (experiment 1). Plasma samples were collected between weeks 12 and birth from pregnant women at high risk for developing preeclampsia (experiment 2). ESM-1 plasma levels were measured by ELISA and in the placenta mRNA and protein were detected by immunohistochemistry and qPCR...
March 1, 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Michaela Falk, Aksel Bernhoft, Tore Framstad, Brit Salbu, Helene Wisløff, Trond M Kortner, Anja B Kristoffersen, Marianne Oropeza-Moe
The study was conducted to compare effects of different dietary Se sources (sodium selenite [NaSe], Se-enriched yeast [Se yeast] or L-selenomethionine [SeMet]) and one Se-deficient control diet on the expression of selected genes, hematological and clinical biochemical parameters, and muscle morphology in two parallel trials with finisher pigs. Se concentrations in blood plasma and tissues were also monitored. From the pigs in one of the parallel groups, muscle samples obtained from Musculus longissimus dorsi (LD) before and during the trial were examined...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
J Benedikt, M Mokhtar Hefny, A Shaw, B R Buckley, F Iza, S Schäkermann, J E Bandow
Non-equilibrium radio-frequency driven atmospheric-pressure plasma in He/0.6%O2 gas mixture has been used to study the reaction mechanism of plasma-generated oxygen atoms in aqueous solutions. The effluent from the plasma source operated with standard and 18O-labeled O2 gas was used to treat water in the presence of phenol as a chemical probe. Comparing the mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data of the solutions treated with plasma under normal and labeled oxygen provides clear evidence that O(aq) originating from the gas phase enters the liquid and reacts directly with phenol, without any intermediate reactions...
April 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Cornelius F Waller, Renger G Tiessen, Tracey E Lawrence, Andrew Shaw, Mark Shiyao Liu, Rajiv Sharma, Mark Baczkowski, Mudgal A Kothekar, Catherine E Micales, Abhijit Barve, Gopinath M Ranganna, Eduardo J Pennella
PURPOSE: Pegfilgrastim is a long-acting granulocyte colony-stimulating factor indicated for prevention of febrile neutropenia in patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy by promoting neutrophil recovery. METHODS: This phase 1, randomized, double-blind, three-way crossover trial in healthy volunteers evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), safety, and tolerability of the proposed biosimilar, comparing MYL-1401H, reference pegfilgrastim (Neulasta® , Amgen Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA) sourced from the European Union, and reference pegfilgrastim sourced from the USA...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Masatoshi Inoshita, Hidehiro Umehara, Shin-Ya Watanabe, Masahito Nakataki, Makoto Kinoshita, Yukiko Tomioka, Atsushi Tajima, Shusuke Numata, Tetsuro Ohmori
Purpose: There is growing evidence that glutamatergic signaling may be involved in major depressive disorder (MDD). In regard to peripheral blood glutamate changes in MDD, inconsistent findings have been reported. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether blood glutamate levels differed between MDD patients and control participants. Materials and methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 12 association studies between blood glutamate levels and MDD in a total of 529 MDD patients and 590 controls...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Ivana Jovčevska
The most aggressive brain malignancy, glioblastoma, accounts for 60-70% of all gliomas and is uniformly fatal. According to the molecular signature, glioblastoma is divided into four subtypes (proneural, neural, classical, and mesenchymal), each with its own genetic background. The Cancer Genome Atlas project provides information about the most common genetic changes in glioblastoma. They involve mutations in TP53, TERT, and PTEN, and amplifications in EFGR, PDGFRA, CDK4, CDK6, MDM2, and MDM4. Recently, epigenetics was used to demonstrate the oncogenic roles of miR-124, miR-137, and miR-128...
