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Hip knee sport

Lindsay V Slater, Joseph M Hart
The squat is an assessment of lower extremity alignment during movement, however there is little information regarding altered joint kinetics during poorly performed squats. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in joint kinetics and power from altered knee alignment during a squat. Thirty participants completed squats while displacing the knee medially, anteriorly, and with neutral alignment (control). Sagittal and frontal plane torques at the ankle, knee, and hip were altered in the descending and ascending phase of the squat in both the medial and anterior malaligned squat compared to the control squat...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Teresa E Flaxman, Tine Alkjær, Erik B Simonsen, Michael R Krogsgaard, Daniel L Benoit
INTRODUCTION: Knee muscles are commonly labelled as flexors or extensors and aptly stabilize the knee against sagittal plane loads. However, how these muscles stabilize the knee against adduction-abduction and rotational loads remains unclear. Our study sought to: (1) classify muscle roles as they relate to joint stability by quantifying the relationship between individual muscle activation patterns and internal net joint moments in all three loading planes, and (2) determine if these roles change with increasing force levels...
October 14, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
William Colyn, Rintje Agricola, Nele Arnout, Jan A N Verhaar, Johan Bellemans
PURPOSE: The influence of type and intensity of sports during growth on knee alignment was investigated. The second aim was to ascertain whether the distal femur or proximal tibia contribute most to knee alignment. Also, the influence of field position and leg dominancy on knee alignment in soccer players was audited. METHODS: Standardized full-leg standing digital radiographs were obtained from 100 males and 100 females on which 8 different alignment parameters were measured...
October 14, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Adam C Johnson, John H Hollman, Benjamin M Howe, Jonathan T Finnoff
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to determine if ischiofemoral space (IFS) dimensions vary with changes in hip flexion as a result of placing a bolster behind the knees during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A secondary aim was to determine if IFS dimensions vary between supine and prone hip neutral positions. DESIGN: The study employed a prospective design. SETTING: Sports medicine center within a tertiary care institution. PARTICIPANTS: Five male and five female adult subjects (age mean = 29...
October 14, 2016: Skeletal Radiology
M Cody O'Dell, Diego Jaramillo, Laura Bancroft, Laura Varich, Gregory Logsdon, Sabah Servaes
With increasing participation and intensity of training in youth sports in the United States, the incidence of sports-related injuries is increasing, and the types of injuries are shifting. In this article, the authors review sports injuries of the lower extremity, including both acute and overuse injuries, that are common in or specific to the pediatric population. Common traumatic injuries that occur in individuals of all ages (eg, tears of the acetabular labrum and anterior cruciate ligament) are not addressed, although these occur routinely in pediatric sports...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Neil E Bezodis, Jamie S North, Jane L Razavet
A more horizontally oriented ground reaction force vector is related to higher levels of sprint acceleration performance across a range of athletes. However, the effects of acute experimental alterations to the force vector orientation within athletes are unknown. Fifteen male team sports athletes completed maximal effort 10-m accelerations in three conditions following different verbal instructions intended to manipulate the force vector orientation. Ground reaction forces (GRFs) were collected from the step nearest 5-m and stance leg kinematics at touchdown were also analysed to understand specific kinematic features of touchdown technique which may influence the consequent force vector orientation...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Alon Rabin, Sigal Portnoy, Zvi Kozol
Study Design Cross-sectional. Background Altered hip and knee kinematics have been associated with several knee disorders including anterior cruciate ligament tear, patellofemoral pain, and iliotibial band syndrome. Limited ankle dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM), which has been linked with some of these disorders, has also been associated with altered knee kinematics. Objective Explore the association of ankle DF ROM with hip and knee kinematics during a step down task. Methods Thirty healthy participants underwent a 3-dimensional analysis of hip and knee kinematics during a lateral step down test, followed by measurement of ankle DF ROM in weight-bearing (WB) and non-weight-bearing (NWB)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Christine C Johnson, Daniel J Johnson, Joseph N Liu, Joshua S Dines, David M Dines, Lawrence V Gulotta, Grant H Garcia
Many patients prioritize the ability to return to sports following shoulder replacement surgeries, including total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA), and hemiarthroplasty (HA). While activity levels after hip and knee replacements have been well-established in the literature, studies on this topic in the field of shoulder arthroplasty are relatively limited. A review of the literature regarding athletic activity after shoulder arthroplasty was performed using the PubMed database...
September 18, 2016: World Journal of Orthopedics
Jeffrey B Stambough, Lauren Davis, Deborah A Szymanski, June C Smith, Perry L Schoenecker, J Eric Gordon
BACKGROUND: Excessive femoral anteversion is a developmental condition that can become symptomatic into adolescence and manifest as anterior knee pain, tripping, and or problems with sports. Femoral derotational osteotomy about an antegrade intramedullary nail (IMN) is an accepted option to treat this condition. This is the first report of the clinical and functional outcomes of treatment of excessive anteversion with femoral derotational osteotomy stabilized with an IMN. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 28 consecutive patients between 2013 and 2014 who underwent derotational osteotomy...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
D R Griffin, E J Dickenson, J O'Donnell, R Agricola, T Awan, M Beck, J C Clohisy, H P Dijkstra, E Falvey, M Gimpel, R S Hinman, P Hölmich, A Kassarjian, H D Martin, R Martin, R C Mather, M J Philippon, M P Reiman, A Takla, K Thorborg, S Walker, A Weir, K L Bennell
The 2016 Warwick Agreement on femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome was convened to build an international, multidisciplinary consensus on the diagnosis and management of patients with FAI syndrome. 22 panel members and 1 patient from 9 countries and 5 different specialties participated in a 1-day consensus meeting on 29 June 2016. Prior to the meeting, 6 questions were agreed on, and recent relevant systematic reviews and seminal literature were circulated. Panel members gave presentations on the topics of the agreed questions at Sports Hip 2016, an open meeting held in the UK on 27-29 June...
