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Oncolytic immunotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329556/cancer-immunotherapy-beyond-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#1
REVIEW
Julian A Marin-Acevedo, Aixa E Soyano, Bhagirathbhai Dholaria, Keith L Knutson, Yanyan Lou
Malignant cells have the capacity to rapidly grow exponentially and spread in part by suppressing, evading, and exploiting the host immune system. Immunotherapy is a form of oncologic treatment directed towards enhancing the host immune system against cancer. In recent years, manipulation of immune checkpoints or pathways has emerged as an important and effective form of immunotherapy. Agents that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) are the most widely studied and recognized...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328445/the-effects-of-interleukin-2-and-rad-p53-as-a-treatment-for-glioblastoma
#2
Hai-Bo Qiao, Jia Li, Lian-Jie Lv, Ben-Jin Nie, Peng Lu, Feng Xue, Zhi-Ming Zhang
Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is an anti-cancer cytokine that stimulates T cell propagation, triggering innate and adaptive immunity. IL-2 has been used for cancer therapy and has achieved curative effects. Recombinant adenovirus p53 injection (rAd‑p53) is a gene therapeutic agent that may improve the prognosis of patients with glioblastoma (GBM). In the present study, the effect of combined IL‑2 and rAd‑p53 treatment was studied. The ability of IL‑2 to stimulate immunoregulation and the ability of p53 to induce apoptosis for GBM was researched in the GBM tumor model...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311387/critical-interactions-between-immunogenic-cancer-cell-death-oncolytic-viruses-and-the-immune-system-define-the-rational-design-of-combination-immunotherapies
#3
REVIEW
Jacob P van Vloten, Samuel T Workenhe, Sarah K Wootton, Karen L Mossman, Byram W Bridle
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are multimodal cancer therapeutics, with one of their dominant mechanisms being in situ vaccination. There is a growing consensus that optimal cancer therapies should generate robust tumor-specific immune responses. Immunogenic cell death (ICD) is a paradigm of cellular demise culminating in the spatiotemporal release of danger-associated molecular patterns that induce potent anticancer immunity. Alongside traditional ICD inducers like anthracycline chemotherapeutics and radiation, OVs have emerged as novel members of this class of therapeutics...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306950/immune-consequences-of-in-vitro-infection-of-human-peripheral-blood-leukocytes-with-vesicular-stomatitis-virus
#4
Tomasz Tomczyk, Grażyna Wróbel, Radosław Chaber, Iwona Siemieniec, Egbert Piasecki, Małgorzata Krzystek-Korpacka, Beata U Orzechowska
BACKGROUND: Oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can be delivered intravenously to target primary and metastatic lesions, but the interaction between human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and VSV remains poorly understood. Our study aimed to assess the overall immunological consequences of ex vivo infection of PBLs with VSV. METHODS: Phenotypic analysis of lymphocyte subsets and apoptosis were evaluated with flow cytometry. Caspase 3/7 activity was detected by luminescence assay...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300685/development-of-novel-vaccine-vectors-chimpanzee-adenoviral-vectors
#5
Jingao Guo, Moumita Mondal, Dongming Zhou
Adenoviral vector has been employed as one of the most efficient means against infectious diseases and cancer. It can be genetically modified and armed with foreign antigens to elicit specific antibody responses and T cell responses in hosts as well as engineered to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The chimpanzee adenovirus-based vector is one kind of novel vaccine carriers whose unique features and non-reactivity to pre-existing human adenovirus neutralizing antibodies makes it an outstanding candidate for vaccine research and development...
January 4, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298869/intravenous-delivery-of-oncolytic-reovirus-to-brain-tumor-patients-immunologically-primes-for-subsequent-checkpoint-blockade
#6
Adel Samson, Karen J Scott, David Taggart, Emma J West, Erica Wilson, Gerard J Nuovo, Simon Thomson, Robert Corns, Ryan K Mathew, Martin J Fuller, Timothy J Kottke, Jill M Thompson, Elizabeth J Ilett, Julia V Cockle, Philip van Hille, Gnanamurthy Sivakumar, Euan S Polson, Samantha J Turnbull, Elizabeth S Appleton, Gemma Migneco, Ailsa S Rose, Matthew C Coffey, Deborah A Beirne, Fiona J Collinson, Christy Ralph, D Alan Anthoney, Christopher J Twelves, Andrew J Furness, Sergio A Quezada, Heiko Wurdak, Fiona Errington-Mais, Hardev Pandha, Kevin J Harrington, Peter J Selby, Richard G Vile, Stephen D Griffin, Lucy F Stead, Susan C Short, Alan A Melcher
Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including those targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), are reshaping cancer therapeutic strategies. Evidence suggests, however, that tumor response and patient survival are determined by tumor programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. We hypothesized that preconditioning of the tumor immune microenvironment using targeted, virus-mediated interferon (IFN) stimulation would up-regulate tumor PD-L1 protein expression and increase cytotoxic T cell infiltration, improving the efficacy of subsequent checkpoint blockade...
