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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615698/divergent-anabolic-signalling-responses-of-murine-soleus-and-tibialis-anterior-muscles-to-chronic-2g-hypergravity
#1
Timur Mirzoev, Sergey Tyganov, Irina Petrova, Vasily Gnyubkin, Norbert Laroche, Laurence Vico, Boris Shenkman
The purpose of the study was to assess the rate of protein synthesis (PS) and elucidate signalling pathways regulating PS in mouse soleus (Sol) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles following chronic hypergravity (30-day centrifugation at 2G). The content of the key signalling proteins of the various anabolic signalling pathways was determined by Western-blotting. The rate of PS was assessed using in-vivo SUnSET technique. An exposure to 2G centrifugation did not induce any significant changes in the rate of PS as well as phosphorylation status of the key anabolic markers (AKT, p70s6k, 4E-BP1, GSK-3beta, eEF2) in Sol...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574509/mycn-amplified-neuroblastoma-requires-the-mrna-translation-regulator-eef2-kinase-to-adapt-to-nutrient-deprivation
#2
Alberto Delaidelli, Gian Luca Negri, Asad Jan, Brandon Jansonius, Amal El-Naggar, Jonathan K M Lim, Debjit Khan, Htoo Zarni Oo, Christopher J Carnie, Marc Remke, John M Maris, Gabriel Leprivier, Poul H Sorensen
MYC family proteins are implicated in many human cancers, but their therapeutic targeting has proven challenging. MYCN amplification in childhood neuroblastoma (NB) is associated with aggressive disease and high mortality. Novel and effective therapeutic strategies are therefore urgently needed for these tumors. MYC-driven oncogenic transformation impairs cell survival under nutrient deprivation (ND), a characteristic stress condition within the tumor microenvironment. We recently identified eukaryotic Elongation Factor 2 Kinase (eEF2K) as a pivotal mediator of the adaptive response of tumor cells to ND...
June 2, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571990/optimal-ratios-of-essential-amino-acids-stimulate-%C3%AE-casein-synthesis-via-activation-of-the-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-pathway-in-mac-t-cells-and-bovine-mammary-tissue-explants
#3
S S Li, J J Loor, H Y Liu, L Liu, A Hosseini, W S Zhao, J X Liu
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and serve as key molecular components upstream of the signaling pathways that regulate protein synthesis. The objective of this study was to systematically investigate the effect of essential AA ratios on milk protein synthesis in vitro and to elucidate some of the underlying mechanisms. Triplicate cultures of MAC-T cells and bovine mammary tissue explants (MTE) were incubated with the optimal AA ratio (OPAA; Lys:Met, 2.9:1; Thr:Phe, 1.05:1; Lys:Thr, 1.8:1; Lys:His, 2...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555368/a-mutated-dph3-gene-causes-sensitivity-of-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-cells-to-cytotoxic-agents
#4
Desirée Villahermosa, Karen Knapp, Oliver Fleck
Dph3 is involved in diphthamide modification of the eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF2 and in Elongator-mediated modifications of tRNAs, where a 5-methoxycarbonyl-methyl moiety is added to wobble uridines. Lack of such modifications affects protein synthesis due to inaccurate translation of mRNAs at ribosomes. We have discovered that integration of markers at the msh3 locus of Schizosaccharomyces pombe impaired the function of the nearby located dph3 gene. Such integrations rendered cells sensitive to the cytotoxic drugs hydroxyurea and methyl methanesulfonate...
