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Leukotrienes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932020/role-of-the-cysteinyl-leukotrienes-in-the-pathogenesis-and-progression-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Francesca Colazzo, Paolo Gelosa, Elena Tremoli, Luigi Sironi, Laura Castiglioni
Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are potent lipid inflammatory mediators synthesized from arachidonic acid, through the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway. Owing to their properties, CysLTs play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammation; therefore, CysLT modifiers as synthesis inhibitors or receptor antagonists, central in asthma management, may become a potential target for the treatment of other inflammatory diseases such as the cardiovascular disorders. 5-LO pathway activation and increased expression of its mediators and receptors are found in cardiovascular diseases...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928804/efficacy-of-a-leukotriene-receptor-antagonist-for-pediatric-cedar-pollen-allergy-complicated-by-asthma
#2
Shigemi Yoshihara, Yutaka Kikuchi, Mari Saitou, Susumu Yanagawa, Noriko Kanno, Hiroshi Igarashi, Hironobu Fukuda, Akiko Iimura, Toshio Abe, Yumi Yamada, Tamotsu Andou, Osamu Arisaka
Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are identified as a monotherapy for asthma and allergic rhinitis; however, their use in children for treatment of these diseases has not been examined. Accordingly, the present study investigated the efficacy of pranlukast dry syrup for children with both pollinosis and asthma. The subjects were children receiving treatment for asthma who were also diagnosed with cedar pollen allergy. Patients were divided into a group that received continuous treatment with pranlukast (group A; n=20) and a group that commenced add-on treatment for pollinosis following the onset of symptoms (group B; n=20)...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927849/metabolome-wide-association-study-of-peripheral-parasitemia-in-plasmodium-vivax-malaria
#3
Luiz Gustavo Gardinassi, Regina Joice Cordy, Marcus V G Lacerda, Jorge L Salinas, Wuelton M Monteiro, Gisely C Melo, André M Siqueira, Fernando F Val, ViLinh Tran, Dean P Jones, Mary R Galinski, Shuzhao Li
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is one of the leading causes of malaria worldwide. Infections with this parasite cause diverse clinical manifestations, and recent studies revealed that infections with P. vivax can result in severe and fatal disease. Despite these facts, biological traits of the host response and parasite metabolism during P. vivax malaria are still largely underexplored. Parasitemia is clearly related to progression and severity of malaria caused by P. falciparum, however the effects of parasitemia during infections with P...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922396/biochemical-and-immunological-characterization-of-a-novel-monoclonal-antibody-against-mouse-leukotriene-b4-receptor-1
#4
Fumiyuki Sasaki, Tomoaki Koga, Kazuko Saeki, Toshiaki Okuno, Saiko Kazuno, Tsutomu Fujimura, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Takehiko Yokomizo
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) receptor 1 (BLT1) is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in various leukocyte subsets; however, the precise expression of mouse BLT1 (mBLT1) has not been reported because a mBLT1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) has not been available. In this study, we present the successful establishment of a hybridoma cell line (clone 7A8) that produces a high-affinity mAb for mBLT1 by direct immunization of BLT1-deficient mice with mBLT1-overexpressing cells. The specificity of clone 7A8 was confirmed using mBLT1-overexpressing cells and mouse peripheral blood leukocytes that endogenously express BLT1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919798/comparative-effects-of-the-%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-derivatives-resolvins-e1-and-d1-and-protectin-dx-in-models-of-inflammation-and-pain
#5
Flávia Cs Fonseca, Ricardo M Orlando, Regina Mm Turchetti-Maia, Janetti Nogueira de Francischi
PURPOSE: Specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs), also known as lipoxins, resolvins (Rvs), protectins and maresins, have been implicated in the resolution of the inflammatory process. However, a systematic comparison of their activity in the relief of inflammation and pain models is still lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of Rvs E1 and D1 and protectin DX (PDX) were assessed in rat paws inflamed by the standard proinflammatory stimulus carrageenan or by histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, substance P or prostaglandin E2...
2017: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919375/the-association-between-leukotriene-modifying-agents-and-suicidality-a-review-of-literature
#6
REVIEW
Faiza Khalid, Awais Aftab, Sumita Khatri
BACKGROUND: In 2008 Food and Drug Administration issued a warning regarding a possible association between leukotriene-modifying agents and suicidality. OBJECTIVE: The warning remains controversial and this review of literature is an attempt to examine the evidence on the matter. METHODS: Literature search on PubMed. RESULTS: The data supporting a relationship between leukotriene-modifying agents and suicidality comes primarily from reviews of individual safety reports in adverse event databases; it is subject to considerable reporting bias and does not control for confounding factors...