April 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Naomi C Boisvert, Chet E Holterman, Alexey Gutsol, Josee Coulombe, Wanling Pan, R Todd Alexander, Douglas A Gray, Chris R Kennedy
Loss of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), a deubiquitinating enzyme required for neuronal function, led to hyperphosphatemia accompanied by phosphaturia in mice, while calcium homeostasis remained intact. We therefore investigated the mechanisms underlying the phosphate imbalance in Uchl1-/- mice. Interestingly, phosphaturia was not a result of lower renal brush border membrane sodium-phosphate cotransporter expression as sodium-phosphate cotransporter 2a and 2c expression levels were similar to wild type levels...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Jessica R Sanders, Bethany Ashley, Anna Moon, Thomas E Woolley, Karl Swann
Egg activation at fertilization in mammalian eggs is caused by a series of transient increases in the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration, referred to as Ca2+ oscillations. It is widely accepted that these Ca2+ oscillations are initiated by a sperm derived phospholipase C isoform, PLCζ that hydrolyses its substrate PIP2 to produce the Ca2+ releasing messenger InsP3 . However, it is not clear whether PLCζ induced InsP3 formation is periodic or monotonic, and whether the PIP2 source for generating InsP3 from PLCζ is in the plasma membrane or the cytoplasm...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Vladimir Kirejev, Baharan Ali Doosti, Mehrnaz Shaali, Gavin D M Jeffries, Tatsiana Lobovkina
Membrane tubular structures are important communication pathways between cells and cellular compartments. Studying these structures in their native environment is challenging, due to the complexity of membranes and varying chemical conditions within and outside of the cells. This work demonstrates that a calcium ion gradient, applied to a synthetic lipid nanotube, triggers lipid flow directed toward the application site, resulting in the formation of a bulge aggregate. This bulge can be translated in a contactless manner by moving a calcium ion source along the lipid nanotube...
April 17, 2018: Small
Linghang Wang, Yonghong Zhang, Keyi Xu, Tao Dong, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Louis-Marie Yindom
BACKGROUND: The HIV pandemic remains the most serious challenge to public health worldwide. The hallmark characteristics of the disease is the eventual failure of the immune system to control opportunistic infections and death. However not everyone who has HIV develops the disease at the same rate and so we are studying how the immune system works to control the virus in those who have been infected for decades and remain relatively healthy without the need of anti-retroviral therapy (ART)...
2018: PloS One
Negar Faramarzi, Iman K Yazdi, Mahboubeh Nabavinia, Andrea Gemma, Adele Fanelli, Andrea Caizzone, Leon M Ptaszek, Indranil Sinha, Ali Khademhosseini, Jeremy N Ruskin, Ali Tamayol
Bioprinting has emerged as a promising tool in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Various 3D printing strategies have been developed to enable bioprinting of various biopolymers and hydrogels. However, the incorporation of biological factors has not been well explored. As the importance of personalized medicine is becoming more clear, the need for the development of bioinks containing autologous/patient-specific biological factors for tissue engineering applications becomes more evident. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is used as a patient-specific source of autologous growth factors that can be easily incorporated to hydrogels and printed into 3D constructs...
April 16, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Veronika Voronova, Kirill Zhudenkov, Robert C Penland, David W Boulton, Gabriel Helmlinger, Kirill Peskov
Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and synthetic GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) slow gastric emptying rate (GER), thereby decreasing the Glucose Rate of Appearance (GluRA) in plasma, which may contribute to postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) stabilization under GLP-1RA treatment. A quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) approach was used to evaluate the effect of exenatide immediate release (IR), a short-acting GLP-1RA, on GER and GluRA. The proposed model is based on the data from multiple published sources including: (1) GLP-1 and exenatide plasma concentration-time profiles; (2) GER estimates under placebo, GLP-1 or exenatide IR dosing; (3) GluRA measurements upon food intake...
