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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804461/the-effect-of-resistance-exercise-on-inflammatory-and-myogenic-markers-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Emma L Watson, Joao L Viana, David Wimbury, Naomi Martin, Neil J Greening, Jonathan Barratt, Alice C Smith
Background: Muscle wasting is a common complication of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and is clinically important given its strong association with morbidity and mortality in many other chronic conditions. Exercise provides physiological benefits for CKD patients, however the molecular response to exercise remains to be fully determined. We investigated the inflammatory and molecular response to resistance exercise before and after training in these patients. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial that investigated the effect of 8 week progressive resistance training on muscle mass and strength compared to non-exercising controls...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775286/elp3-and-dph3-of-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-mediate-cellular-stress-responses-through-trna-lys-uuu-modifications
#2
Desirée Villahermosa, Oliver Fleck
Efficient protein synthesis in eukaryotes requires diphthamide modification of translation elongation factor eEF2 and wobble uridine modifications of tRNAs. In higher eukaryotes, these processes are important for preventing neurological and developmental defects and cancer. In this study, we used Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model to analyse mutants defective in eEF2 modification (dph1Δ), in tRNA modifications (elp3Δ), or both (dph3Δ) for sensitivity to cytotoxic agents and thermal stress. The dph3Δ and elp3Δ mutants were sensitive to a range of drugs and had growth defects at low temperature...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726101/eukaryotic-elongation-factor-2-kinase-activation-in-m-soleus-under-14-day-hindlimb-unloading-of-rats
#3
Y N Lomonosova, S P Belova, T M Mirzoev, I B Kozlovskaya, B S Shenkman
Functional unloading of m. soleus of male Wistar rats was found to cause a reduction in protein synthesis. The level of phosphorylation of the translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2) and the eEF2 kinase (eEF2k) activity in m. soleus after 14 days of unloading were assessed. Rats were divided into the control group (C) and the group with hindlimb unloading for 14 days (HU14). The level of eEF2 phosphorylation in group HU14 was 80%, whereas in the control is was 40%. The indices of eEF2k expression and protein content in group HU14 increased compared to group C...
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615698/divergent-anabolic-signalling-responses-of-murine-soleus-and-tibialis-anterior-muscles-to-chronic-2g-hypergravity
#4
Timur Mirzoev, Sergey Tyganov, Irina Petrova, Vasily Gnyubkin, Norbert Laroche, Laurence Vico, Boris Shenkman
The purpose of the study was to assess the rate of protein synthesis (PS) and elucidate signalling pathways regulating PS in mouse soleus (Sol) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles following chronic hypergravity (30-day centrifugation at 2G). The content of the key signalling proteins of the various anabolic signalling pathways was determined by Western-blotting. The rate of PS was assessed using in-vivo SUnSET technique. An exposure to 2G centrifugation did not induce any significant changes in the rate of PS as well as phosphorylation status of the key anabolic markers (AKT, p70s6k, 4E-BP1, GSK-3beta, eEF2) in Sol...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574509/mycn-amplified-neuroblastoma-requires-the-mrna-translation-regulator-eef2-kinase-to-adapt-to-nutrient-deprivation
#5
Alberto Delaidelli, Gian Luca Negri, Asad Jan, Brandon Jansonius, Amal El-Naggar, Jonathan K M Lim, Debjit Khan, Htoo Zarni Oo, Christopher J Carnie, Marc Remke, John M Maris, Gabriel Leprivier, Poul H Sorensen
MYC family proteins are implicated in many human cancers, but their therapeutic targeting has proven challenging. MYCN amplification in childhood neuroblastoma (NB) is associated with aggressive disease and high mortality. Novel and effective therapeutic strategies are therefore urgently needed for these tumors. MYC-driven oncogenic transformation impairs cell survival under nutrient deprivation (ND), a characteristic stress condition within the tumor microenvironment. We recently identified eukaryotic Elongation Factor 2 Kinase (eEF2K) as a pivotal mediator of the adaptive response of tumor cells to ND...
June 2, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571990/optimal-ratios-of-essential-amino-acids-stimulate-%C3%AE-casein-synthesis-via-activation-of-the-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-pathway-in-mac-t-cells-and-bovine-mammary-tissue-explants
#6
S S Li, J J Loor, H Y Liu, L Liu, A Hosseini, W S Zhao, J X Liu
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and serve as key molecular components upstream of the signaling pathways that regulate protein synthesis. The objective of this study was to systematically investigate the effect of essential AA ratios on milk protein synthesis in vitro and to elucidate some of the underlying mechanisms. Triplicate cultures of MAC-T cells and bovine mammary tissue explants (MTE) were incubated with the optimal AA ratio (OPAA; Lys:Met, 2.9:1; Thr:Phe, 1.05:1; Lys:Thr, 1.8:1; Lys:His, 2...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555368/a-mutated-dph3-gene-causes-sensitivity-of-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-cells-to-cytotoxic-agents
#7
Desirée Villahermosa, Karen Knapp, Oliver Fleck
Dph3 is involved in diphthamide modification of the eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF2 and in Elongator-mediated modifications of tRNAs, where a 5-methoxycarbonyl-methyl moiety is added to wobble uridines. Lack of such modifications affects protein synthesis due to inaccurate translation of mRNAs at ribosomes. We have discovered that integration of markers at the msh3 locus of Schizosaccharomyces pombe impaired the function of the nearby located dph3 gene. Such integrations rendered cells sensitive to the cytotoxic drugs hydroxyurea and methyl methanesulfonate...