May 29, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539418/loss-of-doc2-dependent-spontaneous-neurotransmission-augments-glutamatergic-synaptic-strength
#5
Denise M O Ramirez, Devon C Crawford, Natali L Chanaday, Brent Trauterman, Lisa M Monteggia, Ege T Kavalali
Action potential-evoked vesicle fusion comprises the majority of neurotransmission within chemical synapses, but action potential-independent spontaneous neurotransmission also contributes to the collection of signals sent to the postsynaptic cell. Previous work has implicated spontaneous neurotransmission in homeostatic synaptic scaling, but few studies have selectively manipulated spontaneous neurotransmission without substantial changes in evoked neurotransmission to study this function in detail. Here we used a quadruple knockdown strategy to reduce levels of proteins within the soluble calcium-binding double C2 domain (Doc2)-like protein family to selectively reduce spontaneous neurotransmission in cultured mouse and rat neurons...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502587/direct-and-indirect-activation-of-eukaryotic-elongation-factor-2-kinase-by-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#6
M Johanns, S Pyr Dit Ruys, A Houddane, D Vertommen, G Herinckx, L Hue, C G Proud, M H Rider
BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinase (eEF2K) is a key regulator of protein synthesis in mammalian cells. It phosphorylates and inhibits eEF2, the translation factor necessary for peptide translocation during the elongation phase of protein synthesis. When cellular energy demand outweighs energy supply, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and eEF2K become activated, leading to eEF2 phosphorylation, which reduces the rate of protein synthesis, a process that consumes a large proportion of cellular energy under optimal conditions...
May 11, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484099/mechanisms-of-control-of-cardiovascular-tumorous-and-neuronal-diseases-by-eef2k-eef2-signaling-and-suggestion-of-eef2k-eef2-as-pharmacotherapeutic-target
#7
Satoshi Kameshima, Muneyoshi Okada, Hideyuki Yamawaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465511/berberine-produces-antidepressant-like-effects-in-ovariectomized-mice
#8
Jie Fan, Bingjin Li, Tongtong Ge, Zhuo Zhang, Jiayin Lv, Jing Zhao, Pu Wang, Wei Liu, Xuefeng Wang, Katarzyna Mlyniec, Ranji Cui
Berberine has been reports to have antidepressant-like effects. However, it is seldom known whether berberine produces antidepressant-like effects in ovariectomized mice, which exhibit depressive-like responses. To examine the antidepressant-like effects of berberine in ovariectomized mice, behavioral tests were conducted, including the forced swimming test and the open field test. To elucidate the mechanisms, levels of BDNF, phosphorylated CREB and phosphorylated eEF2 were analyzed by western blotting, and c-Fos induction was examined by immunohistochemistry...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455634/depression-of-leukocyte-protein-synthesis-immune-function-and-growth-performance-induced-by-high-environmental-temperature-in-broiler-chickens
#9
Nancy N Kamel, Ayman M H Ahmed, Gamal M K Mehaisen, Magdi M Mashaly, Ahmed O Abass
In tropical and semitropical regions, raising broiler chickens out of their thermal comfort zone can cause an added economic loss in the poultry industry. The cause for the deleterious effects on immunity and growth performance of broilers under high environmental temperatures is still poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effect of heat stress on leukocytes protein synthesis and immune function as a possible direct cause of low performance in broiler chickens under such condition...
April 28, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427148/in-depth-proteomic-profiling-of-left-ventricular-tissues-in-human-end-stage-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#10
Shanshan Liu, Yan Xia, Xiaohui Liu, Yi Wang, Zhangwei Chen, Juanjuan Xie, Juying Qian, Huali Shen, Pengyuan Yang
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is caused by reduced left ventricular (LV) myocardial function, which is one of the most common causes of heart failure (HF). We performed iTRAQ-coupled 2D-LC-MS/MS to profile the cardiac proteome of LV tissues from healthy controls and patients with end-stage DCM. We identified 4263 proteins, of which 125 were differentially expressed in DCM tissues compared to LV controls. The majority of these were membrane proteins related to cellular junctions and neuronal metabolism. In addition, these proteins were involved in membrane organization, mitochondrial organization, translation, protein transport, and cell death process...
