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Early identification

Nigel W Beebe
Mosquitoes' importance as vectors of pathogens that drive disease underscores the importance of precise and comparable methods of taxa identification among their species. While several molecular targets have been used to study mosquitoes since the initiation of PCR in the 1980s, its application to mosquito identification took off in the early 1990s. This review follows the research's recent journey into the use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI or COX1) as a DNA barcode target for mosquito species identification - a target whose utility for discriminating mosquitoes is now escalating...
March 22, 2018: Parasitology
Ana Maria Hoyos Cadavid, E Kaminagakura, M F S D Rodrigues, C A L Pinto, T H N Teshima, F A Alves
AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and demographic features of 62 patients presenting sporadic odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) or OKCs associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). In conjunction with this, we also evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of Shh, Ptch1, Ptch2, Smo, Gli1, Gli2 and Gli3 proteins in 86 OKCs. By doing this, we add to the understanding of the biology of this type of lesion, providing tools that will help facilitate the early diagnosis of NBCCS in those patients where the first manifestation is that of OKCs...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Hesham El-Askary, Nick LaHaye, Erik Linstead, William A Sprigg, Magdi Yacoub
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a rare vascular disease that, if left untreated, can result in irreparable cardiac damage in children. While the symptoms of KD are well-known, as are best practices for treatment, the etiology of the disease and the factors contributing to KD outbreaks remain puzzling to both medical practitioners and scientists alike. Recently, a fungus known as Candida, originating in the farmlands of China, has been blamed for outbreaks in China and Japan, with the hypothesis that it can be transported over long ranges via different wind mechanisms...
October 31, 2017: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
Fatemeh Janani, Farahnaz Changaee
Introduction: Hypertension in pregnancy is one of the three factors of maternal mortality. Etiology of the disease is unknown, but the many factors contributing to the identification and control of it can be taken a step to prevent and reduce the symptoms of the disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of preeclampsia (high-blood pressure) in different seasons of the year. Methods: The present retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on more than 8,000 pregnant women visiting Assali specialized hospital from 2011 to 2013...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Ashutosh Singh, Rajendra Chaudhary, Hem C Pandey, Atul Sonker
BACKGROUND: Two new parameters low hemoglobin density (LHD) and microcytic anemia factor (Maf) have been used by Beckman-Coulter LH series analyzers as an easy screening tool for the early detection of iron deficiency. The main objective of this study was to assess if LHD and Maf could be used for assessment of iron status in blood donors and also to establish a cut-off for these two parameters at which a tentative iron deficiency could be reported conclusively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LHD% and Maf could be calculated by knowing mean cell hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, Hb, and mean cellular volume and we used SPSS in calculating LHD and Maf from these parameters...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
Ann-Kathrin Eisfeld, Jessica Kohlschmidt, Krzysztof Mrózek, James S Blachly, Christopher J Walker, Deedra Nicolet, Shelley Orwick, Sophia E Maharry, Andrew J Carroll, Richard M Stone, Albert de la Chapelle, Eunice S Wang, Jonathan E Kolitz, Bayard L Powell, John C Byrd, Clara D Bloomfield
Thus far, only 5-15% of AML patients aged ≥60 years are cured with chemotherapy. Identification of patients who are less (more) likely to respond to standard chemotherapy might enable early risk stratification toward alternative treatment regimens. We used a next-generation sequencing panel of 80 cancer- and/or leukemia-associated genes to profile molecularly 423 older patients with de novo AML. Using variables identified in multivariable models and co-occurring mutations in NPM1-mutated AML, we classified the patients into good-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups for complete remission (CR) attainment, disease-free (DFS), and overall survival (OS)...
February 25, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Fei Chen, Yong Peng, Mao Chen
Cardiac involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) attracts more attention than it ever did because of its morbidity and impact on worse prognosis, although the accurate information needs further epidemiological studies. Early identification and intervention for the diseased heart may help improve the clinical outcomes of IIMs with cardiac involvement. Cardiac troponin assays, allowing for sensitive detection of minor myocardium injury, may provide a new way for early detection for heart involvement in IIMs...
