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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211522/structure-and-polymorphisms-of-the-major-histocompatibility-complex-in-the-oriental-stork-ciconia-boyciana
#1
Hiroki Tsuji, Yukio Taniguchi, Shintaro Ishizuka, Hirokazu Matsuda, Takahisa Yamada, Kazuaki Naito, Hiroaki Iwaisaki
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is highly polymorphic and plays a central role in the vertebrate immune system. Despite its functional consistency, the MHC genomic structure differs substantially among organisms. In birds, the MHCs of Galliformes and the Japanese crested ibis (Pelecaniformes) are well-characterized, but information about other avian MHCs remains scarce. The Oriental stork (Ciconia boyciana, order Ciconiiformes) is a large endangered migrant. The current Japanese population of this bird originates from a few founders; thus, understanding the genetic diversity among them is critical for effective population management...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207173/sensitivity-analysis-of-effective-population-size-to-demographic-parameters-in-house-sparrow-populations
#2
Marlene Waege Stubberud, Ane Marlene Myhre, Håkon Holand, Thomas Kvalnes, Thor Harald Ringsby, Bernt-Erik Saether, Henrik Jensen
The ratio between the effective and the census population size, Ne/N, is an important measure of the long-term viability and sustainability of a population. Understanding which demographic processes that affect Ne/N most will improve our understanding of how genetic drift and the probability of fixation of alleles is affected by demography. This knowledge may also be of vital importance in management of endangered populations and species. Here, we use data from 13 natural populations of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) in Norway to calculate the demographic parameters that determine Ne/N...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198810/reference-genes-for-quantitative-real-time-pcr-analysis-in-symbiont-entomomyces-delphacidicola-of-nilaparvata-lugens-st%C3%A3-l
#3
Pin-Jun Wan, Yao-Hua Tang, San-Yue Yuan, Jia-Chun He, Wei-Xia Wang, Feng-Xiang Lai, Qiang Fu
Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is a major rice pest that harbors an endosymbiont ascomycete fungus, Entomomyces delphacidicola str. NLU (also known as yeast-like symbiont, YLS). Driving by demand of novel population management tactics (e.g. RNAi), the importance of YLS has been studied and revealed, which greatly boosts the interest of molecular level studies related to YLS. The current study focuses on reference genes for RT-qPCR studies related to YLS. Eight previously unreported YLS genes were cloned, and their expressions were evaluated for N...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186029/the-cost-of-quality-in-diabetes
#4
Ahmad Ghany, Karim Keshavjee
The adoption and use of Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) and Electronic Health Records (EHRs) is continuing to rise in North America. These systems contain data of varying degrees of quality, including poor quality or "dirty" data. Data entered into EMRs need to be clean or of high quality for them to be useful for a variety of reasons, including quality improvement, clinical decision support, population management, research and system management. There are two potential solutions to obtaining clean data from EMRs: data discipline and data cleansing...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163504/main-neurosurgical-pathologies-in-benin-republic
#5
Hugues Jean Thierry Gandaho, Madougou Soumaila, Isaac Hoinsou-Hans, Gautier M M Djrolo, Audrey A S Zevounou, Amos O Adeleye
BACKGROUND: Benin republic is a very low-income French-speaking country in West Africa The development of Neurosurgery in the Republic of Benin took off with the arrival of the first Beninese neurosurgeons in the year 2003. AIMS: This study aims to evaluate patients' attendance in a public neurosurgical center, and appreciate populations' affordability to a new specialty. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: In the year 2004, the Benin Armed Forces established the first Department of Neurosurgery in the Nation's Military Teaching Hospital...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135293/molecular-analyses-reveal-unexpected-genetic-structure-in-iberian-ibex-populations
#6
Samer Angelone-Alasaad, Iris Biebach, Jesús M Pérez, Ramón C Soriguer, José E Granados
BACKGROUND: Genetic differentiation in historically connected populations could be the result of genetic drift or adaptation, two processes that imply a need for differing strategies in population management. The aim of our study was to use neutral genetic markers to characterize C. pyrenaica populations genetically and examine results in terms of (i) demographic history, (ii) subspecific classification and (iii) the implications for the management of Iberian ibex. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used 30 neutral microsatellite markers from 333 Iberian ibex to explore genetic diversity in the three main Iberian ibex populations in Spain corresponding to the two persisting subspecies (victoria and hispanica)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132947/an-addison-disease-revealed-with-a-serious-hyponatremia
#7
Hadrien Maguet, Agnès Carreau, Serge Hautefeuille, Pierre Bonnin, Gaspard Beaune
We present the case of an Addison's disease revealed by a serious hyponatremia. The serum concentration of ACTH and 21-hydroxylase antibodies were increased and lead to the diagnosis. The cortisol blood level was lowered but required to take into account the stress induced by the hospitalisation of the patient. Addison's disease is characterized by the destruction of the adrenal cortex. Autoimmune adrenalitis is the main cause of adrenal insufficiency. Treatment involves normalisation of sodium concentration and corticosteroids replacement...
