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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822552/consequences-of-dietary-energy-source-and-energy-level-on-energy-balance-lactogenic-hormones-and-lactation-curve-characteristics-of-cows-after-a-short-or-omitted-dry-period
#1
R J van Hoeij, J Dijkstra, R M Bruckmaier, J J Gross, T J G M Lam, G J Remmelink, B Kemp, A T M van Knegsel
Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source-glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)-and energy level-standard (std) or low-on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (GH); and lactation curve characteristics between wk 1 and 44 postpartum in cows after a 0-d or 30-d DP. Cows (n = 110) were assigned randomly to 3 transition treatments: a 30-d DP with a standard energy level required for expected milk yield [30-d DP(std)], a 0-d DP with the same energy level as cows with a 30-d DP [0-d DP(std)], and a 0-d DP with a low energy level [0-d DP(low)]...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822541/only-7-of-the-variation-in-feed-efficiency-in-veal-calves-can-be-predicted-from-variation-in-feeding-motivation-digestion-metabolism-immunology-and-behavioral-traits-in-early-life
#2
M S Gilbert, J J G C van den Borne, C G van Reenen, W J J Gerrits
High interindividual variation in growth performance is commonly observed in veal calf production and appears to depend on milk replacer (MR) composition. Our first objective was to examine whether variation in growth performance in healthy veal calves can be predicted from early life characterization of these calves. Our second objective was to determine whether these predictions differ between calves that are fed a high- or low-lactose MR in later life. A total of 180 male Holstein-Friesian calves arrived at the facilities at 17 ± 3...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821850/comparative-metabonomics-of-wenxin-keli-and-verapamil-reveals-differential-roles-of-gluconeogenesis-and-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-in-myocardial-injury-protection
#3
Miaomiao Jiang, Qiuying Wang, Jingrui Chen, Yanan Wang, Guanwei Fan, Yan Zhu
Metabonomics/metabolomics is a rapid technology for comprehensive profiling of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues, or whole organisms, the application of which has led to understanding pathophysiologic mechanisms of cardiometabolic diseases, defining predictive biomarkers for those diseases, and also assessing the efficacious effects of incident drugs. In this study, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics was employed to identify the metabolic changes in rat plasma caused by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI), and to compare the metabolic regulatory differences between traditional Chinese medicine Wenxin Keli (WXKL) and Western medicine verapamil...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819149/single-step-generation-of-metal-plasma-polymer-multicore-shell-nanoparticles-from-the-gas-phase
#4
Pavel Solař, Oleksandr Polonskyi, Ansgar Olbricht, Alexander Hinz, Artem Shelemin, Ondřej Kylián, Andrei Choukourov, Franz Faupel, Hynek Biederman
Nanoparticles composed of multiple silver cores and a plasma polymer shell (multicore@shell) were prepared in a single step with a gas aggregation cluster source operating with Ar/hexamethyldisiloxane mixtures and optionally oxygen. The size distribution of the metal inclusions as well as the chemical composition and the thickness of the shells were found to be controlled by the composition of the working gas mixture. Shell matrices ranging from organosilicon plasma polymer to nearly stoichiometric SiO2 were obtained...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817063/changes-in-lipids-and-inflammatory-markers-after-consuming-diets-high-in-red-meat-or-dairy-for-four-weeks
#5
Kirsty M Turner, Jennifer B Keogh, Peter J Meikle, Peter M Clifton
There is a body of evidence linking inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Our previous research found that insulin sensitivity decreased after a four-week diet high in dairy compared to a control diet and to one high in red meat. Our aim was to determine whether a relationship exists between changes in insulin sensitivity and inflammatory biomarkers, or with lipid species. Fasting Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor II (sTNF-RII), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lipids were measured at the end of each diet...
