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Oncolytic immunotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636555/overcoming-resistance-to-targeted-therapy-with-immunotherapy-and-combination-therapy-for-metastatic-melanoma
#1
REVIEW
Hilary R Keller, Xin Zhang, Li Li, Helmut Schaider, James W Wells
Resistance to targeted therapy is an ongoing problem for the successful treatment of Stage IV metastatic melanoma. For many patients, the use of targeted therapies, such as BRAF kinase inhibitors, were initially promising yet resistance inevitably occurred. Even after combining BRAF kinase inhibitors with MEK pathway inhibitors to offset re-activation of the MAP kinase pathway, resistance is still documented. Similarly, outcomes with immune checkpoint inhibitors as monotherapy were optimistic for some patients without relapse or progression, yet the majority of patients undergoing monotherapy have progressive disease...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594388/gene-therapy-for-pancreatic-cancer-specificity-issues-and-hopes
#2
REVIEW
Marie Rouanet, Marine Lebrin, Fabian Gross, Barbara Bournet, Pierre Cordelier, Louis Buscail
A recent death projection has placed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma as the second cause of death by cancer in 2030. The prognosis for pancreatic cancer is very poor and there is a great need for new treatments that can change this poor outcome. Developments of therapeutic innovations in combination with conventional chemotherapy are needed urgently. Among innovative treatments the gene therapy offers a promising avenue. The present review gives an overview of the general strategy of gene therapy as well as the limitations and stakes of the different experimental in vivo models, expression vectors (synthetic and viral), molecular tools (interference RNA, genome editing) and therapeutic genes (tumor suppressor genes, antiangiogenic and pro-apoptotic genes, suicide genes)...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589082/genetically-engineered-vaccinia-viruses-as-agents-for-cancer-treatment-imaging-and-transgene-delivery
#3
REVIEW
Dana Haddad
Despite advances in technology, the formidable challenge of treating cancer, especially if advanced, still remains with no significant improvement in survival rates, even with the most common forms of cancer. Oncolytic viral therapies have shown great promise for the treatment of various cancers, with the possible advantages of stronger treatment efficacy compared to conventional therapy due to higher tumor selectivity, and less toxicity. They are able to preferentially and selectively propagate in cancer cells, consequently destroying tumor tissue mainly via cell lysis, while leaving non-cancerous tissues unharmed...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568891/oncolytic-maraba-virus-mg1-as-a-treatment-for-sarcoma
#4
Fabrice Le Boeuf, Mohammed Selman, Hwan Hee Son, Anabel Bergeron, Andrew Chen, Jovian Tsang, Derek Butterwick, Rozanne Arulanandam, Nicole E Forbes, Fanny Tzelepis, John C Bell, Joel Werier, Hesham Abdelbary, Jean-Simon Diallo
The poor prognosis of patients with advanced bone and soft-tissue sarcoma has not changed in the past several decades, highlighting the necessity for new therapeutic approaches. Immunotherapies, including oncolytic viral (OV) therapy, have shown great promise in a number of clinical trials for a variety of tumor types. However, the effective application of OV in treating sarcoma still remains to be demonstrated. Although few pre-clinical studies using distinct OVs have been performed and demonstrated therapeutic benefit in sarcoma models, a side-by-side comparison of clinically relevant OV platforms has not been performed...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561676/the-promise-of-immunotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
Anthony El-Khoueiry
Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has presented a therapeutic challenge. Despite its heterogeneity, which is partially related to its various etiologies, it frequently arises in a background of chronic inflammation, which makes it a potentially excellent candidate for immunotherapeutic approaches. There is evidence of antitumor immunity in HCC as manifested by the cell infiltrate and its association with prognosis, the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and the reports of immune-mediated spontaneous regressions...
2017: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555136/oncolytic-immunotherapy-conceptual-evolution-current-strategies-and-future-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Zong Sheng Guo, Zuqiang Liu, Stacy Kowalsky, Mathilde Feist, Pawel Kalinski, Binfeng Lu, Walter J Storkus, David L Bartlett
The concept of oncolytic virus (OV)-mediated cancer therapy has been shifted from an operational virotherapy paradigm to an immunotherapy. OVs often induce immunogenic cell death (ICD) of cancer cells, and they may interact directly with immune cells as well to prime antitumor immunity. We and others have developed a number of strategies to further stimulate antitumor immunity and to productively modulate the tumor microenvironment (TME) for potent and sustained antitumor immune cell activity. First, OVs have been engineered or combined with other ICD inducers to promote more effective T cell cross-priming, and in many cases, the breaking of functional immune tolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536390/showing-the-way-oncolytic-adenoviruses-as-chaperones-of-immunostimulatory-adjuncts
#7
REVIEW
Jing Li Huang, Christopher J LaRocca, Masato Yamamoto
Oncolytic adenoviruses (OAds) are increasingly recognized as vectors for immunotherapy in the treatment of various solid tumors. The myriads of advantages of using adenovirus include targeted specificity upon infection and selective replication, which lead to localized viral burst, exponential spread of OAds, and antitumor effect. OAds can also induce a strong immune reaction due to the massive release of tumor antigens upon cytolysis and the presence of viral antigens. This review will highlight recent advances in adenoviral vectors expressing immunostimulatory effectors, such as GM-CSF (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor), interferon-α, interleukin-12, and CD40L...