February 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410969/characterization-and-mechanism-of-phosphoinositide-3-kinases-pi3ks-members-in-insulin-induced-changes-of-protein-metabolism-in-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco
#11
Mei-Qin Zhuo, Yan-Xiong Pan, Kun Wu, Yi-Huan Xu, Zhi Luo
In the present study, seven phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) members (PI3KCa, PI3KCb, PI3KCd, PI3KCg, PI3KC2a, PI3KC2b and PI3KC3, respectively) were isolated and characterized from yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, and their roles in insulin-induced changes of protein metabolism were determined. These seven PI3Ks can be divided into three classes, class I (including PI3KCa, PI3KCb, PI3KCd and PI3KCg), class II (including PI3KC2a and PI3KC2b) and class III (only including PI3KC3). Compared with mammals, all of these members share similar domain structure...
April 11, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345161/a-decrease-in-eukaryotic-elongation-factor-2-phosphorylation-is-required-for-local-translation-of-sensorin-and-long-term-facilitation-in-aplysia
#12
Patrick K McCamphill, Larissa Ferguson, Wayne S Sossin
Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent protein synthesis is required for many forms of synaptic plasticity and memory, but the downstream pathways important for synaptic plasticity are poorly understood. Long-term facilitation (LTF) in Aplysia is a form of synaptic plasticity that is closely linked to behavioural memory and an attractive model system for examining the important downstream targets for mTORC1 in regulating synaptic plasticity. While mTORC1 regulated protein synthesis has been strongly linked to translation initiation, translation elongation is also regulated by mTORC1 and LTF leads to an mTORC1 dependent decrease in eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) phosphorylation...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245596/influence-of-dph1-and-dph5-protein-variants-on-the-synthesis-of-diphthamide-the-target-of-adpribosylating-toxins
#13
Klaus Mayer, Anna Schröder, Jerome Schnitger, Sebastian Stahl, Ulrich Brinkmann
The diphthamide on eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2) is the target of ADPribosylating toxins and -derivatives that serve as payloads in targeted tumor therapy. Diphthamide is generated by seven DPH proteins; cells deficient in these (DPHko) lack diphthamide and are toxin-resistant. We have established assays to address the functionality of DPH1 (OVCA1) and DPH5 variants listed in dbSNP and cosmic databases: plasmids encoding wildtype and mutant DPHs were transfected into DPHko cells. Supplementation of DPH1 and DPH5 restores diphthamide synthesis and toxin sensitivity in DPH1ko and DPH5ko cells, respectively...
February 24, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237344/identification-and-evaluation-of-reference-genes-for-accurate-gene-expression-normalization-of-fresh-and-frozen-thawed-spermatozoa-of-water-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis
#14
Shende Ashish, S K Bhure, Pillai Harikrishna, S S Ramteke, V H Muhammed Kutty, N Shruthi, G V P P S Ravi Kumar, Mahawar Manish, S K Ghosh, Sarkar Mihir
The quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) has become an important tool for gene-expression analysis for a selected number of genes in life science. Although large dynamic range, sensitivity and reproducibility of qRT-PCR is good, the reliability majorly depend on the selection of proper reference genes (RGs) employed for normalization. Although, RGs expression has been reported to vary considerably within same cell type with different experimental treatments. No systematic study has been conducted to identify and evaluate the appropriate RGs in spermatozoa of domestic animals...
April 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205128/heat-shock-protein-70-protects-cardiomyocytes-through-suppressing-sumoylation-and-nucleus-translocation-of-phosphorylated-eukaryotic-elongation-factor-2-during-myocardial-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#15
Chao Zhang, Xiaojuan Liu, Jin Miao, Shengcun Wang, Liucheng Wu, Daliang Yan, Jingjing Li, Wanwan Guo, Xiang Wu, Aiguo Shen
Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (MIR) results in cardiomyocyte apoptosis with severe outcomes, which blocks cardiac tissue recovering from myocardial ischemia diseases. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is one of protective molecule chaperones which could regulate the nucleus translocation of other proteins. In addition, eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), which modulates protein translation process, is vital to the recovery of heart during MIR. However, the relationship between HSP70 and eEF2 and its effects on MIR are unclear...
