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"Population management"

Catalina Gutiérrez-Chacón, Felix Fornoff, Rodulfo Ospina-Torres, Alexandra-Maria Klein
The contribution of wild pollinators to food production has recently been assessed for many crops, although it remains unclear for several tropical crops. Granadilla (Passiflora ligularis Juss), a crop native to the tropical Andes, is one such crop where a gap exists regarding comprehensive knowledge about its pollination system. In a field experiment in the Colombian Andes, we 1) describe flower visitors in terms of visit quantity (visitation rate) and quality (touches of flower-reproductive structures), 2) assess the pollination system by comparing fruit set and fruit weight per flower in three pollination treatments: pollinator exclusion, open pollination, and supplementary pollination, and 3) evaluate pollination deficits (difference between open and supplementary pollination) in relation to pollinator density...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Edmond Ramly, Brad Stroik, Diane R Lauver, Heather M Johnson, Patrick McBride, Kristin Steffen Lewicki, Jon Arnason, Christie M Bartels
BACKGROUND: Rheumatologists face time pressures similar to primary care but have not generally benefitted from optimized team-based rooming during the time from the waiting room until the rheumatologist enters the room. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess current capacity for population management in rheumatology clinics; we aimed to measure the tasks performed by rheumatology clinic staff (medical assistants or nurses) during rooming. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional time-study and work-system analysis to measure rooming workflows at 3 rheumatology clinics in an academic multispecialty practice during 2014-2015...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
Sana T Saiyed, Rebecca C Liubicich, Mason Fidino, Stephen R Ross
Stillbirths, or births of infants that died in the womb, represent a failure of the materno-feto-placental unit to maintain a suitable fetal environment. Typical studies of nonhuman primate (NHP) stillbirth patterns are primarily descriptive and focus on macaques (genus Macaca). Thus, less is known about other NHP species and rarer still are studies that examine possible biological factors that influence stillbirth rates across taxa. To examine possible contributors to stillbirths in great apes, we analyzed 36 years (1980-2016) of historical data documenting births of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, N = 391), western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla, N = 491), and orangutans (Pongo spp, N = 307) in accredited zoological parks in the United States...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Yuta Yaegashi, Hidekazu Yoshioka, Koichi Unami, Masayuki Fujihara
Using a tractable singular stochastic control model, this study seeks a sustainable population management policy for the fish-eating waterfowl Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant), a major predator of riverine fish in Japan. The bird population dynamics around a habitat lake are described by a stochastic differential equation with a singular control variable representing human interventions to suppress the predation. The optimal population management policy maximizes a performance index that covers the cost of countermeasures, the loss of riverine fish, and the ecosystem services provided by the bird...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Joacim Näslund, Niklas Wengström, Fredrik Wahlqvist, David Aldvén, Libor Závorka, Johan Höjesjö
Movement activity levels of wild animals often differ consistently among individuals, reflecting different behavioural types. Previous studies have shown that lab-scored activity can predict several ecologically relevant characteristics. In an experiment on wild brown trout S. trutta, spanning from June to October, we investigated how spring swimming activity, measured in a standardized laboratory test, related to relative recapture probability in autumn. Based on lab activity scores, individuals clustered into two groups, which showed contrasting patterns in the size-dependency of their recapture probability...
May 3, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Candice Lys
The mental health of young women in the Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada, is a critical public health concern; however, there is a dearth of research that examines how this population manages mental health challenges. This study explores the self-identified strategies that female youth in the NWT use to cope with mental health issues. The arts-based qualitative method of body mapping and a trauma-informed, strengths-based approach grounded in social ecological theory was used to collect data during in-depth semi-structured interviews...
December 2018: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Brian D Gerber, William L Kendall
Conservation and management decision making in natural resources is challenging due to numerous uncertainties and unknowns, especially relating to understanding system dynamics. Adaptive resource management (ARM) is a formal process to making logical and transparent recurrent decisions when there are uncertainties about system dynamics. Despite wide recognition and calls for implementing adaptive natural resource management, applications remain limited. More common is a reactive approach to decision making, which ignores future system dynamics...
April 25, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Ulf Büntgen, Juan D Galván, Atle Mysterud, Paul J Krusic, Lisa Hülsmann, Hannes Jenny, Josef Senn, Kurt Bollmann
1.Selective hunting can affect demographic characteristics and phenotypic traits of the targeted species. Hunting systems often involve harvesting quotas based on sex, age and/or size categories to avoid selective pressure. However, it is difficult to assess if such regulations deter hunters from targeting larger 'trophy' animals with longer horns that may have evolutionary consequences. 2.Here, we compile 44'088 annually resolved and absolutely dated measurements of Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) horn growth increments from 8'355 males, harvested between 1978 and 2013, in the eastern Swiss Canton of Grisons...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Penny Wang, Dee Luo, Fengxin Lu, Josephine S Elias, Adam B Landman, Kaleb D Michaud, Yvonne C Lee
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis flares have a profound effect on patients, causing pain and disability. However, flares often occur between regularly scheduled health care provider visits and are, therefore, difficult to monitor and manage. We sought to develop a mobile phone app combined with a population management system to help track RA flares between visits. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to implement the mobile app plus the population management system to monitor rheumatoid arthritis disease activity between scheduled health care provider visits over a period of 6 months...