October 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Jasper Reenalda, Erik Maartens, Lotte Homan, J H Jaap Buurke
Recent developments in wearable and wireless sensor technology allow for a continuous three dimensional analysis of running mechanics in the sport specific setting. The present study is the first to demonstrate the possibility of analyzing three dimensional (3D) running mechanics continuously, by means of inertial magnetic measurement units, to objectify changes in mechanics over the course of a marathon. Three well trained male distance runners ran a marathon while equipped with inertial magnetic measurement units on trunk, pelvis, upper legs, lower legs and feet to obtain a 3D view of running mechanics and to asses changes in running mechanics over the course of a marathon...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Bernard X W Liew, Susan Morris, Kevin Netto
Running with load carriage has become increasingly prevalent in sport, as well as many field-based occupations. However, the "sources" of mechanical work during load carriage running are not yet completely understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of load magnitudes on the mechanical joint work during running, across different velocities. Thirty-one participants performed overground running at three load magnitudes (0%, 10%, 20% body weight), and at three velocities (3, 4, 5m/s). Three dimensional motion capture was performed, with synchronised force plate data captured...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Jesper Augustsson
INTRODUCTION: Dynamic clinical tests of hip strength applicable on patients, non-athletes and athletes alike, are lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to develop and evaluate the reliability of a dynamic muscle function test of hip external rotation strength, using a novel device. A second aim was to determine if gender differences exist in absolute and relative hip strength using the new test. METHODS: Fifty-three healthy sport science students (34 women and 19 men) were tested for hip external rotation strength using a device that consisted of a strap connected in series with an elastic resistance band loop, and a measuring tape connected in parallel with the elastic resistance band...
August 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Artur Struzik, Grzegorz Konieczny, Mateusz Stawarz, Kamila Grzesik, Sławomir Winiarski, Andrzej Rokita
The ability to reach a high running velocity over a short distance is essential to a high playing performance in team games. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between running time over a 10-meter section of a 30-meter sprint along a straight line and changes in the angle and angular velocity that were observed in the ankle, knee, and hip joints. The possible presence may help to optimize motion efficiency during acceleration sprint phase. Eighteen girls involved in team sports were examined in the study...
2016: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Robert W Westermann, Zachary Y Kerr, Peter Wehr, Annuziato Amendola
BACKGROUND: Sports-related concussions (SRCs) have gained increased societal interest in the past decade. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has implemented legislation and rule changes to decrease the incidence and risk of head injury impacts. The "targeting" rule forbids initiating contact with the crown of a helmet and targeting defenseless players in the head and neck area; however, there are concerns that this rule change has unintentionally led to an increased incidence of lower extremity injuries...
August 10, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Hansang Jung, Namju Lee, Sok Park
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the interaction of ACTN3 gene polymorphism and muscle imbalance effects on kinematic efficiency changes in combat sports athletes. METHODS: Six types of combat sports athletes (Judo, Taekwondo, boxing, kendo, wrestling, and Korean Ssi-reum) participated in the study. ATCN3 gene polymorphism and muscle imbalance in lower extremity were evaluated followed by analysis of differences of moment in hip, knee, and ankle joint during V-cut jumping and stop...
June 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Christine M McDonough, Eva Stoiber, Ivan M Tomek, Pengsheng Ni, Young-Jo Kim, Feng Tian, Alan M Jette
Study Design Clinical measurement study. Background Computer adaptive testing (CAT) methods may allow detection of change across the continuum of osteoarthritis (OA) care. Objective To evaluate the sensitivity to change of a self-report OA CAT instrument (OA-CAT) following surgery. Methods Core measures consisted of the 5-item OA-CAT function, pain, and disability scales; the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC); the University of California at Los Angeles activity rating scale; and the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), which were administered in 3 samples...
September 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Thomas G Almonroeder, Lauren C Benson, Kristian M O'Connor
Study Design Controlled laboratory study, cross-sectional. Background Orthotic prescription is often based on the premise that the mechanical effects will be more prominent in individuals with greater calcaneal eversion. Objective To compare the effects of a prefabricated foot orthosis on lower extremity kinematics and kinetics between recreational athletes with high and low calcaneal eversion during running. Methods Thirty-one recreational athletes were included in this study. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected while running with and without a foot orthosis...
September 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
J Dallinga, A Benjaminse, A Gokeler, N Cortes, E Otten, K Lemmink
Video feedback may be a powerful tool to change biomechanical landing patterns associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk. This study investigated the effect of video feedback on drop vertical jump (DVJ) landing strategies in team sport athletes. 59 athletes were assigned to a video feedback (VI) or control (CTRL) group. A pretest, 2 training sessions and a posttest were conducted. In both training sessions, video feedback, consisting of a video of the athlete's contour superimposed onto an expert's contour performing the DVJ landing task, was provided to the VI group; the CTRL group did not receive feedback...
July 18, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Steven F DeFroda, Joseph A Gil, Brett D Owens
PURPOSE: To quantify and compare the incidence of lower extremity injuries in skiers and snowboarders who present to emergency rooms in the United States. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of lower extremity injuries in skiers and snowboarders that were evaluated in emergency rooms in the United States. The National Electric Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database was queried from January 1st, 2014 and December 31st, 2014 and the reported cases of lower extremity injuries in skiers and snowboarders were examined...
July 7, 2016: Injury
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