April 16, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Ana Luísa Maulvault, Lúcia H M L M Santos, José Ricardo Paula, Carolina Camacho, Vasco Pissarra, Fabiola Fogaça, Vera Barbosa, Ricardo Alves, Pedro Pousão Ferreira, Damià Barceló, Sara Rodriguez-Mozaz, António Marques, Mário Diniz, Rui Rosa
Antidepressants, such as venlafaxine (VFX), which are considered emerging environmental pollutants, are increasingly more present in the marine environment, and recent evidence suggest that they might have adverse effects on fish behaviour. Furthermore, altered environmental conditions associated to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) can also have a determinant role on fish behaviour, fitness and survival. Yet, the underlying interactions between these environmental stressors (pharmaceuticals exposure and climate change) are still far from being fully understood...
April 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Gopinath Kalaiarasan, Raj Mohan Balakrishnan, Neethu Anitha Sethunath, Sivamoorthy Manoharan
Particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5 ) samples were collected from six sites in urban Mangalore and the mass concentrations for PM10 and PM2.5 were measured using gravimetric technique. The measurements were found to exceed the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) limits, with the highest concentration of 231.5 μg/m3 for PM10 particles at Town hall and 120.3 μg/m3 for PM2.5 particles at KMC Attavar. The elemental analysis using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICPOES) revealed twelve different elements (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sr and Zn) for PM10 particles and nine different elements (Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn) for PM2...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Dita Moravek, Alison M Duncan, Laura B VanderSluis, Sarah J Turkstra, Erica J Rogers, Jessica M Wilson, Aileen Hawke, D Dan Ramdath
Background: The postprandial blood glucose response (PBGR) following carbohydrate replacement of high-glycemic index (GI) foods with pulses, in a mixed meal, has not been accurately defined. Objective: We aimed to determine the extent to which PBGR and relative glycemic response (RGR) are lowered when half of the available carbohydrate (AC) from rice or potato is replaced with cooked lentils. Methods: Using a crossover design, 2 groups of 24 healthy adults randomly consumed 50 g AC from control white rice alone [mean ± SD body mass index (BMI, in kg/m2): 24...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Qiong Lou, Jun Wen, Yuanying Jiang, Jinghua Huang, Guorong Fan, Fenyun Song
A reliable liquid chromatography/tandem mass (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for quantitation of 3', 4'-dimethoxy flavonol-3-β-d-glucopyranoside (DF3G) in rat plasma using pantoprazole as the internal standard. An Agilent C18 column (100 mm × 3 mm, 3.5 μm) was performed for chromatographic separation with the mobile phase composed of methanol-water (containing formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. A triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ion mode was applied to quantitative analysis by multiple reacting monitoring (MRM)...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
H Omidi-Mirzaei, A Azarfar, A Kiani, M Mirzaei, M H Ghaffari
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the physical forms of starter and forage sources on feed intake, growth performance, rumen pH, and blood metabolites of dairy calves. Forty male Holstein calves (41.3 ± 3.5 kg of body weight) were used (n = 10 calves per treatment) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with the factors being physical forms of starter (coarse mash and texturized) and forage source [alfalfa hay (AH) and wheat straw (WS)]. Individually housed calves were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments, including (1) coarsely mashed (CM; coarse ground grains combined with a mash supplement) starter feed with AH (CM-AH), (2) coarsely mashed starter feed with WS (CM-WS), (3) texturized feed starter (TF; includes steam-flaked corn, steam-rolled barley combined with a pelleted supplement) with AH (TF-AH), and (4) TF with WS (TF-WS)...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Felipe J Lara-Ortega, José Robles-Molina, Sebastian Brandt, Alexander Schütz, Bienvenida Gilbert-López, Antonio Molina-Díaz, Juan F García-Reyes, Joachim Franzke
Although electrospray ionization (ESI) remains the gold standard ionization source for LC-MS, it exhibits two main limitations: the occurrence of matrix effects and the limited ionization coverage towards nonpolar compounds. Dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI) has gained attraction in recent years as a versatile ionization method in different applications and formats. Here, we report a thorough evaluation of DBDI as ionization interface for LC-MS, which reveals attractive advantages over ESI and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) provided its singular ionization mechanism versatility...
August 22, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
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