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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432716/deciphering-tacrolimus-induced-toxicity-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#1
J Triñanes, A E Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Y Brito, A Wagner, A P J De Vries, G Cuesto, A Acebes, E Salido, A Torres, E Porrini
β-cell transcription factors like: FoxO1, MafA, PDX-1, NeuroD, are dysfunctional in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). PTDM resembles T2DM and reflects interaction between pre-transplant insulin resistance and immunosuppressants, mainly calcineurin inhibitors. We evaluated the effect of tacrolimus, cyclosporine-A and metabolic stressors (glucose+palmitate) on insulinoma β-cells (INS-1) in vitro and in pancreata of obese and lean Zucker rats. Cells were cultured for five days with 100μM palmitate and 22mM glucose; cyclosporin-A (250ng/mL) or tacrolimus (15ng/mL) were added the last 48h...
April 22, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432281/the-role-of-non-thermal-atmospheric-pressure-biocompatible-plasma-in-the-differentiation-of-osteoblastic-precursor-cells-mc3t3-e1
#2
Ihn Han, Eun Ha Choi
Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is ionized matter, composed of highly reactive species that include positive ions, negative ions, free radicals, neutral atoms, and molecules. Recent reports have suggested that non-thermal biocompatible plasma (NBP) can selectively kill a variety of cancer cells, and promote stem cell differentiation. However as of yet, the regulation of proliferation and differentiation potential of NBP has been poorly understood.Here, we investigated the effects of NBP on the osteogenic differentiation of precursor cell lines of osteoblasts, MC3T3 E1 and SaOS-2...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430387/age-related-reduction-in-the-expression-of-foxo-transcription-factors-and-correlations-with-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#3
Oscar Alvarez-Garcia, Tokio Matsuzaki, Merissa Olmer, Koichi Masuda, Martin K Lotz
Aging is a main risk factor for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, the main cause of low back pain. FOXO transcription factors are important regulators of tissue homeostasis and longevity. Here, we determined the expression pattern of FOXO in healthy and degenerated human IVD and the associations with IVD degeneration during mouse aging. FOXO expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in normal and degenerated human IVD samples and in cervical and lumbar IVD from 6, 12, 24, and 36-month-old C57BL/6J mice...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429284/foxo1-attenuates-naf-induced-apoptosis-of-ls8-cells-through-the-jnk-and-mitochondrial-pathways
#4
Juedan Li, Lin Zhao, Xiaomeng Zhao, Peng Wang, Yan Liu, Jianping Ruan
Fluoride-induced ameloblast apoptosis is a key event in dental fluorosis development. Forkhead box o1 (Foxo1) is a transcription factor involved in cell apoptosis. The present study aims to investigate the effect of Foxo1 on ameloblast apoptosis induced by fluoride in vitro and to explore its possible mechanism. Ameloblast-like cells (LS8 cells) were exposed to various concentrations of NaF for up to 48 h. Foxo1 activation was modulated using lentiviral vectors, and cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry...
April 20, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422956/chronic-activation-of-ppar%C3%AE-with-fenofibrate-reduces-autophagic-proteins-in-the-liver-of-mice-independent-of-fgf21
#5
Eunjung Jo, Songpei Li, Qingning Liang, Xinmei Zhang, Hao Wang, Terence P Herbert, Trisha A Jenkins, Aimin Xu, Ji-Ming Ye
Autophagy is a catabolic mechanism to degrade cellular components to maintain cellular energy levels during starvation, a condition where PPARα may be activated. Here we report a reduced autophagic capacity in the liver following chronic activation of PPARα with fenofibrate (FB) in mice. Chronic administration of the PPARα agonist FB substantially reduced the levels of multiple autophagy proteins in the liver (Atg3, Agt4B, Atg5, Atg7 and beclin 1) which were associated with a decrease in the light chain LC3II/LC3I ratio and the accumulation of p62...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422286/isorhapontigenin-induced-cell-growth-inhibition-and-apoptosis-by-targeting-egfr-related-pathways-in-prostate-cancer
#6
Cuicui Zhu, Qingyi Zhu, Zhaomeng Wu, Yingying Yin, Dan Kang, Shan Lu, Ping Liu
Isorhapontigenin (ISO), a naturally phytopolyphenol compound existing in Chinese herb, apples and various vegetables, has attracted extensive interest in recent years for its diverse pharmacological characteristics. Increasing evidences reveal that ISO can inhibit cancer cell growth by induced apoptosis, however the molecular mechanisms is not fully understood. In this study, we found for the first time that ISO apparently induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis by targeting EGFR and its downstream signal pathways in prostate cancer (PCa) cells both in vitro and in vivo, whereas no obviously effect on normal prostate cells...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419831/molecular-phenotyping-of-transient-postnatal-tyrosine-hydroxylase-neurons-in-the-rat-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis
#7
David A Carter
