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Irritable colon syndrome

Y-B Yu, D-Y Zhao, Q-Q Qi, X Long, X Li, F-X Chen, X-L Zuo
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a vital role in the homeostatic regulation of intestinal barrier integrity. We aimed to investigate the physiological role of BDNF in maintaining the intestinal epithelial barrier using postinflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) mice and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms using intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. METHODS: Postinflammatory-IBS mice were induced by intrarectal administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and allowed to recover for 28 days...
October 17, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Giles Major, Sue Pritchard, Kathryn Murray, Jan Paul Alappadan, Caroline Hoad, Luca Marciani, Penny Gowland, Robin Spiller
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Poorly digested, fermentable carbohydrates may induce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), via unclear mechanisms. We performed a randomized trial with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis to investigate correlations between symptoms and changes in small and large bowel contents following oral challenge. METHODS: We performed a 3-period crossover study of 29 adult patients with IBS (based on Rome III criteria, with symptoms of abdominal pain or discomfort for at least 2 days/week) and reported bloating...
October 13, 2016: Gastroenterology
Dervla O'Malley
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain, bloating and disturbed bowel habit, symptoms which impact on the quality of life of sufferers. The pathophysiological changes underlying this multifactorial condition are complex and include increased sensitivity to luminal and mucosal factors which result in altered colonic transit and visceral pain. Moreover, dysfunctional communication in the bidirectional signaling axis between the brain and the gut, which involves efferent and afferent branches of the peripheral nervous systems, circulating endocrine hormones and local paracrine and neurocrine factors, including immune and perhaps even microbial signaling molecules have a role to play in this disorder...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Abdel-Naser Elzouki
Probiotics are live, nonpathogenic bacteria capable of colonizing the colonic mucosa. The most common probiotics include strains of Lactobacillus or Bifidobacteria, which are part of the normal gastrointestinal microbiota. Initial studies of selected probiotic species have suggested potential efficacy in several gastrointestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (particularly pouchitis), antibiotic-related diarrhea, Clostridium difficile toxin-induced colitis, infectious diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and allergy...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Edith Lahner, Bruno Annibale
Diverticular disease (DD) is a common gastrointestinal condition. Clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic diverticulosis to symptomatic uncomplicated or complicated DD. Symptoms related to uncomplicated DD are not specific and may be indistinguishable from those of irritable bowel syndrome. Low-grade inflammation, altered intestinal microbiota, visceral hypersensitivity, and abnormal colonic motility have been identified as factors potentially contributing to symptoms. Probiotics may modify the gut microbial balance leading to health benefits...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Ji-Meng Zhao, Liu Chen, Ci-Li Zhou, Yin Shi, Yu-Wei Li, Hai-Xia Shang, Lu-Yi Wu, Chun-Hui Bao, Chuan-Zi Dou, Huan-Gan Wu
Aim. To compare whether there is different effect between electroacupuncture (EA) and moxibustion (Mox) on visceral hypersensitivity (their analgesic effects) in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (C-IBS). Methods. EA at 1 mA and 3 mA and Mox at 43°C and 46°C were applied to the Shangjuxu (ST37, bilateral) acupoint in rats with C-IBS and normal rats. An abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) score was used to assess visceral hypersensitivity. Toluidine blue staining was used to assess mast cell (MC) activity in colon of rats...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Y Kaneko, N Onda, Y Watanabe, M Shibutani
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) produced by enterochromaffin (EC) cells is an important enteric mucosal signaling ligand and has been implicated in several gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and functional disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. The present study reports a new, simple and rapid visualization method of 5-HT-producing EC cells utilizing detection of autofluorescence in paraffin-embedded tissue sections after formalin fixation. In human samples, there was a high incidence of autofluorescence+ cells in the 5-HT+ cells in the pyloric, small intestinal and colonic glands, while co-localization was lacking between autofluorescence+ and gastrin+ cells in the pyloric and small intestinal glands...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Regina Irwin, Sandi Raehtz, Narayanan Parameswaran, Laura R McCabe
Increasing evidence indicates a strong link between intestinal health and bone health. For example, inflammatory bowel disease can cause systemic inflammation, weight loss and extra-intestinal manifestations such as decreased bone growth and density.  However, the effects of moderate intestinal inflammation without weight loss on bone health have never been directly examined; yet this condition is relevant not only to IBD but to conditions of increased intestinal permeability and inflammation as seen with ingestion of high fat diets, intestinal dysbiosis, irritable bowel syndrome, metabolic syndrome and food allergies...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Y Darbaky, B Evrard, S Patrier, J Falenta, S Garcin, A Tridon, M Dapoigny, C Silberberg, A Nivoliez, L Diop
AIMS: The study evaluated the efficacy of a repeated oral treatment with two Actives Pharmaceuticals Ingredients (API - Lcr LENIO(®) and Lcr RESTITUO(®) ) derivated from the probiotic bacterial strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35(®) in two animal models mimicking different features of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). IBS is characterized by visceral pain associated with alteration of bowel transit. IBS patients present visceral hypersensitivity with peripheral and central origins. METHODS AND RESULTS: The injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) into the proximal colon as well as an acute partial restraint stress (PRS) produce colonic hypersensitivity measured in conscious rats by a decrease in pain threshold in response to distal colonic distension...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
W Teng, H Chen, F Guo, X Du, X Fu, Y Fang, H Zhang, M Fang, M Ding
Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) is a high affinity Substance P (SP) receptor and plays a key role in visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Early life stress is a significant risk factor in IBS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of neonatal maternal separation on the expression and distribution of SP and its receptor along the brain-gut axis in a neonatal maternally separated rat model with visceral hypersensitivity. Male neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats, 2-21-day old, were randomly distributed into maternal separation groups of 3 h daily maternal separation (MS) or non-handling (NH)...