August 9, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914193/chalcone-derivatives-anti-inflammatory-potential-and-molecular-targets-perspectives
#7
Debarshi Kar Mahapatra, Sanjay Kumar Bharti, Vivek Asati
Chalcone or (E)-1,3-diphenyl-2-propene-1-one scaffold has gained considerable scientific interest in medicinal chemistry owing to its simple chemistry, ease in synthesizing a variety of derivatives and exhibiting a broad range of promising pharmacological activities by modulating several molecular targets. A number of natural and (semi-) synthetic chalcone derivatives have demonstrated admirable anti-inflammatory activity due to their inhibitory potential against various therapeutic targets like cyclooxygenase (COX), lipooxygenase (LOX), interleukins (IL), prostaglandins (PGs), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), leukotriene D4 (LTD4), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and TLR4/MD-2, etc...
September 14, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913986/chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-pathogenesis-and-treatment-considerations
#8
REVIEW
Allen P Kaplan
The treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria begins with antihistamines; however, the dose required typically exceeds that recommended for allergic rhinitis. Second-generation, relatively non-sedating H₁-receptor blockers are typically employed up to 4 times a day. First-generation antihistamines, such as hydroxyzine or diphenhydramine (Atarax or Benadryl), were employed similarly in the past. Should high-dose antihistamines fail to control symptoms (at least 50%), omalizumab at 300 mg/month is the next step...
November 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912850/effects-of-leukotriene-b4-on-interleukin-32-interferon-%C3%AE-and-chemokines-in-rats-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
Danyan Bi, Danqing Bi, Ming Zhong, Hong Zhang, Song Jin, Sha Ma, Huayou Luo
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) on the expression of interleukin-32 (IL-32) interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) and macrophage inhibitory protein (MIP-1α) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The rat model of RA collagen induced-arthritis (CIA) was established. The levels of LTB4, interleukin-32, IFN-γ and chemokines MCP-1 and MIP-1α in CIA rats were detected by ELISA. After the rat synovial cells were isolated and treated with different concentrations of LTB4, the effect of LTB4 the expression of IL-32, IFN-γ and chemokines MCP-1 and MIP-1α mRNA in synovial cells was detected by real-time quantitative PCR, the effect of LTB4 on protein expression was detected by immunoblotting...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911841/the-consistency-and-influence-of-environmental-and-animal-factors-on-exhaled-breath-condensate-hydrogen-peroxide-ph-and-leukotriene-b4-in-horses
#10
S du Preez, S L Raidal, G S Doran, S G Nielsen, K J Hughes
This study was performed to determine the consistency of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), pH and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) measurements in asymptomatic horses and to define the influence of environmental and animal factors on these variables. Intra- and inter-day consistency for both H2O2 and pH measurements were adequate, with intraclass correlation coefficients ≥0.8, whereas the consistency for LTB4 was poor. H2O2 was influenced by ambient temperature (TA), humidity, time of day and collection location (all P<0...
August 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904551/suppressive-effect-of-the-n-hexane-extract-of-litsea-japonica-fruit-flesh-on-monosodium-iodoacetate-induced-osteoarthritis-in-rats
#11
Seung-Hyung Kim, Hye-Jin Choi, Won-Kyung Yang, Ji-Eun Lee, Ju-Hyun Cho, In-Jae Park, Sunyoung Park, Bo-Kyung Park, Mirim Jin
We examined the antiosteoarthritic effect of the n-hexane extract of Litsea japonica fruit flesh (LJF-HE) in a rat model of monosodium-iodoacetate- (MIA-) induced osteoarthritis. LJF-HE significantly reduced the difference in weight-bearing capabilities of the hind paws between healthy and MIA-treated rats. Histological examination of the knee joints indicated that LJF-HE suppressed cartilage and bone destruction. Additionally, there were decreases in the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 and cyclooxygenase-2 in the joints...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900017/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-inflammatory-processes-from-molecules-to-man
#12
REVIEW
Philip C Calder
Inappropriate, excessive or uncontrolled inflammation contributes to a range of human diseases. Inflammation involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators and interactions. The present article will describe nutritional and metabolic aspects of omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and explain the roles of bioactive members of those fatty acid families in inflammatory processes. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are n-3 fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements...