April 11, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Thomas Seth Davis, Andrew J Mann, Danielle Malesky, Egan Jankowski, Clifford Bradley
An isolate of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) was tested for its ability to reduce survival and reproduction of spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), under laboratory and field conditions. Conidial suspension applied directly to adults or to filter papers that adults contacted had a median survival time of 3-4 d in laboratory assays and beetles died more rapidly when exposed to conidial suspension than when treated with surfactant solution only...
March 24, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Jamal S Rana, Andrew J Karter, Jennifer Y Liu, Howard H Moffet, Marc G Jaffe
BACKGROUND: Optimal cardiovascular risk factors control among individuals with diabetes remains a challenge. We evaluated changes in glucose, lipid, and blood pressure control among diabetes patients after implementation of a large-scale population management program, known as Preventing Heart Attacks and Strokes Everyday, at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), during 2004-2013. METHODS: We used National Committee for Quality Assurance Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set cut points to identify prevalence of poor glycemic (hemoglobin A1c > 9%) control, good lipid control (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 100 mg/dL), and good blood pressure control (blood pressure < 140/90 mm Hg) in each year (N range = 97,879-22,118 over the entire period)...
March 22, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
S D Gregory, J D Armstrong, J R Britton
A general framework is presented that should enhance our understanding of how intrinsic factors, such as body size, and extrinsic factors, such as climate, affect the dynamics and demographics of fish populations. Effects of intrinsic factors, notably studies relating juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar body size to their probability to return as an adult, are often context-dependent and anecdotal, due to data constraints. By merit of its flexible specification, this framework should admit datasets with a range of situation-specific nuances, collected using different approaches, and thereby deliver more general and robust findings for more effective population management...
March 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Jeanne M Ferrante, Eric K Shaw, Jennifer E Bayly, Jenna Howard, M Nell Quest, Elizabeth C Clark, Connie Pascal
BACKGROUND: Many primary care practices participating in patient-centered medical home (PCMH) transformation initiatives are expanding the work roles of their medical assistants (MAs). Little is known about attitudes of MAs or barriers and facilitators to these role changes. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of qualitative cross-case comparison study of 15 New Jersey primary care practices participating in a PCMH project during 2012 to 2013. Observation field notes and in-depth and key informant interviews (with physicians, office managers, staff and care coordinators) were iteratively analyzed using grounded theory...
March 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Oswaldo Santos Baquero, Marcos Amaku, Ricardo Augusto Dias, José Henrique Hildebrand Grisi Filho, José Soares Ferreira Neto, Fernando Ferreira
Estimates of owned dog population size are necessary to calculate measures of disease frequency and to plan and evaluate population management programs. We calculated the error and bias of estimates of the total number of owned dogs using a two-stage cluster sampling design. The estimates were conditioned on sample composition as well as on size and heterogeneity of the spatial distribution of owned dog populations. For this, we simulated nine cities that differed systematically in size (number of census tracts) and heterogeneity (variance of the number of dogs per census tract)...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Young-Rock Hong, Frederick Kates, Soon Ju Song, Nayoung Lee, R Paul Duncan, Nicole M Marlow
Early evidence has shown that Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) have achieved some success in improving the quality of care and reducing Medicare costs. However, it has been argued that the ACO rewarding model may disproportionately affect relatively low-spending (LS; considered as efficient) organizations that have fewer options to cut unnecessary services compared with high-spending (HS; inefficient) organizations. We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective study to compare ACO financial and quality of care performance between HS-ACO and LS-ACO...
February 16, 2018: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
Hongbo Lin, Xun Tang, Peng Shen, Dudan Zhang, Jinguo Wu, Jingyi Zhang, Ping Lu, Yaqin Si, Pei Gao
INTRODUCTION: Data based on electronic health records (EHRs) are rich with individual-level longitudinal measurement information and are becoming an increasingly common data source for clinical risk prediction worldwide. However, few EHR-based cohort studies are available in China. Harnessing EHRs for research requires a full understanding of data linkages, management, and data quality in large data sets, which presents unique analytical opportunities and challenges. The purpose of this study is to provide a framework to establish a uniquely integrated EHR database in China for scientific research...
February 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Harsheen Kaur, Sunghwan Sohn, Chung-Il Wi, Euijung Ryu, Miguel A Park, Kay Bachman, Hirohito Kita, Ivana Croghan, Jose A Castro-Rodriguez, Gretchen A Voge, Hongfang Liu, Young J Juhn
BACKGROUND: Thus far, no algorithms have been developed to automatically extract patients who meet Asthma Predictive Index (API) criteria from the Electronic health records (EHR) yet. Our objective is to develop and validate a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm to identify patients that meet API criteria. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study nested in a birth cohort study in Olmsted County, MN. Asthma status ascertained by manual chart review based on API criteria served as gold standard...
February 13, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Michael Gross
The family Rhinocerotidae with many species spread around the world was a distinct feature of the global Pleistocene fauna, but most of these species are now extinct. Three of the five surviving species are critically endangered, due to habitat loss and a surge in criminal hunting for horns. To save these iconic species, conservation science will have to apply all methods at its disposal, from population management through to advanced genomics and forensics. Michael Gross reports.
January 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Jesús Nadal, Carolina Ponz, Antoni Margalida
Wild birds differ in size according to their age and sex, adult birds being larger than juveniles. In the galliforms, males are larger than females, in contrast to some groups, such as the raptors, in which the females are larger. Size generally influences the rank hierarchy within a group of birds, although the age, sex, temperament and behaviour of an individual may override its size related rank order. The scaled size of birds according to age and sex affects their physiology and behaviour. Precise details of body-size differences by age and sex are poorly known in most partridge species...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
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