September 19, 2016: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536388/capitalizing-on-cancer-specific-replication-oncolytic-viruses-as-a-versatile-platform-for-the-enhancement-of-cancer-immunotherapy-strategies
#8
REVIEW
Donald Bastin, Scott R Walsh, Meena Al Saigh, Yonghong Wan
The past decade has seen considerable excitement in the use of biological therapies in treating neoplastic disease. In particular, cancer immunotherapy and oncolytic virotherapy have emerged as two frontrunners in this regard with the first FDA approvals for agents in both categories being obtained in the last 5 years. It is becoming increasingly apparent that these two approaches are not mutually exclusive and that much of the therapeutic benefit obtained from the use of oncolytic viruses (OVs) is in fact the result of their immunotherapeutic function...
August 24, 2016: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536382/fifty-years-of-clinical-application-of-newcastle-disease-virus-time-to-celebrate
#9
REVIEW
Volker Schirrmacher
This review provides an overview of 50 years of basic and clinical research on an oncolytic avian virus, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), which has particular anti-neoplastic and immune stimulatory properties. Of special interest is the fact that this biological agent induces immunogenic cell death and systemic anti-tumor immunity. Furthermore, localized oncolytic virotherapy with NDV was shown to overcome systemic tumor resistance to immune checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Clinical experience attests to low side effects and a high safety profile...
July 20, 2016: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536380/tumor-associated-macrophages-in-oncolytic-virotherapy-friend-or-foe
#10
REVIEW
Nicholas L Denton, Chun-Yu Chen, Thomas R Scott, Timothy P Cripe
Cancer therapy remains a challenge due to toxicity limitations of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Oncolytic viruses that selectively replicate and destroy cancer cells are of increasing interest. In addition to direct cell lysis, these vectors stimulate an anti-tumor immune response. A key regulator of tumor immunity is the tumor-associated macrophage population. Macrophages can either support oncolytic virus therapy through pro-inflammatory stimulation of the anti-tumor response at the cost of hindering direct oncolysis or through immunosuppressive protection of virus replication at the cost of hindering the anti-tumor immune response...
July 7, 2016: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536354/viroimmunotherapy-for-colorectal-cancer-clinical-studies
#11
REVIEW
Shyambabu Chaurasiya, Susanne Warner
Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer incidence and death. Therapies for those with unresectable or recurrent disease are not considered curative at present. More effective and less toxic therapies are desperately needed. Historically, the immune system was thought to be an enemy to oncolytic viral therapy. Thinking that oncolysis would be the only mechanism for cell death, oncolytic virologists theorized that immune clearance was a detriment to oncolysis. Recent advances in our understanding of the tumor microenvironment, and the interplay of tumor survival and a patient's immune system have called into question our understanding of both arenas...
March 10, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536351/oncolytic-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-as-a-viro-immunotherapy-defeating-cancer-with-a-hammer-and-anvil
#12
REVIEW
Michael Karl Melzer, Arturo Lopez-Martinez, Jennifer Altomonte
Oncolytic viruses have gained much attention in recent years, due, not only to their ability to selectively replicate in and lyse tumor cells, but to their potential to stimulate antitumor immune responses directed against the tumor. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a negative-strand RNA virus, is under intense development as an oncolytic virus due to a variety of favorable properties, including its rapid replication kinetics, inherent tumor specificity, and its potential to elicit a broad range of immunomodulatory responses to break immune tolerance in the tumor microenvironment...
February 10, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536348/targeting-autophagy-for-oncolytic-immunotherapy
#13
REVIEW
Lulu Hu, Ke Jiang, Chan Ding, Songshu Meng
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are capable of exerting anti-cancer effects by a variety of mechanisms, including immune-mediated tumor cell death, highlighting their potential use in immunotherapy. Several adaptation mechanisms such as autophagy contribute to OV-mediated anti-tumor properties. Autophagy regulates immunogenic signaling during cancer therapy which can be utilized to design therapeutic combinations using approaches that either induce or block autophagy to potentiate the therapeutic efficacy of OVs. In this article, we review the complicated interplay between autophagy, cancer, immunity, and OV, summarize recent progress in the contribution of OV-perturbed autophagy to oncolytic immunity, and discuss the challenges in targeting autophagy to enhance oncolytic immunotherapy...