February 1, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132720/kidney-disease-population-health-management-in-the-era-of-accountable-care-a-conceptual-framework-for-optimizing-care-across-the-ckd-spectrum
#8
Mallika L Mendu, Sushrut S Waikar, Sandhya K Rao
Since its passage in 2010, the Affordable Care Act has led to the creation of numerous accountable care organizations that face the challenge of transforming the traditional care delivery model to provide more patient-centered, high-quality, and low-cost care. Complex patients, including those with chronic kidney disease (CKD), present the most challenges and opportunities. CKD is a condition with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost and thought to be partly secondary to known gaps in care delivery. Successful population management for CKD requires consideration of the needs of patients at all phases of the disease...
January 23, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099065/exploring-variation-in-transformation-of-primary-care-practices-to-patient-centered-medical-homes-a-mixed-methods-approach
#9
Robert D Lieberthal, Tom Karagiannis, Evan Bilheimer, Manisha Verma, Colleen Payton, Mona Sarfaty, George Valko
The objective was to quantify the activities required for patient-centered medical home (PCMH) transformation in a sample of small to medium-sized National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) recognized practices, and explore barriers and facilitators to transformation. Eleven small to medium-sized PCMH practices in Southeastern Pennsylvania completed a survey, which was adapted from the 2011 NCQA standards. Semistructured follow-up interviews were conducted, descriptive statistics were computed for the quantitative analysis, and a process of thematic coding was deployed for the qualitative analysis...
January 18, 2017: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081061/vital-signs-decrease-in-incidence-of-diabetes-related-end-stage-renal-disease-among-american-indians-alaska-natives-united-states-1996-2013
#10
Ann Bullock, Nilka Ríos Burrows, Andrew S Narva, Karen Sheff, Israel Hora, Akaki Lekiachvili, Hannah Cain, David Espey
BACKGROUND: American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have the highest diabetes prevalence among any racial/ethnic group in the United States. Among AI/AN, diabetes accounts for 69% of new cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), defined as kidney failure treated with dialysis or transplantation. During 1982-1996, diabetes-related ESRD (ESRD-D) in AI/AN increased substantially and disproportionately compared with other racial/ethnic groups. METHODS: Data from the U...
January 13, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076246/care-coordination-and-population-management-services-are-more-prevalent-in-large-practices-and-patient-centered-medical-homes
#11
Miranda Moore, Lars Peterson, Megan Coffman, Yalda Jabbarpour
Despite efforts to better coordinate health care and improve population health, primary care practices may face difficulty dedicating an individual to provide these services. Using data from the American Board of Family Medicine, we found that the presence of care coordinators or population health managers was higher in larger practices and those with patient-centered medical home certification.
November 2016: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067741/hypertensive-medications-in-competitive-athletes
#12
Henry Pelto
Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disease in athletes. It is an important cause of long-term morbidity and mortality, even in a fit, athletic population. Management options to reduce these long-term risks exist that have minimal impact on athletic performance. Identification and management of underlying lifestyle factors and diseases that may lead to secondary hypertension is critical. These include substance abuse, medications, and underlying medical conditions. After evaluation and management of these issues, medications can be used to reduce blood pressure...
January 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039952/incorporating-larval-dispersal-into-mpa-design-for-both-conservation-and-fisheries
#13
Nils C Krueck, Gabby N Ahmadia, Alison Green, Geoffrey P Jones, Hugh P Possingham, Cynthia Riginos, Eric A Treml, Peter J Mumby
Larval dispersal by ocean currents is a critical component of systematic marine protected area (MPA) design. However, there is a lack of quantitative methods to incorporate larval dispersal in support of increasingly diverse management objectives, including local population persistence under multiple types of threats (primarily focused on larval retention within and dispersal between protected locations) and benefits to unprotected populations and fisheries (primarily focused on larval export from protected locations to fishing grounds)...