March 20, 2018: International Heart Journal
Yuxia Gao, Wenqiang Wang, Tian Zhang, Zhen Gong, Huayao Zhao, Guan-Zhu Han
During plant-pathogen interactions, plants use intracellular proteins with nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) domains to detect pathogens. NBS-LRR proteins represent a major class of plant disease resistance genes (R-genes). Whereas R-genes have been well characterized in angiosperms, little is known about their origin and early diversification. Here we perform comprehensive evolutionary analyses of R-genes in plants and report the identification of R-genes in basal-branching streptophytes, including charophytes, liverworts, and mosses...
March 21, 2018: Plant Physiology
Maria Bjerke, Sebastiaan Engelborghs
An accurate and early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is important to select optimal patient care and is critical in current clinical trials targeting core AD neuropathological features. The past decades, much progress has been made in the development and validation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for the biochemical diagnosis of AD, including standardization and harmonization of (pre-) analytical procedures. This has resulted in three core CSF biomarkers for AD diagnostics, namely the 42 amino acid long amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ1-42), total tau protein (T-tau), and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (P-tau181)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Eliza de Almeida Gripp, Gabriela Escudini de Oliveira, Luiz Augusto Feijó, Marcelo Iorio Garcia, Sergio Salles Xavier, Andréa Silvestre de Sousa
BACKGROUND: The high cardiotoxicity morbidity and mortality rates associated with the antineoplastic therapy for breast cancer could be reduced with the early use of cardioprotective drugs. However, the low sensitivity of left ventricular ejection fraction limits its use in that preventive strategy. New parameters, such as global longitudinal strain, are being used in the early detection of contractile function changes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence of cardiotoxicity in patients treated for breast cancer, the independent factors associated with that event, and the ability of strain to identify it early...
February 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
William Abouhassan, John Kuang Chao, Ananth S Murthy
BACKGROUND: Craniosynostosis is an uncommon complication after shunting procedures for congenital hydrocephalus. We report a case of a child with myelomeningocele and normocephaly at the time of birth. She underwent ventricular shunting for Chiari malformation and hydrocephalus at 3 days of age. An immediate postoperative CT scan confirmed all sutures were open. Serial CT scans document an open metopic suture at 2 months, closed metopic suture at 5 months, and trigonocephaly at 11 months with concomitant slit ventricle syndrome, and collapsed lateral and third ventricles...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Z X Ren, C L Liu, Q Zhang, F Xu, Y N Zheng, X J Li, J Yang
RATIONALE: Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a life-threatening situation that is rare in children, especially infants, and early diagnosis is challenging. Timely identification and broad-spectrum antibiotic and supportive treatment before surgical debridement are very important for survival and may reduce scar formation. PATIENT CONCERNS: A previously healthy 4-month-old infant was admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with a history of fever and cough for 5 days and extreme swelling of the scrotum for one day...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Seth Wiener, Kiwako Ito, Shari R Speer
This study examines the perceptual trade-off between knowledge of a language's statistical regularities and reliance on the acoustic signal during L2 spoken word recognition. We test how early learners track and make use of segmental and suprasegmental cues and their relative frequencies during non-native word recognition. English learners of Mandarin were taught an artificial tonal language in which a tone's informativeness for word identification varied according to neighborhood density. The stimuli mimicked Mandarin's uneven distribution of syllable+tone combinations by varying syllable frequency and the probability of particular tones co-occurring with a particular syllable...
