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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470689/the-nutritional-and-health-attributes-of-kiwifruit-a-review
#1
REVIEW
David P Richardson, Juliet Ansell, Lynley N Drummond
PURPOSE: To describe the nutritional and health attributes of kiwifruit and the benefits relating to improved nutritional status, digestive, immune and metabolic health. The review includes a brief history of green and gold varieties of kiwifruit from an ornamental curiosity from China in the 19th century to a crop of international economic importance in the 21st century; comparative data on their nutritional composition, particularly the high and distinctive amount of vitamin C; and an update on the latest available scientific evidence from well-designed and executed human studies on the multiple beneficial physiological effects...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456408/inhibitory-effects-of-patchouli-alcohol-on-stress-induced-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#2
Tian-Ran Zhou, Jing-Jing Huang, Zi-Tong Huang, Hong-Ying Cao, Bo Tan
AIM: To elucidate the mechanism of patchouli alcohol (PA) in treatment of rat models of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). METHODS: We studied the effects of PA on colonic spontaneous motility using its cumulative log concentration (3 × 10-7 mol/L to 1 × 10-4 mol/L). We then determined the responses of the proximal and distal colon segments of rats to the following stimuli: (1) carbachol (1 × 10-9 mol/L to 1 × 10-5 mol/L); (2) neurotransmitter antagonists including Nω -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (10 μmol/L) and (1R*, 2S*)-4-[2-Iodo-6-(methylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl]-2-(phosphonooxy)bicyclo[3...
February 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454798/functional-bowel-disorders-gastroenterology-s-75-th-anniversary
#3
John W Wiley, Lin Chang
Articles appearing in Gastroenterology have played an integral role in the evolution of our understanding of Functional Bowel Disorders (FBD), including Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), beginning with the prescient contributions of Almy and Tulin in 1947 and 1949 that highlighted the role of stress to enhance perception of abdominal pain and promote colon contractions. Subsequent publications have codified diagnostic criteria and stratified subpopulations of FBD (Manning and ROME I-IV), which resulted in improved symptom-based therapeutic interventions...
February 15, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453211/fistulation-between-a-colonic-j-pouch-and-the-upper-vagina-in-an-irradiated-pelvis-a-rare-complication-following-low-anterior-resection-with-colonic-j-pouch-anal-anastomosis-for-rectal-cancer
#4
James Tankel, Shlomo Yellineck, Petachia Reissman
Formation of a colonic J-pouch with anastomosis to the rectal stump is an accepted form of reconstruction after low anterior resection (LAR) for rectal carcinoma. It is thought this can help prevent the onset of LAR syndrome as well as improve the quality of life in the first two years following surgery. Rectovaginal fistulation is a recognised complication of this form of surgery usually occurring because of technical failure leading to inclusion of the vaginal wall into the stapled anastomosis. We present an as of yet unreported case of fistulation between the upper horizontal staple line of a colonic J-pouch-the tip of the 'J'-which was formed extracorporeally with the posterior vaginal fornix...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394213/eosinophil-counts-in-the-small-intestine-and-colon-of-children-without-apparent-gastrointestinal-disease-a-meta-analysis
#5
Zoltán Kiss, Bálint Tél, Nelli Farkas, András Garami, Áron Vincze, Judit Bajor, Patrícia Sarlós, Katalin Márta, Adrienn Erős, Alexandra Mikó, Zsolt Szakács, Dániel Pécsi, Péter Mátrai, Péter Hegyi, Gábor Veres
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to review the available data regarding eosinophil density in healthy tissue specimen originating from lower gastrointestinal segments to support suggested diagnostic cut-offs widely used in clinical practice. METHODS: A systematic search was performed in three different databases. Calculations were made with Comprehensive MetaAnalysis software using random effects model. Cell number measurements were pooled using the random effects model and displayed on forest plots...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391756/effect-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-supernatant-on-serotonin-transporter-expression-in-rats-with-post-infectious-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#6
Ya-Nan Cao, Li-Juan Feng, Yuan-Yuan Liu, Kui Jiang, Mao-Jun Zhang, Yi-Xin Gu, Bang-Mao Wang, Jia Gao, Ze-Lan Wang, Yu-Ming Wang
AIM: To evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant (LGG-s) on the expression of serotonin transporter (SERT) in rats with post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). METHODS: Campylobacter jejuni 81-176 (1010 CFU/mL) was used to induce intestinal infection to develop a PI-IBS model. After evaluation of the post-infectious phase by biochemical tests, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) test, and the intestinal motility test, four PI-IBS groups received different concentrations of LGG-s for 4 wk...