December 31, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018027/low-incidence-of-inbreeding-in-a-long-lived-primate-population-isolated-for-75%C3%A2-years
#14
Anja Widdig, Laura Muniz, Mirjam Minkner, Yvonne Barth, Stefanie Bley, Angelina Ruiz-Lambides, Olaf Junge, Roger Mundry, Lars Kulik
ABSTRACT: When close relatives mate, offspring are expected to suffer fitness consequences due to inbreeding depression. Inbreeding has previously been quantified in two ways: using a sufficiently large panel of markers or deep and complete pedigrees over several generations. However, the application of both approaches is still limited by the challenge of compiling such data for species with long generation times, such as primates. Here, we assess inbreeding in rhesus macaques living on Cayo Santiago (Puerto Rico), a population genetically isolated since 1938, but descendant of a large set of presumably unrelated founders...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007836/single-locus-maintains-large-variation-of-sex-reversal-in-half-smooth-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis
#15
Li Jiang, Hengde Li
Sex determination is a fundamental biological process for individual sex development and population sex ratios. However, for some species, the primary sex might be altered during development, and individuals can develop into the opposite sex. Sex reversal may happenin insects, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes. In half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), some genetically female fish irreversibly reverse to pseudo-males, resulting in higher costs in aquaculture owing to a lower growth rate of male fish during a two-year growth period...
December 22, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007580/revisiting-the-logistic-map-a-closer-look-at-the-dynamics-of-a-classic-chaotic-population-model-with-ecologically-realistic-spatial-structure-and-dispersal
#16
Laura S Storch, James M Pringle, Karen E Alexander, David O Jones
There is an ongoing debate about the applicability of chaotic and nonlinear models to ecological systems. Initial introduction of chaotic population models to the ecological literature was largely theoretical in nature and difficult to apply to real-world systems. Here, we build upon and expand prior work by performing an in-depth examination of the dynamical complexities of a spatially explicit chaotic population, within an ecologically applicable modeling framework. We pair a classic chaotic growth model (the logistic map) with explicit dispersal length scale and shape via a Gaussian dispersal kernel...
December 19, 2016: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999854/epidemiology-and-postoperative-outcomes-of-atypical-femoral-fractures-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#17
K S F Khow, P Shibu, S C Y Yu, M J Chehade, R Visvanathan
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on epidemiology and postoperative outcomes particularly surgical, functional and quality of life of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) in the older population (aged ≥65 years) using the first and second American Society of Bone Mineral Research (ASBMR) Task Force consensus definition. METHODS: Electronic search for articles on AFFs and bisphosphonates published in English was performed. Eligible studies were reviewed systematically in relation to (a) the epidemiology of AFFs in older people and (b) postoperative outcomes of AFFs...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989619/determinants-of-treatment-eligibility-in-veterans-with-hepatitis-c-viral-infection
#18
Janice Taylor, Sian Carr-Lopez, Amy Robinson, Robert Malmstrom, Karsten Duncan, Archana Maniar, A C Del Re, Jannet M Carmichael
PURPOSES: The objective of this study was to determine the percentage of veterans with active hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who were deemed to be candidates for treatment and to identify factors associated with treatment ineligibility. METHODS: This was a multisite, retrospective cohort analysis of veterans with HCV infection within the Veteran Integrated Service Network 21. Patients evaluated between August and November 2015 who were viremic and not receiving HCV treatment were included in the analysis...
January 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936048/linear-in-the-parameters-oblique-least-squares-lols-provides-more-accurate-estimates-of-density-dependent-survival
#19
Vasco M N C S Vieira, Aschwin H Engelen, Oscar R Huanel, Marie-Laure Guillemin
Survival is a fundamental demographic component and the importance of its accurate estimation goes beyond the traditional estimation of life expectancy. The evolutionary stability of isomorphic biphasic life-cycles and the occurrence of its different ploidy phases at uneven abundances are hypothesized to be driven by differences in survival rates between haploids and diploids. We monitored Gracilaria chilensis, a commercially exploited red alga with an isomorphic biphasic life-cycle, having found density-dependent survival with competition and Allee effects...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931930/urban-dogs-in-rural-areas-human-mediated-movement-defines-dog-populations-in-southern-chile
#20
Federico J Villatoro, Maximiliano A Sepúlveda, Paulina Stowhas, Eduardo A Silva-Rodríguez
Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, euthanasia and vaccination, among others. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely affected by human-mediated dog movement. If immigration is important, then the location of origin of dogs imported by humans will be fundamental to define the spatial scales over which population management and research should apply. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of dog demographic processes in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be labeled as immigrants at multiple spatial scales...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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