January 3, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284308/fighting-cancer-with-viruses-oncolytic-virus-therapy-in-china
#7
Ding Wei, Jing Xu, Xinyuan Liu, Zhi-Nan Chen, Huijie Bian
Oncolytic virus has the special property with selective infection of tumor cells, leading to oncolysis of cancer cells and minimal toxicity to normal tissues, which is administrated in cancer therapy called oncolytic virotherapy. As a biological agent, oncolytic virus could induce tumor cell lysis, local immunological reaction, and enhance systemic anti-tumor immunity. These immune stimulatory properties of oncolytic virus will provide enormous benefits to override cancer. Nowadays, a great variety of oncolytic viruses including genetically engineered and natural viruses have shown promise in preclinical models and clinical studies...
December 28, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277767/antitumor-memory-t-cells-become-functionally-mature-from-30-to-100-days-in-a-mouse-model-of-neoplasia
#8
Yanhua Gao, Mamdouha A Barmada, Ira Bergman
BACKGROUND: Late metastases develop from cancer of the breast, prostate, lung, kidney and malignant melanomas. Memory T-cells have excellent potential to prevent this devastating development in the same way that they routinely prevent emergence of latent viruses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A peritoneal tumor mouse model of viral oncotherapy was used to generate therapeutic antitumor memory T-cells. Functional in vivo and in vitro assays were used to study the temporal evolution of their anticancer effects...
January 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275092/antitumor-benefits-of-antiviral-immunity-an-underappreciated-aspect-of-oncolytic-virotherapies
#9
REVIEW
Shashi Gujar, Jonathan G Pol, Youra Kim, Patrick W Lee, Guido Kroemer
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) represent a new class of cancer immunotherapeutics. Administration of OVs to cancer-bearing hosts induces two distinct immunities: antiviral and antitumor. While antitumor immunity is beneficial, antiviral immune responses are often considered detrimental for the efficacy of OV-based therapy. The existing dogma postulates that anti-OV immune responses restrict viral replication and spread, and thus reduce direct OV-mediated killing of cancer cells. Accordingly, a myriad of therapeutic strategies aimed at mitigating anti-OV immune responses is presently being tested...
December 20, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249394/vanadium-a-panacea-for-resistance-to-oncolytic-immunotherapy
#10
Dmitriy Zamarin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239458/treatment-of-advanced-melanoma-a-changing-landscape
#11
Adriana Hepner, Alessandra Salgues, Carlos A Dos Anjos, Marina Sahade, Veridiana P Camargo, Bernardo Garicochea, Alexander N Shoushtari, Michael A Postow, Gustavo S Fernandes, Rodrigo R Munhoz
Following decades of relative ostracism, advances in the treatment of melanoma have brought a new reality for patients, physicians and researchers. While antibodies targeting molecules involved in the modulation of the interaction between melanoma and immune cells changed the meaning of the term "cancer immunotherapy," a better characterization of the molecular aberrations involved in melanoma carcinogenesis prompted the development of inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (MAPK) that also led to significant improvements both in response rates and survival...
September 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239191/-advances-in-immunotherapy-of-malignant-melanoma
#12
I Krajsová
Development of immunotherapy has dramatically changed poor prognosis of metastatic malignant melanoma (MM). Inhibition of immune checkpoints represents a new effective treatment. Monoclonal antibodies against CTLA-4 ipilimumab and against PD-1 (programme death 1) nivolumab and pembrolizumab prolong progression free survival and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced metastatic MM. Both achieved significant improvement in relapse-free survival and OS also in adjuvant setting. It looks like the efficacy of the combined immunotherapy of ipilimumab with anti-PD-1 antibodies is superior to the monotherapy, but combined therapy is accompanied by higher toxicity...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238906/thyroid-dysfunctions-secondary-to-cancer-immunotherapy
#13
REVIEW
P Chalan, G Di Dalmazi, F Pani, A De Remigis, A Corsello, P Caturegli
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy is a firmly established pillar in the treatment of cancer, alongside the traditional approaches of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Like every treatment, also cancer immunotherapy causes a diverse spectrum of side effects, collectively referred to as immune-related adverse events. OBJECTIVE: This review will examine the main forms of immunotherapy, the proposed mechanism(s) of action, and the incidence of thyroid dysfunctions. METHODS: A comprehensive MEDLINE search was performed for articles published up to March 30, 2017...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220291/emerging-targeted-and-immune-based-therapies-in-sarcoma
#14
Seth M Pollack, Matthew Ingham, Matthew B Spraker, Gary K Schwartz