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a complex integrative centre in the forebrain, composed of multiple sub-nuclei, each with discrete populations of neurons. Progress in understanding BNST function, both in the adult and during postnatal maturation, is dependent upon a more complete characterization of neuronal phenotypes in the BNST. The aim of the current study was to define the molecular phenotype of one postnatal BNST neuronal population, in order to identify molecular factors that may underlie both (protein marker-related) immaturity, and secondly, the transience of this phenotype...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415598/caloric-restriction-delays-early-phases-of-carcinogenesis-via-effects-on-the-tissue-microenvironment
#8
Erika Cadoni, Fabio Marongiu, Maura Fanti, Monica Serra, Ezio Laconi
Caloric restriction (CR) is an effective and consistent means to delay aging and the incidence of chronic diseases related to old age, including cancer. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effect of CR on carcinogenic process are yet to be identified.In the present studies the hypothesis was tested that the CR might delay carcinogenesis via modulatory effects exerted on the age-associated, neoplastic-prone tissue microenvironment. Using a well characterized, orthotopic cell transplantation (Tx) system in the rat, preneoplastic hepatocytes isolated from liver nodules were injected into either old syngeneic rats fed ad libitum (AL) or animals of the same age given a CR diet (70% of AL feeding)...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410989/polycomb-repressive-complex-2-mediated-chromatin-repression-guides-effector-cd8-t-cell-terminal-differentiation-and-loss-of-multipotency
#9
Simon M Gray, Robert A Amezquita, Tianxia Guan, Steven H Kleinstein, Susan M Kaech
Understanding immunological memory formation depends on elucidating how multipotent memory precursor (MP) cells maintain developmental plasticity and longevity to provide long-term immunity while other effector cells develop into terminally differentiated effector (TE) cells with limited survival. Profiling active (H3K27ac) and repressed (H3K27me3) chromatin in naive, MP, and TE CD8(+) T cells during viral infection revealed increased H3K27me3 deposition at numerous pro-memory and pro-survival genes in TE relative to MP cells, indicative of fate restriction, but permissive chromatin at both pro-memory and pro-effector genes in MP cells, indicative of multipotency...
April 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410619/foxo1-pxk-pycard-and-samd9l-are-differentially-expressed-by-fibroblast-like-cells-in-equine-synovial-membrane-compared-to-joint-capsule
#10
Line Nymann Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl Thomsen, Alison Downing, Richard Talbot, Lise Charlotte Berg
BACKGROUND: The synovial membrane lines the luminal side of the joint capsule in synovial joints. It maintains joint homeostasis and plays a crucial role in equine joint pathology. When trauma or inflammation is induced in a joint, the synovial membrane influences progression of joint damage. Equine synovial membrane research is hampered by a lack of markers of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) to distinguish FLS from other fibroblast-like cells in musculoskeletal connective tissues...
April 14, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400445/microrna-23a-and-microrna-27a-mimic-exercise-by-ameliorating-ckd-induced-muscle-atrophy
#11
Bin Wang, Cong Zhang, Aiqing Zhang, Hui Cai, S Russ Price, Xiaonan H Wang
Muscle atrophy is a frequent complication of CKD, and exercise can attenuate the process. This study investigated the role of microRNA-23a (miR-23a) and miR-27a in the regulation of muscle mass in mice with CKD. These miRs are located in a gene cluster that is regulated by the transcription factor NFAT. CKD mice expressed less miR-23a in muscle than controls, and resistance exercise (muscle overload) increased the levels of miR-23a and miR-27a in CKD mice. Injection of an adeno-associated virus encoding the miR-23a/27a/24-2 precursor RNA into the tibialis anterior muscles of normal and CKD mice led to increases in mature miR-23a and miR-27a but not miR-24-2 in the muscles of both cohorts...
April 11, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400278/mir-101-suppresses-hbv-replication-and-expression-by-targeting-foxo1-in-hepatoma-carcinoma-cell-lines
#12
Yanjing Wang, Hui Tian
microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to participate in the progression of cancers and in the infection of viruses. miR-101 expression has been found to be suppressed by HBV, however, the regulatory relationship between miR-101 and HBV replication remains elusive. In this report, miR-101 was significantly downregulated in HepG2.2.15 cells with HBV expression. miR-101 overexpression dramatically suppressed HBV replication and expression. Oppositely, overexpression of FOXO1 significantly promoted HBV replication and expression...
April 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397066/microrna-9-promotes-the-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-breast-cancer-cells-via-down-regulating-foxo1
#13
D-Z Liu, B Chang, X-D Li, Q-H Zhang, Y-H Zou
PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to investigate the role of microRNA-9 (miR-9) targeting forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) in the proliferation, migration, and invasion of breast cancer cells. METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed to determine the expressions of miR-9 and FOXO1 mRNA in breast cancer tissues, normal breast tissues, breast cancer cell lines, and normal breast epithelial cells. After the up-regulation of miR-9 expression, qRT-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the expression of FOXO1...