August 30, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Maria M Buckley, Rebecca O'Brien, Michelle Devlin, Aisling A Creed, Mark G Rae, Niall P Hyland, Eamonn M M Quigley, Declan P McKernan, Dervla O'Malley
In addition to its role in regulating energy homeostasis, the adipokine, leptin modifies gastrointestinal (GI) function. Indeed, leptin-resistant obese humans and leptin-deficient obese mice exhibit altered GI motility. In the functional GI disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), circulating leptin levels are reported to differ from healthy controls. Additionally, IBS patients display altered cytokine profiles, including elevated circulating levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-6, which bears structural homology and similarities in intracellular signalling to leptin...
September 27, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Bing Cao, Jun Wang, Li Mu, David Chun-Hei Poon, Ying Li
Visceral hypersensitivity (VH) is a key factor of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Previous studies have identified an enhanced response of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to colorectal distension in VH rats, which can be observed up to 7weeks following colonic anaphylaxis, independent of colonic inflammation. The induction of VH produces a change in the ability to induce subsequent synaptic plasticity at the ACC circuitry. In clinical practice, a positive link between IBS and cognitive impairments has been noted for years, but no animal model has been reported...
September 21, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Silje Thorsvik, Jan Kristian Damås, Atle van Beelen Granlund, Trude Helen Flo, Kåre Bergh, Ann Elisabet Østvik, Arne Kristian Sandvik
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Accurate, non-invasive biomarkers are needed to diagnose and monitor inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), also known as Lipocalin 2, is expressed in inflamed colonic epithelium and neutrophilic granulocytes. This study explores its properties as a biomarker in feces and plasma and, for the first time, compares fecal NGAL systematically with the existing fecal biomarker calprotectin. METHODS: NGAL was measured in feces from 73 patients with IBD, 21 patients with infectious enterocolitis, 21 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 23 healthy subjects using ELISA...
September 18, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Börje Jonefjäll, Lena Öhman, Magnus Simrén, Hans Strid
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms (GI) compatible with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) in remission. The causes of these symptoms remain to be clarified. Our aim was to investigate prevalence and factors associated with IBS-like symptoms in patients with UC in deep remission. METHODS: We included 298 patients with UC and used Mayo score, sigmoidoscopy, and fecal calprotectin to define deep remission versus active disease...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
M P Guarino, G Barbara, A Cicenia, A Altomare, M R Barbaro, S Cocca, A Scirocco, C Cremon, S Emerenziani, V Stanghellini, M Cicala, C Severi
BACKGROUND: Changes in intestinal motility are likely to contribute to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) pathophysiology. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of IBS mucosal supernatants on human colonic muscle contractility. METHODS: Supernatants were obtained from biopsies of 18 IBS patients-nine with constipation (IBS-C) and nine with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D)-and nine asymptomatic subjects, used as controls. Colonic circular smooth muscle strips or isolated cells (SMC) were exposed to control or IBS supernatants...
September 12, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Jordi Serra, Noemi Caballero
INTRODUCTION: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial functional gut disorder, where sensory/motor disturbances seem to play a major role, with no satisfactory treatment for a majority of patients. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a hormone with several effects on gastrointestinal function, and IBS patients have been shown to produce altered sensory/motor responses to CCK. AREAS COVERED: Dexloxiglumide is a selective antagonist of the type 1 receptor of CCK, which has demonstrated to revert the CCK mediated effects on gastrointestinal motility and sensitivity...
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Qingqing Qi, Feixue Chen, Wenxue Zhang, Peng Wang, Yanqing Li, Xiuli Zuo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in brain, spinal cord and enteric nervous system is involved in visceral hypersensitivity. This study aimed to reveal the functional expression of NMDAR on mucosal cells in colon and to investigate the downstream signal pathway from colonic NMDAR activation to visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: The expression of mucosal NMDAR in IBS patients and healthy controls was assessed by immunohistochemistry and western blot, and correlated with abdominal pain/discomfort scores quantified by a validated questionnaire...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Patrick Ambrosetti
The diagnostic approach of patients with suspected acute diverticulitis remains debated. On the one hand, a scoring system with the best predictive value in diagnosing acute diverticulitis has been developed in order to reduce the use of computed tomography (CT) scan, while, on the other hand, patients with a high probability of acute diverticulitis should benefit from CT scan from a clinical viewpoint, ensuring that they will receive the most appropriate treatment. The place and classification of CT scan for acute diverticulitis need to be reassessed...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
C Hasenoehrl, U Taschler, M Storr, R Schicho
BACKGROUND: In ancient medicine, extracts of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa were used against diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Today, our knowledge of the ingredients of the Cannabis plant has remarkably advanced enabling us to use a variety of herbal and synthetic cannabinoid (CB) compounds to study the endocannabinoid system (ECS), a physiologic entity that controls tissue homeostasis with the help of endogenously produced CBs and their receptors. After many anecdotal reports suggested beneficial effects of Cannabis in GI disorders, it was not surprising to discover that the GI tract accommodates and expresses all the components of the ECS...
August 26, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Sen-Wen Teng, Huann-Cheng Horng, Chi-Hong Ho, Ming-Shyen Yen, Hsiang-Tai Chao, Peng-Hui Wang
Endometriosis, defined by the presence of viable extrauterine endometrial glands and stroma, can grow or bleed cyclically, and possesses characteristics including a destructive, invasive, and metastatic nature. Since endometriosis may result in pelvic inflammation, adhesion, chronic pain, and infertility, and can progress to biologically malignant tumors, it is a long-term major health issue in women of reproductive age. In this review, we analyze the Taiwan domestic research addressing associations between endometriosis and other diseases...
August 20, 2016: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
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