February 15, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186172/appropriateness-of-reference-genes-for-normalizing-messenger-rna-in-mouse-2-4-dinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid-dnbs-induced-colitis-using-quantitative-real-time-pcr
#16
Nour Eissa, Laëtitia Kermarrec, Hayam Hussein, Charles N Bernstein, Jean-Eric Ghia
2,4-Dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis is an experimental model that mimics Crohn's disease. Appropriateness of reference genes is crucial for RT-qPCR. This is the first study to determine the stability of reference gene expression (RGE) in mice treated with DNBS. DNBS experimental Colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice. RNA was extracted from colon tissue and comprehensive analysis of 13 RGE was performed according to predefined criteria. Relative colonic TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels were calculated...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181167/adherence-to-mediterranean-diet-is-associated-with-methylation-changes-in-inflammation-related-genes-in-peripheral-blood-cells
#17
A Arpón, J I Riezu-Boj, F I Milagro, C Razquin, M A Martínez-González, D Corella, R Estruch, R Casas, M Fitó, E Ros, J Salas-Salvadó, J A Martínez
Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, might be modulated by environmental factors such as the diet, which in turn have been associated with the onset of several diseases such as obesity or cardiovascular events. Meanwhile, Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has demonstrated favourable effects on cardiovascular risk, blood pressure, inflammation and other complications related to excessive adiposity. Some of these effects could be mediated by epigenetic modifications. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether the adherence to MedDiet is associated with changes in the methylation status from peripheral blood cells...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095607/heat-shock-protein-70-promotes-coxsackievirus-b3-translation-initiation-and-elongation-via-akt-mtorc1-pathway-depending-on-activation-of-p70s6k-and-cdc2
#18
Fengping Wang, Ye Qiu, Huifang M Zhang, Paul Hanson, Xin Ye, Guangze Zhao, Ronald Xie, Lei Tong, Decheng Yang
We previously demonstrated that coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection upregulated heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and promoted CVB3 multiplication. Here, we report the underlying mechanism by which Hsp70 enhances viral RNA translation. By using an Hsp70-overexpressing cell line infected with CVB3, we found that Hsp70 enhanced CVB3 VP1 translation at two stages. First, Hsp70 induced upregulation of VP1 translation at the initiation stage via upregulation of internal ribosome entry site trans-acting factor lupus autoantigen protein and activation of eIF4E binding protein 1, a cap-dependent translation suppressor...
January 17, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094500/chronic-mild-stress-induced-alterations-of-local-protein-synthesis-a-role-for-cognitive-impairment
#19
Francesca Calabrese, Paola Brivio, Piotr Gruca, Magdalena Lason-Tyburkiewicz, Mariusz Papp, Marco A Riva
Depression, a major cause of disability worldwide, is characterized by a complex and heterogeneous symptomatology. With this respect, cognitive deterioration represents a major problem that has a strong impact on a patient's function. Thus, within the context of a depressive phenotype, it is important to characterize the mechanisms that sustain cognitive dysfunctions and may represent an important target for pharmacological intervention. Here, using the chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm of depression, we found that, independently from the anhedonic phenotype, CMS rats showed a deficit in the novel object recognition (NOR) test, which is associated with an inability to phosphorylate GluN2B subunit on Ser1303 and to activate the mTOR pathway...
April 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087840/vibrio-cholerae-cholix-toxin-induced-hepg2-cell-death-is-enhanced-by-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-through-ros-and-intracellular-signal-regulated-kinases
#20
Kohei Ogura, Yasuhiro Terasaki, Tohru Miyoshi-Akiyama, Mika Terasaki, Joel Moss, Masatoshi Noda, Kinnosuke Yahiro
Cholix toxin (Cholix) from Vibrio cholerae is a potent virulence factor exhibiting ADP-ribosyltransferase activity on eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) of host cells, resulting in the inhibition of protein synthesis. Administration of Cholix or its homologue Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PEA) to mice causes lethal hepatocyte damage. In this study, we demonstrate cytotoxicity of Cholix on human hepatocytes in the presence of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), which has been reported to play a fatal role in PEA administered to mice...
April 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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