Soft tissue and bone sarcomas are malignancies of mesenchymal origin, and more than 50 subtypes are defined. For most sarcomas, locally advanced or unresectable disease is still treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy. Recently, our understanding of subtype-specific cancer biology has expanded, and it has revealed distinct molecular alterations responsible for tumor initiation and progression. These findings have motivated the development of targeted therapies that are being evaluated in subtype-specific or biomarker-driven clinical trials...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209782/advances-in-immunotherapeutic-research-for-glioma-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Jeremy Tetsuo Miyauchi, Stella E Tsirka
Gliomas are primary malignancies of the brain. Tumors are staged based on malignancy, nuclear atypia, and infiltration of the surrounding brain parenchyma. Tumors are often diagnosed once patients become symptomatic, at which time the lesion is sizable. Glioblastoma (grade IV glioma) is highly aggressive and difficult to treat. Most tumors are diagnosed de novo. The gold standard of therapy, implemented over a decade ago, consists of fractionated radiotherapy and temozolomide, but unfortunately, chemotherapeutic resistance arises...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201631/infection-a-cause-of-and-cure-for-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Jenna H Newman, Andrew Zloza
Purpose of Review: This article provides a brief overview of the role that infections play in cancer emergence and cancer treatment. Recent Findings: A select number of pathogens have been reported to increase the incidence of specific cancers (directly through altering gene expression or indirectly through inducing chronic inflammation). These have been referred to as oncogenic pathogens. Conversely, a subset of pathogens has been demonstrated to preferentially cause lysis of tumor cells, leading to tumor regression and improved anti-tumor immunity...
2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176501/phase-iiib-safety-results-from-an-expanded-access-protocol-of-talimogene-laherparepvec-for-patients-with-unresected-stage-iiib-ivm1c-melanoma
#17
Jason Chesney, Sanjay Awasthi, Brendan Curti, Laura Hutchins, Gerald Linette, Pierre Triozzi, Marcus C B Tan, Russell E Brown, John Nemunaitis, Eric Whitman, Christopher Windham, Jose Lutzky, Gerald F Downey, Nicolas Batty, Thomas Amatruda
Talimogene laherparepvec is a genetically modified herpes simplex virus-1-based oncolytic immunotherapy for the local treatment of unresectable cutaneous, subcutaneous, and nodal tumors in patients with melanoma recurrence following surgery. We aim to describe the safety of talimogene laherparepvec. Intralesional talimogene laherparepvec was administered at less than or equal to 4 ml×10 PFU/ml at protocol day 1, then less than or equal to 4 ml×10 PFU/ml 21 days later, and then every 14 days. Treatment continued until complete response, absence of injectable tumors, progressive disease, intolerance, or US Food and Drug Administration approval...
November 22, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175158/multi-modal-potentiation-of-oncolytic-virotherapy-by-vanadium-compounds
#18
Mohammed Selman, Christopher Rousso, Anabel Bergeron, Hwan Hee Son, Ramya Krishnan, Nader A El-Sayes, Oliver Varette, Andrew Chen, Fabrice Le Boeuf, Fanny Tzelepis, John C Bell, Debbie C Crans, Jean-Simon Diallo
Oncolytic viruses (OV) are an emerging class of anticancer bio-therapeutics that induce antitumor immunity through selective replication in tumor cells. However, the efficacy of OVs as single agents remains limited. We introduce a strategy that boosts the therapeutic efficacy of OVs by combining their activity with immuno-modulating, small molecule protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors. We report that vanadium-based phosphatase inhibitors enhance OV infection in vitro and ex vivo, in resistant tumor cell lines...
October 24, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174433/novel-chimeric-parapoxvirus-cf189-as-an-oncolytic-immunotherapy-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#19
Audrey H Choi, Michael P O'Leary, Shyambabu Chaurasiya, Jianming Lu, Sang-In Kim, Yuman Fong, Nanhai G Chen
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with high recurrence rate and poor prognosis. Here we describe a novel, genetically engineered parapoxvirus that efficiently kills triple-negative breast cancer. METHODS: A novel chimeric parapoxvirus (CF189) was generated via homologous recombination and identified through high-throughput screening. Cytotoxicity was assayed in vitro in 4 triple-negative breast cancer cell lines...
November 22, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173766/changing-costs-of-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-the-netherlands
#20
W R Keusters, V A de Weger, A Hövels, J H M Schellens, G W J Frederix
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to identify the total intramural cost of illness of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the Netherlands between 2006-2012. Secondary objective was to identify whether changes in cost patterns of metastatic NSCLC have occurred over the last years. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with metastatic NSCLC between 1-1-2006 and 31-12-2012, who had follow-up to death or the date of data cut-off and no trial participation were included...
December 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
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