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Jennifer K Mulligan, Kunal Patel, Tucker Williamson, Nicholas Reaves, William Carroll, Sarah E Stephenson, Peng Gao, Richard R Drake, Benjamin A Neely, Stephen Tomlinson, Rodney J Schlosser, Carl Atkinson
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is an inflammatory disease with an unknown etiology. Recent studies have implicated the complement system as a potential modulator of disease immunopathology. We performed proteomic pathway enrichment analysis of differentially increased proteins, and found an enrichment of complement cascade pathways in the nasal mucus of individuals with CRSwNP as compared to control subjects. Sinonasal mucus levels of complement 3 (C3) correlated with worse subjective disease severity, whereas no significant difference in systemic C3 levels could be determined in plasma samples...
June 15, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Chika Ikenoya, Shota Takemi, Arisa Kaminoda, Sayaka Aizawa, Shiomi Ojima, Zhi Gong, Rakhi Chacrabati, Daisuke Kondo, Reiko Wada, Toru Tanaka, Sachiko Tsuda, Takafumi Sakai, Ichiro Sakata
Ghrelin is a unique fatty acid-modified peptide hormone produced in the stomach and has important roles in energy homeostasis and gastrointestinal motility. However, the medium-chain fatty acid source for ghrelin acyl-modification is not known. We found that a fat-free diet and the removal of intestinal microbiota did not decrease acyl-ghrelin production in the stomach or plasma acyl-ghrelin levels in mice. RT-PCR analysis showed that genes involving fatty acid synthesis, metabolism, and transport were expressed in pancreas-derived ghrelinoma (PG-1) cells...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Erin P Childers, Nathan Z Dreger, Alex B Ellenberger, Mary Beth Wandel, Karen Domino, Yanyi Xu, Derek Luong, Jiayi Yu, David Orsini, Robert H Bell, Christopher Premanandan, Stephen D Fening, Matthew L Becker
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a clinically relevant source of growth factors used commonly by surgeons. The clinical efficacy of PRP use as reported in the literature is widely variable which is likely attributed to poorly defined retention time of PRP at the repair site. To overcome this limitation, branched poly(ester urea) (PEU) nanofibers were used to adsorb and retain PRP at the implant site in an acute rotator-cuff tear model in rats. The adsorption of PRP to branched-PEU was characterized using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and immuno-protein assay...
June 15, 2018: Biomacromolecules
I Gvilava, I Chkhikvishvili, T Sanikidze, M Giorgobiani, V N Kipiani, G Ormotsadze
In presented article, by means of a comparative analysis of the relationship between the dose-dependent alterations in the organism's redox status, measured by the innovative method developed by us and the standard methods used for assessing catalase and superoxide dismutase activity, and an end radiobiological effect, was attempted the preliminary assessment of the possibility to apply the parameter of blood plasma total antioxidant activity (TAA) as marker of dose and effect of radiation exposure. The experiments were carried out on white mice randomly divided into groups of irradiated and sham irradiated animals...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
Remi Capdessus, Martin King, Dario Del Sorbo, Matthew Duff, Christopher P Ridgers, Paul McKenna
The relativistic Doppler effect is one of the most famous implications of the principles of special relativity and is intrinsic to moving radiation sources, relativistic optics and many astrophysical phenomena. It occurs in the case of a plasma sail accelerated to relativistic velocities by an external driver, such as an ultra-intense laser pulse. Here we show that the relativistic Doppler effect on the high energy synchrotron photon emission (~10 MeV), strongly depends on two intrinsic properties of the plasma (charge state and ion mass) and the transverse extent of the driver...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexandra S Whale, Gerwyn M Jones, Jernej Pavšič, Tanja Dreo, Nicholas Redshaw, Sema Akyurek, Muslum Akgoz, Carla Divieto, Maria PaolaSassi, Hua-Jun He, Kenneth D Cole, Young-Kyung Bae, Sang-Ryoul Park, Liesbet Deprez, Philippe Corbisier, Sonia Garrigou, Valérie Taly, Raquel Larios, Simon Cowen, Denise M O'Sullivan, Claire A Bushell, Heidi Goenaga-Infante, Carole A Foy, Alison J Woolford, Helen Parkes, Jim F Huggett, Alison S Devonshire
BACKGROUND: Genetic testing of tumor tissue and circulating cell-free DNA for somatic variants guides patient treatment of many cancers. Such measurements will be fundamental in the future support of precision medicine. However, there are currently no primary reference measurement procedures available for nucleic acid quantification that would support translation of tests for circulating tumor DNA into routine use. METHODS: We assessed the accuracy of digital PCR (dPCR) for copy number quantification of a frequently occurring single-nucleotide variant in colorectal cancer ( KRAS c...