August 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815754/pharmacokinetic-interactions-and-dosing-rationale-for-antiepileptic-drugs-in-adults-and-children
#6
S C van Dijkman, W M Rauwé, M Danhof, O Della Pasqua
AIM: Population pharmacokinetic modelling has been widely used across many therapeutic areas to identify sources of variability, which are incorporated into models as covariate factors. Despite numerous publications on pharmacokinetic (PK) drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), such data are not used to support the dose rationale for polytherapy in the treatment of epileptic seizures. Here we assess the impact of DDIs on plasma concentrations and evaluate the need for AED dose adjustment...
August 16, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814844/comparison-between-parameters-of-muscle-performance-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-of-non-sarcopenic-and-sarcopenic-elderly-women
#7
Lygia Paccini Lustosa, Patrícia Parreira Batista, Daniele Sirineu Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo Pereira, Aline Scianni, Giane Amorim Ribeiro-Samora
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is a multifactorial geriatric syndrome with complex interrelationships. Increased plasma levels of inflammatory mediators increase the catabolic stimuli of the musculature, thereby causing a decrease in mass and muscular function. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the knee extensors test (by isokinetic dynamometer) and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble receptors of tumor necrosis factor alpha (sTNFR1) between sarcopenics and non-sarcopenics community-dwelling elderly women residents of Brazil...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813167/lipophagy-maintains-energy-homeostasis-in-the-kidney-proximal-tubule-during-prolonged-starvation
#8
Satoshi Minami, Takeshi Yamamoto, Yoshitsugu Takabatake, Atsushi Takahashi, Tomoko Namba, Jun Matsuda, Tomonori Kimura, Jun-Ya Kaimori, Isao Matsui, Takayuki Hamano, Hiroaki Takeda, Masatomo Takahashi, Yoshihiro Izumi, Takeshi Bamba, Taiji Matsusaka, Fumio Niimura, Yoshitaka Isaka
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a self-degradation process that combats starvation. Lipids are the main energy source in kidney proximal tubular cells (PTCs). During starvation, PTCs increase fatty acid (FA) uptake, form intracellular lipid droplets (LDs), and hydrolyze them for use. The involvement of autophagy in lipid metabolism in the kidney remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the autophagy-mediated regulation of renal lipid metabolism during prolonged starvation using PTC-specific Atg5-deficient (atg5-TSKO) mice and an in vitro serum starvation model...
August 16, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812956/toxicity-identification-and-evaluation-for-the-effluent-from-a-nonmetallic-mineral-mining-facility-in-korea-using-d-magna
#9
Sungjong Lee, Hongjoo Ha, JinKyung Hong, Guyoung Kang, Chunsang Hong
Industrial wastewater has attracted increasing attention in recent years because of its impact on ecosystems and human health. Whole-effluent tests are generally used to monitor toxicities of unknown chemicals and conventional pollutants from industrial effluent discharges. This study described identification evaluation (TIE) procedures to determine the acute toxicity of a nonmetallic mineral mining facility effluent that was toxic to Daphnia magna. In the characterization step (TIE phase I), toxic effects of heavy metals, organic compounds, oxidants, volatile organic compounds, suspended solids, and ammonia were screened...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812326/effect-of-dietary-components-from-antarctic-krill-on-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-deficient-mice
#10
Cinzia Parolini, Bodil Bjorndal, Marco Busnelli, Stefano Manzini, Giulia S Ganzetti, Federica Dellera, Marie Ramsvik, Inge Bruheim, Rolf Kristian Berge, Giulia Chiesa