May 29, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539418/loss-of-doc2-dependent-spontaneous-neurotransmission-augments-glutamatergic-synaptic-strength
#8
Denise M O Ramirez, Devon C Crawford, Natali L Chanaday, Brent Trauterman, Lisa M Monteggia, Ege T Kavalali
Action potential-evoked vesicle fusion comprises the majority of neurotransmission within chemical synapses, but action potential-independent spontaneous neurotransmission also contributes to the collection of signals sent to the postsynaptic cell. Previous work has implicated spontaneous neurotransmission in homeostatic synaptic scaling, but few studies have selectively manipulated spontaneous neurotransmission without substantial changes in evoked neurotransmission to study this function in detail. Here we used a quadruple knockdown strategy to reduce levels of proteins within the soluble calcium-binding double C2 domain (Doc2)-like protein family to selectively reduce spontaneous neurotransmission in cultured mouse and rat neurons...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502587/direct-and-indirect-activation-of-eukaryotic-elongation-factor-2-kinase-by-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#9
M Johanns, S Pyr Dit Ruys, A Houddane, D Vertommen, G Herinckx, L Hue, C G Proud, M H Rider
BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinase (eEF2K) is a key regulator of protein synthesis in mammalian cells. It phosphorylates and inhibits eEF2, the translation factor necessary for peptide translocation during the elongation phase of protein synthesis. When cellular energy demand outweighs energy supply, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and eEF2K become activated, leading to eEF2 phosphorylation, which reduces the rate of protein synthesis, a process that consumes a large proportion of cellular energy under optimal conditions...
May 11, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484099/mechanisms-of-control-of-cardiovascular-tumorous-and-neuronal-diseases-by-eef2k-eef2-signaling-and-suggestion-of-eef2k-eef2-as-pharmacotherapeutic-target
#10
REVIEW
Satoshi Kameshima, Muneyoshi Okada, Hideyuki Yamawaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465511/berberine-produces-antidepressant-like-effects-in-ovariectomized-mice
#11
Jie Fan, Bingjin Li, Tongtong Ge, Zhuo Zhang, Jiayin Lv, Jing Zhao, Pu Wang, Wei Liu, Xuefeng Wang, Katarzyna Mlyniec, Ranji Cui
Berberine has been reports to have antidepressant-like effects. However, it is seldom known whether berberine produces antidepressant-like effects in ovariectomized mice, which exhibit depressive-like responses. To examine the antidepressant-like effects of berberine in ovariectomized mice, behavioral tests were conducted, including the forced swimming test and the open field test. To elucidate the mechanisms, levels of BDNF, phosphorylated CREB and phosphorylated eEF2 were analyzed by western blotting, and c-Fos induction was examined by immunohistochemistry...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455634/depression-of-leukocyte-protein-synthesis-immune-function-and-growth-performance-induced-by-high-environmental-temperature-in-broiler-chickens
#12
Nancy N Kamel, Ayman M H Ahmed, Gamal M K Mehaisen, Magdi M Mashaly, Ahmed O Abass
In tropical and semitropical regions, raising broiler chickens out of their thermal comfort zone can cause an added economic loss in the poultry industry. The cause for the deleterious effects on immunity and growth performance of broilers under high environmental temperatures is still poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effect of heat stress on leukocytes protein synthesis and immune function as a possible direct cause of low performance in broiler chickens under such condition...
April 28, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427148/in-depth-proteomic-profiling-of-left-ventricular-tissues-in-human-end-stage-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#13
Shanshan Liu, Yan Xia, Xiaohui Liu, Yi Wang, Zhangwei Chen, Juanjuan Xie, Juying Qian, Huali Shen, Pengyuan Yang
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is caused by reduced left ventricular (LV) myocardial function, which is one of the most common causes of heart failure (HF). We performed iTRAQ-coupled 2D-LC-MS/MS to profile the cardiac proteome of LV tissues from healthy controls and patients with end-stage DCM. We identified 4263 proteins, of which 125 were differentially expressed in DCM tissues compared to LV controls. The majority of these were membrane proteins related to cellular junctions and neuronal metabolism. In addition, these proteins were involved in membrane organization, mitochondrial organization, translation, protein transport, and cell death process...
July 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410969/characterization-and-mechanism-of-phosphoinositide-3-kinases-pi3ks-members-in-insulin-induced-changes-of-protein-metabolism-in-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco
#14
Mei-Qin Zhuo, Yan-Xiong Pan, Kun Wu, Yi-Huan Xu, Zhi Luo
In the present study, seven phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) members (PI3KCa, PI3KCb, PI3KCd, PI3KCg, PI3KC2a, PI3KC2b and PI3KC3, respectively) were isolated and characterized from yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, and their roles in insulin-induced changes of protein metabolism were determined. These seven PI3Ks can be divided into three classes, class I (including PI3KCa, PI3KCb, PI3KCd and PI3KCg), class II (including PI3KC2a and PI3KC2b) and class III (only including PI3KC3). Compared with mammals, all of these members share similar domain structure...