June 14, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Zora Váradyová, Dominika Mravčáková, Monika Holodová, Ľubomira Grešáková, Jana Pisarčíková, Marcin Barszcz, Marcin Taciak, Anna Tuśnio, Svetlana Kišidayová, Klaudia Čobanová
Two experiments were conducted on sheep to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with zinc and a medicinal plant mixture on haematological parameters and microbial activity in the rumen and large intestine. In Experiment 1, 24 male lambs were randomly divided into four groups: One group was fed an unsupplemented basal diet (control), and three groups were fed a diet supplemented with 70 mg Zn/kg diet in the form of Zn sulphate (ZnSO4 ), a Zn-chelate of glycine hydrate (Zn-Gly) or a Zn-proteinate (Zn-Pro), for five months...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Yi Yuan, Ling Zhao, Ning Ma, Zhuang Ye, Zhenyu Jiang, Congqiu Chu
Objectives: This study aims to assess the complement 3 (C3) expressions in whole blood cells and verify a pathway toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)/ transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)/C3 for C3 regulation in mediating thrombocytopenia (TCP) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients and methods: The study included 63 newly diagnosed SLE patients (2 males, 61 females; mean age 39.5 years; range 15 to 67 years). Whole blood messenger ribonucleic acid expression for C3, TLR9 and TGF-β1 were measured by quantitative reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction in SLE patients with TCP (n=38) and age- and sex-matched SLE patients without TCP (n=25) at baseline and in 10 SLE patients with TCP after four weeks of treatment...
December 2017: Archives of Rheumatology
Manuela Krumbholz, Wilhelm Woessmann, Jakob Zierk, David Seniuk, Paolo Ceppi, Martin Zimmermann, Vijay Kumar Singh, Markus Metzler, Christine Damm-Welk
Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( NPM-ALK) fusion genes resulting from the translocation t(2;5)(p23;q35) are present in almost 90% of childhood ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCL). Detection and quantification of minimal disseminated disease (MDD) by measuring NPM-ALK fusion transcript levels in the blood provide independent prognostic parameters. Characterization of the genomic breakpoints provides insights into the pathogenesis of the translocation and allows for DNA-based minimal disease monitoring...
May 29, 2018: Oncotarget
Changjun Yang, Kelly M DeMars, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil
Adropin is a peptide highly expressed in the brain. Emerging evidence indicates that low plasma levels of adropin are closely associated with aging and endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that aging reduces adropin levels in the brain, which correlates with reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and increased oxidative stress associated with age-related endothelial dysfunction. Cortical brain tissue and plasma were collected from young (10-12 weeks old) and aged (18-20 months old) male Sprague-Dawley naïve rats...
April 2018: Aging and Disease
Cristiana Perrotta, Davide Cervia, Ilaria Di Renzo, Claudia Moscheni, Maria Teresa Bassi, Lara Campana, Cristina Martelli, Elisabetta Catalani, Matteo Giovarelli, Silvia Zecchini, Marco Coazzoli, Annalisa Capobianco, Luisa Ottobrini, Giovanni Lucignani, Patrizia Rosa, Patrizia Rovere-Querini, Clara De Palma, Emilio Clementi
Tumor microenvironment is fundamental for cancer progression and chemoresistance. Among stromal cells tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent the largest population of infiltrating inflammatory cells in malignant tumors, promoting their growth, invasion, and immune evasion. M2-polarized TAMs are endowed with the nitric oxide (NO)-generating enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). NO has divergent effects on tumors, since it can either stimulate tumor cells growth or promote their death depending on the source of it; likewise the role of iNOS in cancer differs depending on the cell type...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Daniel Turiel-Fernández, Jörg Bettmer, Maria Montes-Bayón
The therapy with nanocompounds is widely used to treat Fe deficiency and an emerging trend to inhibit tumor growth. The present work aims to address the management of different FeONP, comparing sucrose covered FeONP and Fe nanoparticles in the form of the ferritin with non-particulated inorganic Fe (II) by enterocytes-like colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29). Iron uptake results revealed significantly higher Fe incorporation in the case of nanoparticulated Fe, first in the form of FeONP and second in the form of ferritin with respect to inorganic Fe (II)...
September 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Tiecheng Wang, Guangzhou Qu, Xianqiang Yin, Qiuhong Sun, Dongli Liang, Xuetao Guo, Hanzhong Jia
Plasticizer pollution brought huge risks to ecological environment and human health. Surface discharge plasma (SDP) was employed to eliminate plasticizer in natural water, with dimethyl phthalate (DMP) as a typical plasticizer. Experimental results showed that DMP degradation efficiency reached 82.8% within 60 min's SDP treatment, and the elimination process fitted well the first-order kinetic model. Low initial DMP concentration, alkaline condition, and low natural organic matter content were all conducive for DMP degradation...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Ivan Timofeev, Natalia Kosheleva, Nikolay Kasimov
Mining of mineral resources exerts strong impact on the environment and leads to irreversible changes in vegetation, soils, atmosphere, surface and ground waters. The aim of this study is to assess the modern geochemical state of soil cover in Zakamensk, a city located in Buryat Republic (Russia) and known as one of the biggest ore mining center in the former Soviet Union. The center was operating for 68 years and closed 17 years ago. Soil-geochemical survey was conducted in 2012 and included collection of 103 soil samples in Zakamensk and 27 samples in the background areas...