SCOPE: Antarctic krill is a great source of n-3 fatty acids and high-quality proteins. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Antarctic krill components on plasma lipids and atherosclerosis development. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty apoEKO mice were divided into four groups and fed Western diet (CONTROL) or Western-like diets, differing for protein or fat content. Specifically, casein or fat in CONTROL was partially replaced by krill proteins (PRO), krill oil (KRILL OIL), or both (KRILL OIL+PRO)...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811349/brain-macrophages-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-antiretroviral-suppressed-macaques-a-functional-latent-reservoir
#11
Claudia R Avalos, Celina M Abreu, Suzanne E Queen, Ming Li, Sarah Price, Erin N Shirk, Elizabeth L Engle, Ellen Forsyth, Brandon T Bullock, Feilim Mac Gabhann, Stephen W Wietgrefe, Ashley T Haase, M Christine Zink, Joseph L Mankowski, Janice E Clements, Lucio Gama
A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cure requires an understanding of the cellular and anatomical sites harboring virus that contribute to viral rebound upon treatment interruption. Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are reported in HIV-infected individuals on ART. Biomarkers for macrophage activation and neuronal damage in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-infected individuals demonstrate continued effects of HIV in brain and suggest that the central nervous system (CNS) may serve as a viral reservoir...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808178/metabolomic-profiles-of-plasma-exhaled-breath-condensate-and-saliva-are-correlated-with-potential-for-air-toxics-detection
#12
Chandresh Nanji Ladva, Rachel Golan, Roby Greenwald, Tianwei Yu, Stefanie Ebelt Sarnat, W Dana Flanders, Karan Uppal, Douglas I Walker, ViLinh Tran, Donghai Liang, Dean P Jones, Jeremy Sarnat
Advances in the development of high-resolution metabolomics (HRM) have provided new opportunities for their use in characterizing exposures to environmental air pollutants and air pollution-related disease etiologies. Exposure assessment studies have considered blood, breath, and saliva as biological matrices suitable for measuring responses to air pollution exposures. The current study examines comparability among these three matrices using HRM and explored their potential for measuring mobile source air toxics...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805962/medicago-truncatula-molybdate-transporter-type-1-mtmot1-3-is-a-plasma-membrane-molybdenum-transporter-required-for-nitrogenase-activity-in-root-nodules-under-molybdenum-deficiency
#13
Manuel Tejada-Jiménez, Patricia Gil-Díez, Javier León-Mediavilla, Jiangqi Wen, Kirankumar S Mysore, Juan Imperial, Manuel González-Guerrero
Molybdenum, as a component of the iron-molybdenum cofactor of nitrogenase, is essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. This nutrient has to be provided by the host plant through molybdate transporters. Members of the molybdate transporter family Molybdate Transporter type 1 (MOT1) were identified in the model legume Medicago truncatula and their expression in nodules was determined. Yeast toxicity assays, confocal microscopy, and phenotypical characterization of a Transposable Element from Nicotiana tabacum (Tnt1) insertional mutant line were carried out in the one M...
August 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803129/low-plasma-glucose-limits-glucose-metabolism-by-rbcs-and-heart-in-some-species-of-teleosts
#14
William R Driedzic
Within teleosts there is a species range in plasma glucose levels from undetectable to 20mM. At low plasma glucose levels the gradient from the extracellular to the intracellular space is decreased. The impact of this on glucose metabolism by RBCs and heart from species with different steady state levels of plasma glucose (Atlantic cod ~5mM; Atlantic salmon ~5mM, cunner ~1mM, lumpfish <1mM; short-horned sculpin <1mM) is the subject of this review. Under normoxia, at physiological levels of extracellular glucose, RBCs and heart produce lactate although the contribution of anaerobic metabolism to ATP production is small...