March 1, 2018: Language and Speech
Ariel M Brettholz, Sabrina Opiola Mccauley
Mucormycosis is a rare invasive fungal infection that affects immunocompromised patients and is fatal when not identified and treated early. Diagnosis is often delayed as the symptoms are nonspecific and frequently mimic other common diseases. Pediatric patients with cancer are at risk for the infection; however, there is limited research that applies directly to the pediatric population. An understanding of the risk factors and clinical presentation of mucormycosis is crucial for the pediatric oncology provider to initiate the workup and provide prompt treatment...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
Salpie Nowinski, Aida Santaolalla, Ben O'Leary, Massimo Loda, Ayesha Mirchandani, Mark Emberton, Mieke Van Hemelrijck, Anita Grigoriadis
Novel approaches for classification, including molecular features, are needed to direct therapy for men with low-grade prostate cancer (PCa), especially men on active surveillance. Risk alleles identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) could improve prognostication. Those risk alleles that coincided with genes and somatic copy number aberrations associated with progression of PCa were selected as the most relevant for prognostication. In a systematic literature review, a total of 698 studies were collated...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Po-Chen Chu, Peng-Chan Lin, Hsing-Yu Wu, Kuen-Tyng Lin, Christina Wu, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Yih-Jyh Lin, Chung-Ta Lee, Jeng-Chang Lee, Ching-Shih Chen
Although the role of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) in promoting colorectal liver metastasis is known, the mechanism by which IGF-IR is upregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) is not defined. In this study, we obtained evidence that mutant KRAS transcriptionally activates IGF-IR gene expression through Y-box-binding protein (YB)-1 upregulation via a novel MEK-Sp1-DNMT1-miR-137 pathway in CRC cells. The mechanistic link between the tumor suppressive miR-137 and the translational regulation of YB-1 is intriguing because epigenetic silencing of miR-137 represents an early event in colorectal carcinogenesis due to promoter hypermethylation...
March 21, 2018: Oncogene
Xiaomu Wei, M Nieves Calvo-Vidal, Siwei Chen, Gang Wu, Maria V Revuelta, Jian Sun, Jinghui Zhang, Michael F Walsh, Kim E Nichols, Vijai Joseph, Carrie Snyder, Celine M Vachon, James D McKay, Shu-Ping Wang, David S Jayabalan, Lauren M Jacobs, Dina Becirovic, Rosalie G Waller, Mykyta Artomov, Agnes Viale, Jayeshkumar Patel, Jude M Phillip, Selina Chen-Kiang, Karen Curtin, Mohamed Salama, Djordje Atanackovic, Ruben Niesvizky, Ola Landgren, Susan L Slager, Lucy A Godley, Jane Churpek, Judy E Garber, Kenneth C Anderson, Mark J Daly, Robert G Roeder, Charles Dumontet, Henry T Lynch, Charles G Mullighan, Nicola J Camp, Kenneth Offit, Robert J Klein, Haiyuan Yu, Leandro Cerchietti, Steven M Lipkin
Given the frequent and largely incurable occurrence of multiple myeloma (MM), identification of germline genetic mutations that predispose cells to MM may provide insight into disease etiology and the developmental mechanisms of its cell of origin, the plasma cell. Here we identified familial and early-onset MM kindreds with truncating mutations in lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A), an epigenetic transcriptional repressor that primarily demethylates histone H3 on lysine 4 and regulates hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal...
March 20, 2018: Cancer Research
Jared Brazg, Phyllis Huang, Corey Weiner, Guneet Singh, Antonios Likourezos, Linda Salem, Eitan Dickman, John Marshall
IMPORTANCE: Emergency Physicians often rely on Lactic Acid (LA) values to make important clinical decisions. Accuracy of LA values improve when blood gas analysis is performed in the emergency department (ED) as opposed to a satellite laboratory (SL). OBJECTIVE: To investigate an association between blood gas laboratory location and accuracy of ED lactic acid samples. METHODS: The study team evaluated lactic acid values from venous and arterial blood gas samples drawn between June 1, 2015 and September 30, 2016...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
U Yılmaz, Ö Batum, H Koparal, E Özbilek, E Kıraklı
OBJECTIVES: Concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is widely used in the treatment of patients with stage iii non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The early identification of patients with poor prognosis is the premise of personalized treatment for patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of clinical parameters and primary tumor SUVmax on pre-treatment18 F-FDG PET/CT in patients with stage iii NSCLC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical records of 79 stage iii-NSCLC patients with pre-treatment18 F-FDG PET/CT imaging, treated with definitive CCRT were retrospectively reviewed...
March 17, 2018: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
M de Freitas Ferreira, C L de Moraes, J U Braga, M E Reichenheim, G V da Veiga
OBJECTIVE: To present a predictive model of alcohol abuse among adolescents based on prevalence projections in various population subgroups. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: The sample consisted of 785 adolescents enrolled in the second year of high school in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Alcohol consumption was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Socio-economic, demographic, family, individuals, and school-related variables were examined as potential predictors...
March 17, 2018: Public Health
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