June 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Simeon I Ekett, Omowunmi H Fred-Ahmadu, Adebusayo E Adedapo, Nsikak U Benson
Heavy metals contamination in aquatic ecosystems has been a major concern, however, no information is available about the concentrations, depth distributions and ecological risks of heavy metals in sediments cores from microtidal lagoonal ecosystem in Lagos, Nigeria. Four sediment cores were collected using a 50 cm × 3.5 cm Wildco® hand corer. Elemental determinations were carried out using the Microwave Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (4200 MP-AES) after extraction. The concentrations of heavy metals in the sediment cores indicated enhanced degree of contamination influenced by anthropogenic discharges especially industrial effluents...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Elisabetta Murru, Gianfranca Carta, Lina Cordeddu, Maria Paola Melis, Erika Desogus, Hastimansooreh Ansar, Yves Chilliard, Anne Ferlay, Catherine Stanton, Mairéad Coakley, R Paul Ross, Giovanni Piredda, Margherita Addis, Maria Cristina Mele, Giorgio Cannelli, Sebastiano Banni, Claudia Manca
n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) directly and indirectly regulate lipid metabolism, energy balance and the inflammatory response. We investigated changes to the n-3 HUFA score of healthy adults, induced by different types and amounts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched (ENCH) cheeses consumed for different periods of time, compared to dietary fish oil (FO) pills (500 mg, each containing 100 mg of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids—EPA+DHA) or α-linolenic acid (ALA)-rich linseed oil (4 g, containing 2 g of ALA)...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kimbra Kenney, Bao-Xi Qu, Chen Lai, Christina Devoto, Vida Motamedi, William C Walker, Harvey S Levin, Tracy Nolen, Elisabeth A Wilde, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Jessica Gill
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to measure plasma and exosomal levels of tau, phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and amyloid beta (Aβ) in Veterans with historical mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and chronic neuropsychological symptoms. METHODS: Tau, p-tau, Aβ40, and Aβ42 were measured by ultrasensitive immunoassay in plasma and exosomes from 195 Veterans enrolled in the Chronic Effects of Neurotrauma Consortium Multicenter Observational Study. Protein biomarkers were compared among groups with and without mTBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) or post-traumatic amnesia (PTA), and also in those with and without repetitive (≥3) mTBI (rTBI) compared to those with 0 (TBI-neg) and 1-2 mTBI...
June 11, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Houshang Nouri, Kamal Shojaeian, Ghasem Jalilvand, Hamid Kohram
The objective was to assess the influence of pomegranate seed oil supplementation on the quality of fresh, cooled and frozen-thawed Arabian breed stallion semen. Eight stallions (n = 4 per group) received their normal diet (control group) or normal diet top dressed with 200 ml of pomegranate seed oil (PSO group). Semen was collected every fifteen days for 90 days. Stallions were reversed across the treatments after a sixty-day interval. In cooled and stored condition (2, 12 and 24 hr), spermatozoa motion characteristics, membrane integrity, viability, morphology and lipid peroxidation were analysed...
June 11, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Hyun Jin Lee, Horacio A Peredo, Silvana M Cantú, Adriana S Donoso, Ana M Puyó, Marcelo R Choi
The loss of the modulator role of the endothelium could be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. Transition metal compounds, such as tungsten and vanadium, have been proposed as possible agents in the treatment of diabetes by simulating the effects of insulin. The mesenteric vascular bed intervenes in vascular resistance and is a source of vasoactive compounds, such as prostanoids. The aim of this work was to study the effects of sodium tungstate and vanadyl sulphate treatments on the metabolic parameters and the release of prostanoids of the mesenteric vascular bed in an experimental model of Streptozotocin-induced diabetes...
June 7, 2018: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
David M Asher, Luisa Gregori
The first of several pivotal moments leading to current understanding of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) occurred in 1959 when veterinary pathologist W.J. Hadlow first recognized several similarities between scrapie-a slow infection of sheep caused by an unusual infectious agent-and kuru, a fatal exotic neurodegenerative disease affecting only people of a single language group in the remote mountainous interior of New Guinea, described two years earlier by D.C. Gajdusek and V. Zigas. Based on the knowledge of scrapie, Gajdusek, C...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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