January 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383890/-effect-of-electroacupuncture-at-neiguan-pc-6-and-tianshu-st-25-for-colonic-motility-and-d-2-receptor-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-rats
#7
Shan Wang, Meng-Wei Guo, Yu-Shan Gao, Xiao-Xuan Ren, Ying Lan, Mao-Xian Ji, Yan-Ying Wu, Kai-Ge Li, Li-Hua Tan, Ming-He Sui
OBJECTIVE: To observe and compare the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Neiguan" (PC 6) for colonic motility and the expression of colon dopamine D 2 in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) rats, and to explore the specificity of different meridians and different acupoints. METHODS: Forty Wistar newborn rats were randomly divided into blank, model, Tianshu and Neiguan groups. Separation of mother and child and acetic acid coloclyster combined with colorectal distension were used to establish IBS model in the model, Tianshu and Neiguan groups...
January 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383802/reversal-of-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-rat-by-menthacarin%C3%A2-a-proprietary-combination-of-essential-oils-from-peppermint-and-caraway-coincides-with-mycobiome-modulation
#8
S Botschuijver, O Welting, E Levin, D Maria-Ferreira, E Koch, R C Montijn, J Seppen, T B M Hakvoort, F H J Schuren, W J de Jonge, R M van den Wijngaard
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder associated with altered gastrointestinal microflora and increased nociception to colonic distension. This visceral hypersensitivity can be reversed in our rat maternal separation model by fungicides. Menthacarin® is a proprietary combination of essential oils from Mentha x piperita L. and Carum carvi. Because these oils exhibit antifungal and antibacterial properties, we investigated whether Menthacarin® can reverse existing visceral hypersensitivity in maternally separated rats...
January 31, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383022/endoscopic-full-thickness-biopsy-a-novel-method-in-the-work-up-of-complicated-abdominal-symptoms
#9
Bodil Ohlsson, Rita Gustafsson, Fredrik Swahn, Ervin Toth, Béla Veress, Henrik Thorlacius
Gastrointestinal complaints without obvious organic causes confirmed by clinical laboratory analyses, endoscopy or radiology are often referred to functional entities. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional disorder in the gut. Careful examination of these patients may reveal other diagnoses of defined etiologies, e.g., enteric neuropathy, microscopic colitis, and primary Sjögre's syndrome. The present case describes a young patient with incapacitating gastrointestinal symptoms presumed to be IBS, who underwent endoscopic full-thickness biopsy in sigmoid colon...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372567/review-article-the-physiological-effects-and-safety-of-peppermint-oil-and-its-efficacy-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-other-functional-disorders
#10
REVIEW
B P Chumpitazi, G L Kearns, R J Shulman
BACKGROUND: Peppermint oil has been used for centuries as a treatment for gastrointestinal ailments. It has been shown to have several effects on gastrointestinal physiology relevant to clinical care and management. AIM: To review the literature on peppermint oil regarding its metabolism, effects on gastrointestinal physiology, clinical use and efficacy, and safety. METHODS: We performed a PubMed literature search using the following terms individually or in combination: peppermint, peppermint oil, pharmacokinetics, menthol, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, gallbladder, colon, transit, dyspepsia, nausea, abdominal pain, and irritable bowel syndrome...
January 26, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371960/modulation-of-inflammation-by-toll-like-receptor-4-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-in-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#11
Xing He, Li-Hong Cui, Xiao-Hui Wang, Zhi-Hui Yan, Chao Li, San-Dong Gong, Yan Zheng, Zhe Luo, Ying Wang
In order to investigate the function of toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-kappa B (TLR4/NF-κB) signal pathways in the pathogenesis of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), IBS-D animal models were established in wistar rats challenged with acute and chronic stresses (29 days). Wistar rats without stress-challenged were used as controls. IBS-D models were randomly divided into two groups: one was treated with normal saline, another group was treated with TLR4/NF-κB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) (50mg/kg/week) for continuous four times...
December 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358881/increased-intestinal-mucosal-leptin-levels-in-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#12
De-Rong Liu, Xiao-Juan Xu, Shu-Kun Yao
AIM: To measure the leptin levels in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) and analyze the relationship of leptin with clinical features, visceral sensitivity, mast cells, and nerve fibers. METHODS: Forty-two patients with IBS-D fulfilling the Rome III criteria and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent clinical and psychological evaluations using validated questionnaires (including IBS Symptom Severity Scale, IBS-specific Quality of Life, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and Hamilton Depression Scale), along with colonoscopy, colonic mucosal biopsy, and visceral sensitivity testing...
January 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354998/-effects-of-heat-sensitive-moxibustion-on-hpa-axis-in-rats-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#13
Haifeng Zhang, Fangshen Xie, Hongbin Gong, Hui Huang, Shutao Chen, Mingfei Kang, Yong Fu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of heat-sensitive moxibustion on corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) in rats with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and to explore the possible mechanism of heat-sensitive moxibustion on IBS. METHODS: According to random number table, 56 SD male rats were randomly divided into a blank group (n=8), a model group (n=8), a moxibustion group (n=32), and a mifepristone group (RU-486 group, n=8)...