September 12, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894350/short-term-regulation-of-fc%C3%AE-r-mediated-phagocytosis-by-tlrs-in-macrophages-participation-of-5-lipoxygenase-products
#13
Carla da S Pinheiro, Ana Paula T Monteiro, Fabiano F Dutra, Marcelo T Bozza, Marc Peters-Golden, Claudia F Benjamim, Claudio Canetti
TLRs recognize a broad spectrum of microorganism molecules, triggering a variety of cellular responses. Among them, phagocytosis is a critical process for host defense. Leukotrienes (LTs), lipid mediators produced from 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) enzyme, increase FcγR-mediated phagocytosis. Here, we evaluated the participation of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis and whether this process is modulated by LTs. Rat alveolar macrophages (AMs), murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) treated with TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 agonists, but not TLR9, enhanced IgG-opsonized sheep red blood cell (IgG-sRBC) phagocytosis...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892748/microsomal-glutathione-transferase-2-modulates-ltc4-synthesis-and-ros-production-in-apostichopus-japonicus
#14
Zhen Zhang, Zhimeng Lv, Zhixin Wei, Chenghua Li, Yina Shao, Weiwei Zhang, Xuelin Zhao, Jinbo Xiong
Microsomal glutathione transferase 2 (mGST2) is an integral membrane protein involved in detoxication of xenobiotics, and has also been suggested to catalyze the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene C4 (LTC4) as homologous to LTC4 synthase (LTC4S) in mammals. In the present study, a novel mGST2 homology was identified from Apostichopus japonicus (designated as AjmGST2) by RACE approaches. The full-length cDNA of AjmGST2 was of 1917bp encoding a polypeptide of 161 amino acids residues. Multiple sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis together supported that AjmGST2 belonged to a new member in invertebrate mGSTs family and close to mammalian LTC4S...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891085/lipopolysaccharide-and-cytokines-modulate-leukotriene-lt-b4-and-ltc4-production-by-porcine-endometrial-endothelial-cells
#15
J Czarzasta, K Meller, A Andronowska, B Jana
Uterine inflammatory response is mediated by inflammatory mediators including eicosanoids and cytokines produced by immune and endometrial cells. Interactions between lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cytokines, and leukotrienes (LTs) in endothelium, important for the host defence during the inflammation, are unknown. We studied the effect of LPS, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4 and IL-10 on 5-lipooxygenase (5-LO), LTA4  hydrolase (LTAH) and LTC4 synthase (LTCS) mRNA and protein expression, LTB4 and LTC4 release from porcine endometrial endothelial cells, and cell viability...
September 11, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890990/child-with-allergies-or-allergic-reactions
#16
REVIEW
Reshma A, Arun K Baranwal
Incidence of allergic disorders in children has increased significantly over time due to environmental and life-style changes. These include allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, allergic conjunctivitis, food allergies, bronchial asthma, drug allergies, insect bites and anaphylaxis; most being IgE-mediated type 1 hypersensitivity reactions to common environmental and food antigens. Although most of them are self-limiting, they may adversely affect the quality of life and sometimes become life-threatening as well...
September 11, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888846/diagnostic-accuracy-of-urinary-lte4-measurement-to-predict-aspirin-exacerbated-respiratory-disease-in-patients-with-asthma
#17
Grazyna Bochenek, Tomasz Stachura, Krystyna Szafraniec, Hanna Plutecka, Marek Sanak, Ewa Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, Krzysztof Sladek
BACKGROUND: Patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) are distinguished from patients with aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) by significantly higher baseline concentrations of urinary leukotriene E4 (uLTE4). However, an overlap between the individual values of the groups exists. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the discriminative value of uLTE4 concentration in differentiating between patients with AERD and patients with ATA and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of uLTE4 measurement alone and added to clinical parameters to predict AERD diagnosis in patients with asthma...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887514/dormant-5-lipoxygenase-in-inflammatory-macrophages-is-triggered-by-exogenous-arachidonic-acid
#18
Carlos A Sorgi, Simona Zarini, Sarah A Martin, Raphael L Sanchez, Rodrigo F Scandiuzzi, Miguel A Gijón, Carlos Guijas, Nicolas Flamand, Robert C Murphy, Lucia H Faccioli
The differentiation of resident tissue macrophages from embryonic precursors and that of inflammatory macrophages from bone marrow cells leads to macrophage heterogeneity. Further plasticity is displayed through their ability to be polarized as subtypes M1 and M2 in a cell culture microenvironment. However, the detailed regulation of eicosanoid production and its involvement in macrophage biology remains unclear. Using a lipidomics approach, we demonstrated that eicosanoid production profiles between bone marrow-derived (BMDM) and peritoneal macrophages differed drastically...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887431/neutrophil-derived-cytosolic-pla2%C3%AE-contributes-to-bacterial-induced-neutrophil-transepithelial-migration
#19
Lael M Yonker, Michael A Pazos, Bernard B Lanter, Hongmei Mou, Kengyeh K Chu, Alexander D Eaton, Joseph V Bonventre, Guillermo J Tearney, Jayaraj Rajagopal, Bryan P Hurley
Eicosanoids are a group of bioactive lipids that are shown to be important mediators of neutrophilic inflammation; selective targeting of their function confers therapeutic benefit in a number of diseases. Neutrophilic airway diseases, including cystic fibrosis, are characterized by excessive neutrophil infiltration into the airspace. Understanding the role of eicosanoids in this process may reveal novel therapeutic targets. The eicosanoid hepoxilin A3 is a pathogen-elicited epithelial-produced neutrophil chemoattractant that directs transepithelial migration in response to infection...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884989/hydroxychloroquine-in-the-treatment-of-anti-histamine-refractory-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-randomized-single-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial-and-an-open-label-comparison-study
#20
T Boonpiyathad, A Sangasapaviliya
Background. The management of anti-histamine refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) has poorly defined therapeutic options. Some patients with CSU respond poorly to a fourfold increase in dosage of H1-anti-histamines treatment. Aim. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of an adjunct treatment of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on remission rate and reduction of urticarial symptoms. Methods. Sixty subjects with anti-histamine refractory CSU were randomly assigned to 400 mg of HCQ daily or placebo for 12 weeks in a single blind placebo controlled trial...
September 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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