January 11, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536345/viroimmunotherapy-of-thoracic-cancers
#14
REVIEW
Alexander S Dash, Manish R Patel
Thoracic cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MM), cause the highest rate of cancer mortality worldwide. Most of these deaths are as a result of NSCLC; however, prognoses for the other two diseases remain as some of the poorest of any cancers. Recent advances in immunotherapy, specifically immune checkpoint inhibitors, have begun to help a small population of patients with advanced lung cancer. People who respond to these immune therapies generally have a durable response and many see dramatic decreases in their disease...
January 4, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529900/immunotherapy-and-radiation-therapy-for-operable-early-stage-and-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Neil K Taunk, Andreas Rimner, Melissa Culligan, Joseph S Friedberg, Julie Brahmer, Jamie Chaft
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer mortality. Although a significant proportion of patients can be cured with surgery, with or without adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation, a significant proportion of patients will fail, particularly distantly. Over fifty percent of patients present with stage IV disease. There are multiple forms of immunotherapy available including T-cell transfer, cytokine therapy, and oncolytic viruses. Checkpoint inhibitors have shown tremendous activity in NSCLC and are currently under intense study given promising data on response...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512387/oncolytic-virus-based-immunotherapies-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
REVIEW
So Young Yoo, Narayanasamy Badrinath, Hyun Young Woo, Jeong Heo
Hepatocellular carcinoma is highly refractory cancer which is resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, carrying a dismal prognosis. Although many anticancer drugs have been developed for treating HCC, sorafenib is the only effective treatment, but it only prolongs survival duration for about 3 months. Recently, oncolytic virotherapy has shown promising results in treating HCCs and the effects can be more enhanced by adopting immune modulatory molecules. This review discusses the current status of treating HCC and the effective strategy of oncolytic virus-based immunotherapy for the treatment of HCCs...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507788/adaptive-t-cell-responses-induced-by-oncolytic-herpes-simplex-virus-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-therapy-expanded-by-dendritic-cell-and-cytokine-induced-killer-cell-adoptive-therapy
#17
Jun Ren, William R Gwin, Xinna Zhou, Xiaoli Wang, Hongyan Huang, Ni Jiang, Lei Zhou, Pankaj Agarwal, Amy Hobeika, Erika Crosby, Zachary C Hartman, Michael A Morse, Kevin H Eng, H Kim Lyerly
Purpose: Although local oncolytic viral therapy (OVT) may enhance tumor lysis, antigen release, and adaptive immune responses, systemic antitumor responses post-therapy are limited. Adoptive immunotherapy with autologous dendritic cells (DC) and cytokine-induced killer cells (DC-CIK) synergizes with systemic therapies. We hypothesized that OVT with Herpes Simplex Virus-granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (HSV-GM-CSF) would induce adaptive T cell responses that could be expanded systemically with sequential DC-CIK therapy...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488122/the-potential-of-cellular-and-viral-based-immunotherapies-for-malignant-glioma-dendritic-cell-vaccines-adoptive-cell-transfer-and-oncolytic-viruses
#18
REVIEW
Russell Maxwell, Andrew S Luksik, Tomas Garzon-Muvdi, Michael Lim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malignant gliomas, including glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma, are the most frequent primary brain tumors and present with many treatment challenges. In this review, we discuss the potential of cellular- and viral-based immunotherapies in the treatment of malignant glioma, specifically focusing on dendritic cell vaccines, adoptive cell therapy, and oncolytic viruses. RECENT FINDINGS: Diverse cellular- and viral-based strategies have been engineered and optimized to generate either a specific or broad antitumor immune response in malignant glioma...
June 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417936/oncolytic-alphaviruses-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#19
REVIEW
Kenneth Lundstrom
Oncolytic viruses show specific targeting and killing of tumor cells and therefore provide attractive assets for cancer immunotherapy. In parallel to oncolytic viral vectors based on adenoviruses and herpes simplex viruses, oncolytic RNA viruses and particularly alphaviruses have been evaluated as delivery vehicles. Immunization studies in experimental rodent models for various cancers including glioblastoma, hematologic, hepatocellular, colon, cervix, and lung cancer as well as melanoma have been conducted with naturally occurring oncolytic alphavirus strains such as M1 and Sindbis AR339...
April 12, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407327/oncolytic-viral-therapy-for-pancreatic-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Ahmad Rahal, Benjamin Musher
Outcomes of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDA) remain dismal despite extensive clinical investigation. Combination chemotherapy provides modest improvements in survival above best supportive care, and immunotherapy has thus far not proven effective. Nevertheless, growing insight into antitumor immunity and the tumor microenvironment has inspired the discovery of novel agents targeting PDA. Oncolytic viruses represent an emerging class of immunotherapeutic agents that have undergone extensive preclinical investigation and warrant further investigation in well-designed clinical trials...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
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