December 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329362/clostridium-butyricum-regulates-visceral-hypersensitivity-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-by-inhibiting-colonic-mucous-low-grade-inflammation-through-its-action-on-nlrp6
#14
Kejia Zhao, Leimin Yu, Xi Wang, Yibo He, Bin Lu
Visceral hypersensitivity induced by stress is quite common in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Probiotics play an important role in reducing visceral hypersensitivity in IBS patients. However, the mechanism has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 6 (NLRP6) in Clostridium butyricum-regulated IBS induced by stress. Our results showed that NLRP6 was down-regulated in IBS group colon tissues. In addition, IL-18, IL-1β, myeloperoxidase (MPO), d-lactic acid (D-LA), and CD172a were up-regulated in the IBS group of colonic mucous...
January 10, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319900/laypersons-knowledge-and-perceptions-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-as-potential-barriers-to-care
#15
LeeAnne B Sherwin
AIMS: To describe the layperson's knowledge and perceptions regarding the aetiology, pathogenesis, prevalence, medical evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. BACKGROUND: Diagnosis acceptance and adherence to treatment is influenced by the views of the patient's social networks. Little is known how these networks influence those with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of two-hundred four laypersons, ages 18-80 years without an Irritable Bowel Syndrome diagnosis...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290660/efficacy-of-noninvasive-evaluations-in-monitoring-inflammatory-bowel-disease-activity-a-prospective-study-in-china
#16
Jin-Min Chen, Tao Liu, Shan Gao, Xu-Dong Tong, Fei-Hong Deng, Biao Nie
AIM: To optimize the efficacy of noninvasive evaluations in monitoring the endoscopic activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: Fecal calprotectin (FC), clinical activity index (CDAI or CAI), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and procalcitonin (PCT) were measured for 136 IBD patients. Also, FC was measured in 25 irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients that served as controls. Then, endoscopic activity was determined by other two endoscopists for colonic or ileo-colonic Crohn's disease (CICD) with the "simple endoscopic score for Crohn's disease" (SES-CD), CD-related surgery patients with the Rutgeerts score, and ulcerative colitis (UC) with the Mayo score...
December 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280110/-update-of-the-rome-iiii-criteria-for-functional-constipation
#17
Ting Yu, Liuqin Jiang, Lin Lin
The Rome IIII( criteria were released in May 2016. Based on the development of brain-intestinal axis theory, intestinal microecology, pharmacogenomics and social psychology, the Rome IIII( criteria revise the definition, diagnostic criteria, clinical evaluation process, and treatments of functional constipation (FC). The revisions are as follows: (1) Definition: FC and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome are considered to be on a continuum rather than as independent entities. (2) Diagnostic criteria: the Bristol stool scale type 1, type 2 and spontaneous bowel movements are added in the diagnostic criteria, respectively, refining the criteria for stool consistency and frequency...
December 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251404/number-of-retained-radiopaque-markers-on-a-colonic-transit-study-does-not-correlate-with-symptom-severity-or-quality-of-life-in-chronic-constipation
#18
K Staller, K Barshop, A N Ananthakrishnan, B Kuo
BACKGROUND: Ingestion of radiopaque markers (ROM) is frequently used to determine colonic transit in chronic constipation. Although ≥20% of retained markers at 5 days defines slow-transit constipation, some clinicians use the number of retained markers to determine disease severity. METHODS: We assembled a cross-sectional cohort of patients presenting for evaluation of chronic constipation who underwent transit testing by ROM and completed validated symptom severity and quality-of-life (QOL) measures...
December 18, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218037/wuji-wan-formula-ameliorates-diarrhea-and-disordered-colonic-motility-in-post-inflammation-irritable-bowel-syndrome-rats-by-modulating-the-gut-microbiota
#19
Ying Chen, Shuiming Xiao, Zipeng Gong, Xiaoxin Zhu, Qing Yang, Yujie Li, Shuangrong Gao, Yu Dong, Zhe Shi, Yajie Wang, Xiaogang Weng, Qi Li, Weiyan Cai, Weijie Qiang
Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota contribute to the treatment of post-inflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). Our previous studies have demonstrated that a Chinese formula, Wuji Wan, has the ability to mitigate abdominal pain and diarrhea in PI-IBS rats. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism and whether the gut microbiota mediate the effect of Wuji Wan on PI-IBS. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether Wuji Wan mitigated PI-IBS by modifying the gut microbiota...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210899/distinct-microbial-populations-exist-in-the-mucosa-associated-microbiota-of-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-ulcerative-colitis
#20
Wenting Zhong, Xiaolan Lu, Haitao Shi, Gang Zhao, Yahua Song, Yonghua Wang, Jing Zhang, Yaofeng Jin, Shenhao Wang
GOALS: The goal of this study was to observe the bacterial colonization in the intestinal mucosa in the patients with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) and ulcerative colitis (UC), and compare the mucosa-associated microbiota among the IBS-D patients, UC patients and the healthy control, and explore the correlation of the mucosa-associated microbiota with clinical manifestations. STUDY: A total of 20 IBS-D patients, 28 patients with UC (16 active, 12 inactive) and 16 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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