April 11, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345161/a-decrease-in-eukaryotic-elongation-factor-2-phosphorylation-is-required-for-local-translation-of-sensorin-and-long-term-facilitation-in-aplysia
#15
Patrick K McCamphill, Larissa Ferguson, Wayne S Sossin
Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent protein synthesis is required for many forms of synaptic plasticity and memory, but the downstream pathways important for synaptic plasticity are poorly understood. Long-term facilitation (LTF) in Aplysia is a form of synaptic plasticity that is closely linked to behavioral memory and an attractive model system for examining the important downstream targets for mTORC1 in regulating synaptic plasticity. Although mTORC1-regulated protein synthesis has been strongly linked to translation initiation, translation elongation is also regulated by mTORC1 and LTF leads to an mTORC1-dependent decrease in eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) phosphorylation...
July 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245596/influence-of-dph1-and-dph5-protein-variants-on-the-synthesis-of-diphthamide-the-target-of-adpribosylating-toxins
#16
Klaus Mayer, Anna Schröder, Jerome Schnitger, Sebastian Stahl, Ulrich Brinkmann
The diphthamide on eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2) is the target of ADPribosylating toxins and -derivatives that serve as payloads in targeted tumor therapy. Diphthamide is generated by seven DPH proteins; cells deficient in these (DPHko) lack diphthamide and are toxin-resistant. We have established assays to address the functionality of DPH1 (OVCA1) and DPH5 variants listed in dbSNP and cosmic databases: plasmids encoding wildtype and mutant DPHs were transfected into DPHko cells. Supplementation of DPH1 and DPH5 restores diphthamide synthesis and toxin sensitivity in DPH1ko and DPH5ko cells, respectively...
February 24, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237344/identification-and-evaluation-of-reference-genes-for-accurate-gene-expression-normalization-of-fresh-and-frozen-thawed-spermatozoa-of-water-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis
#17
Shende Ashish, S K Bhure, Pillai Harikrishna, S S Ramteke, V H Muhammed Kutty, N Shruthi, G V P P S Ravi Kumar, Mahawar Manish, S K Ghosh, Sarkar Mihir
The quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) has become an important tool for gene-expression analysis for a selected number of genes in life science. Although large dynamic range, sensitivity and reproducibility of qRT-PCR is good, the reliability majorly depend on the selection of proper reference genes (RGs) employed for normalization. Although, RGs expression has been reported to vary considerably within same cell type with different experimental treatments. No systematic study has been conducted to identify and evaluate the appropriate RGs in spermatozoa of domestic animals...
April 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205128/heat-shock-protein-70-protects-cardiomyocytes-through-suppressing-sumoylation-and-nucleus-translocation-of-phosphorylated-eukaryotic-elongation-factor-2-during-myocardial-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#18
Chao Zhang, Xiaojuan Liu, Jin Miao, Shengcun Wang, Liucheng Wu, Daliang Yan, Jingjing Li, Wanwan Guo, Xiang Wu, Aiguo Shen
Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (MIR) results in cardiomyocyte apoptosis with severe outcomes, which blocks cardiac tissue recovering from myocardial ischemia diseases. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is one of protective molecule chaperones which could regulate the nucleus translocation of other proteins. In addition, eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), which modulates protein translation process, is vital to the recovery of heart during MIR. However, the relationship between HSP70 and eEF2 and its effects on MIR are unclear...
February 15, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186172/appropriateness-of-reference-genes-for-normalizing-messenger-rna-in-mouse-2-4-dinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid-dnbs-induced-colitis-using-quantitative-real-time-pcr
#19
Nour Eissa, Laëtitia Kermarrec, Hayam Hussein, Charles N Bernstein, Jean-Eric Ghia
2,4-Dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis is an experimental model that mimics Crohn's disease. Appropriateness of reference genes is crucial for RT-qPCR. This is the first study to determine the stability of reference gene expression (RGE) in mice treated with DNBS. DNBS experimental Colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice. RNA was extracted from colon tissue and comprehensive analysis of 13 RGE was performed according to predefined criteria. Relative colonic TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels were calculated...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181167/adherence-to-mediterranean-diet-is-associated-with-methylation-changes-in-inflammation-related-genes-in-peripheral-blood-cells
#20
A Arpón, J I Riezu-Boj, F I Milagro, A Marti, C Razquin, M A Martínez-González, D Corella, R Estruch, R Casas, M Fitó, E Ros, J Salas-Salvadó, J A Martínez
Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, might be modulated by environmental factors such as the diet, which in turn have been associated with the onset of several diseases such as obesity or cardiovascular events. Meanwhile, Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has demonstrated favourable effects on cardiovascular risk, blood pressure, inflammation and other complications related to excessive adiposity. Some of these effects could be mediated by epigenetic modifications. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether the adherence to MedDiet is associated with changes in the methylation status from peripheral blood cells...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
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