August 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801775/plasticizers-and-bisphenol-a-in-packaged-foods-sold-in-the-tunisian-markets-study-of-their-acute-in-vivo-toxicity-and-their-environmental-fate
#15
Asma Beltifa, Anouar Feriani, Monia Machreki, Asma Ghorbel, Lakhdar Ghazouani, Giuseppa Di Bella, Joris Van Loco, Tim Reyns, Hedi Ben Mansour
Today, processed and packaged foods are considered as among the major sources of human exposure to plasticizers and bisphenol which migrate from plastic packing. In the present study, a wide range of food products sold on the Tunisian market such as grain and grain products, milk and dairy products, fats and oil, drink, fish, and sweets have been analyzed firstly in order to identify the presence of phthalates and bisphenol. Then, the identified chemical molecules were studied for their environmental fate and tested in vivo for its toxicity in mice models...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801743/investigation-of-an-optimal-cell-lysis-method-for-the-study-of-the-zinc-metalloproteome-of-histoplasma-capsulatum
#16
Anna M Donnell, Stephanie Lewis, Sami Abraham, Kavitha Subramanian, Julio Landero Figueroa, George S Deepe, Anne P Vonderheide
This work sought to assess optimal extraction conditions in the study of the metalloproteome of the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. One of the body's responses to H. capsulatum infection is sequestration of zinc within host macrophage (MØ), as reported by Vignesh et al. (Immunity 39:697-710, 2013) and Vignesh et al. (PLOS Pathog 9:E1003815, 2013). Thus, metalloproteins containing zinc were of greatest interest as it plays a critical role in survival of the fungus. One challenge in metalloproteomics is the preservation of the native structure of proteins to retain non-covalently bound metals...
August 12, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800844/first-comparative-analysis-concerning-the-plasma-platelet-contamination-during-mnc-collection
#17
Hella Pfeiffer, Susanne Achenbach, Julian Strobel, Robert Zimmermann, Reinhold Eckstein, Erwin F Strasser
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Monocytes can be cultured into dendritic cells with addition of autologous plasma, which is highly prone to platelet contamination due to the apheresis process. Since platelets affect the maturation process of monocytes into dendritic cells and might even lead to a diminished harvest of dendritic cells, it is very important to reduce the platelet contamination. A new collection device (Spectra Optia) was analyzed, compared to two established devices (COM.TEC, Cobe Spectra) and evaluated regarding the potential generation of source plasma...
July 13, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797166/patternable-solvent-processed-thermoplastic-graphite-electrodes
#18
Kevin Klunder, Zach Nilsson, Justin Sambur, Charles S Henry
Since their invention in the 1950's, composite carbon electrodes have been employed in a wide variety of applications, ranging from batteries and fuel cells to chemical sensors because they are easy to make and pattern at millimeter scales. Despite their widespread use, traditional carbon composite electrodes have substandard electrochemistry relative to metallic and glassy carbon electrodes. As a result, there is a critical need for new composite carbon electrodes that are highly electrochemically active, have universal and easy fabrication into complex geometries, are highly conductive, and are low cost...
August 10, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794212/addition-of-rye-bran-and-pea-fiber-to-pork-meatballs-enhances-subjective-satiety-in-healthy-men-but-does-not-change-glycemic-or-hormonal-responses-a-randomized-crossover-meal-test-study
#19
Ursula Kehlet, Josephine Kofod, Jens J Holst, Christian Ritz, Margit D Aaslyng, Anne Raben
Background: The development of high-protein, fiber-rich foods targeting appetite control could be an efficient tool in obesity prevention.Objectives: We investigated whether ad libitum energy intake (EI), appetite, and metabolic markers in a meal context were affected by 1) fiber addition (rye bran and pea fiber) to pork meatballs, 2) the food matrix of the fiber (fiber meatballs compared with fiber bread), or 3) the protein source (animal compared with vegetable protein patties).Methods: In a crossover design, 40 healthy men [mean ± SD: body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), 22...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792664/collagen-coated-nano-electrospun-pcl-seeded-with-human-endometrial-stem-cells-for-skin-tissue-engineering-applications
#20
Shiva Sharif, Jafar Ai, Mahmoud Azami, Javad Verdi, Mohammad Ali Atlasi, Sadegh Shirian, Ali Samadikuchaksaraei
Human endometrial stem cells (hEnSCs) are known as an attractive source of stem cells for regenerative medicine. hEnSCs are easily isolated and are capable of repairing uterine through their strong ability of creating new capillaries. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous polycaprolactone (PCL)/collagen scaffold was fabricated and characterized in order to be applied as a new approach for skin reconstruction. Furthermore, the behavior of hEnSCs on this scaffold was investigated. First, a PCL 3D scaffold was constructed using electrospinning technique...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
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