April 10, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395113/a-novel-role-for-crtc2-in-hepatic-cholesterol-synthesis-via-srebp-2
#14
Yujie Li, Yongfeng Song, Meng Zhao, Yanjing Guo, Chunxiao Yu, Wenbin Chen, Shanshan Shao, Chao Xu, Xinli Zhou, Lifang Zhao, Zhenhai Zhang, Tao Bo, Yu Xia, Christopher G Proud, Xuemin Wang, Li Wang, Jiajun Zhao, Ling Gao
Cholesterol synthesis is regulated by the transcription factor SREBP-2 and its target gene 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis. CREB-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC) 2 is the master regulator of glucose metabolism. However, the effect of CRTC2 on cholesterol and its potential molecular mechanism remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that CRTC2 expression and the liver cholesterol content were increased in patients with high serum cholesterol levels who underwent resection of liver hemangiomas, as well as in mice fed a 4% cholesterol diet...
April 10, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392404/a-global-perspective-on-foxo1-in-lipid-metabolism-and-lipid-related-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Yue Li, Zhiqiang Ma, Shuai Jiang, Wei Hu, Tian Li, Shouyin Di, Dongjin Wang, Yang Yang
Lipid metabolism is a complex physiological process that is involved in nutrient adjustment, hormone regulation, and homeostasis. An unhealthy lifestyle and chronic nutrient overload can cause lipid metabolism disorders, which may lead to serious lipid-related diseases, including obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, tools for preventing dysfunctional lipid metabolism are urgently needed. The transcription factor forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) is involved in lipid metabolism and plays a critical role in the development of lipid-related diseases...
April 6, 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388573/amsh-prevents-ros-induced-apoptosis-by-inhibiting-foxo1-mtorc2-in-mice-adipose-tissue
#16
Weina Cao, Meihang Li, Tianjiao Wu, Fei Feng, Tongying Feng, Yang Xu, Chao Sun
Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH) is an important adenohypophysis polypeptide hormone that regulates body metabolic status. To date, it is well known that the disorder of hypothalamic αMSH secretion is related to many metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type II diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In our study, we focused on the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced adipocyte apoptosis and tried to unveil the role of αMSH in this process and the signal pathway which αMSH acts through...
March 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381504/insulin-receptor-substrate-signaling-controls-cardiac-energy-metabolism-and-heart-failure
#17
Cathy A Guo, Shaodong Guo
The heart is an insulin-dependent and energy consuming organ in which insulin and nutritional signaling integrates to the regulation of cardiac metabolism, growth, and survival. Heart failure is highly associated with insulin resistance and heart failure patients suffer from the cardiac energy deficiency, structural and functional dysfunction. Chronic pathological conditions, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, involve various mechanisms in promoting heart failure by remodeling metabolic pathways, modulating cardiac energetics, and impairing cardiac contractility...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380437/nell1-whose-high-expression-correlates-with-negative-outcomes-has-different-methylation-patterns-in-alveolar-and-embryonal-rhabdomyosarcoma
#18
Lucia Tombolan, Elena Poli, Paolo Martini, Angelica Zin, Chiara Romualdi, Gianni Bisogno, Gerolamo Lanfranchi
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), which represents the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma in pediatric populations, is classified into two major subtypes: embryonal RMS (ERMS) and alveolar RMS (ARMS). ARMS subtype, which shows greater aggressiveness and proneness to metastasis with respect to ERMS, are characterized, in about 75% of cases, by specific chromosomal translocations that involve PAX and FOXO1 genes. Many findings have demonstrated that PAX/FOXO1-positive ARMS have a worse prognosis than PAX/FOXO1-negative ones and that distinct molecular features characterize RMS with different gene fusion statuses...
March 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379301/embryo-arrest-and-reactivation-potential-candidates-controlling-embryonic-diapause-in-the-tammar-wallaby-and-mink1
#19
Jane C Fenelon, Geoffrey Shaw, Stephen R Frankenberg, Bruce D Murphy, Marilyn B Renfree
Embryonic diapause is period of developmental arrest which requires coordination of a molecular cross-talk between the endometrium and blastocyst to ensure a successful reactivation, but the exact mechanisms are undefined. The objectives of this study were to screen the tammar blastocyst for potential diapause control factors and to investigate the potential for members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family to coordinate reactivation. A select number of factors were also examined in the mink to determine whether their expression patterns were conserved across diapause species...
March 31, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378394/fusion-gene-addiction-can-tumours-be-forced-to-give-up-the-habit
#20
Joanna L Selfe, Janet Shipley
Fusion of genes in tumours can have oncogenic roles in reprogramming cells through overexpression of oncogenes or the production of novel fusion proteins. A fundamental question in cancer biology is what genetic events are critical for initiation and whether these are also required for cancer progression. In recent work published in The Journal of Pathology, dependency on a fusion protein was addressed using a model of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas - a sarcoma subtype with frequent fusion of PAX3 and FOXO1 genes that is associated with poor outcome...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Pathology
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