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Jincai Zhao, Wanhong Ma
HO-adduct radicals have been investigated and confirmed as the common initial intermediates in TiO2 photocatalysis and Fenton degradations of water-insoluble aromatics. However, the evolution of HO-adduct radicals to phenols has not been completely clarified. In this study, we discovered that when 4-deuterium-toluene (4-d-toluene) and p-xylene were degraded by TiO2-photocatalysis and Fenton reactions, respectively, a portion of the 4-deuterium or 4-CH3 group (18~100%) at the attacked ipso position shifted to the adjacent position of the ring in the formed phenols (NIH shift)...
October 19, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Junshan Liu, Licheng He, Liang Wang, Yuncheng Man, Luyi Huang, Zheng Xu, Dan Ge, Jingmin Li, Chong Liu, Liding Wang
Polymer metallization is extensively used in a variety of micro and nano system technologies. However, the deposited metal film exhibits poor adhesion to polymer substrates, which may cause difficulties in many applications. In this work, ultraviolet (UV)-ozone surface modification is for the first time put forward to enhance the adhesion between metal films and polymer substrates. The adhesion of sputtered Cu films on UV-ozone modified polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates is enhanced by a factor of 6, and that of Au films is improved by a factor of 10...
October 17, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
A Rodriguez-Seijo, J Lourenço, T A P Rocha-Santos, J da Costa, A C Duarte, H Vala, R Pereira
The ocean has been assumed as the main sink of microplastics (MPs), however, soils may also receive MPs from different sources and through different pathways, which may affect the biota and their role in soil functions. To the best of our knowledge, only one study, until now, reported the effects of MPs on the survival and fitness of soil organisms (Lumbricus terrestris). In our study, epigeic earthworms, of the species E. andrei, were exposed to different concentrations of MPs (0, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg soildw) in an OECD artificial soil and tested for reproduction, survival and growth of adults, following a standard protocol...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Lei Zhou, Jing Liu, Faqin Dong
Mackinawite (FeS), widespread in low temperature aquatic environments, is generally considered to be the first Fe sulfide formed in sedimentary environments which has shown effective immobilization of heavy metals and toxic oxyanions through various sorption reactions. The spectroscopic study researches on mackinawite formed by FRB and SRB and its environmental implication for in-situ remediation of acid mine drainage where contains large amounts of Fe(3+) and SO4(2-). The XRD result of biologically synthetic particles shows that these particles are mainly composed of mackinawite (FeS0...
September 29, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Zhongyu Lin, Ren Hu, Jianzhang Zhou, Yiwen Ye, Zhaoxi Xu, Changjian Lin
The adsorption mechanism of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on hydroxyapatite (HA) for different time intervals has been studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)-attenuated total internal reflectance (ATR) spectrometry in this paper. The difference spectra obtained in HA and BSA frequency regions demonstrate that the binding of PO, from the phosphate (PO4(3-)) of HA, to the hydrogen of methyl (-CH3), methene (-CH2) and amideII (-CNH) in the protein appears to be much faster and stronger than that of the PO group...
September 30, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Edyta Biskup, David Gram Naym, Robert Gniadecki
BACKGROUND: Psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) photochemotherapy is a combination treatment used for inflammatory and neoplastic skin diseases such as mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). However, 30% of MF patients do not respond sufficiently to PUVA and require more aggressive therapies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this project was to investigate whether inhibition of Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3 related kinase (ATR) may enhance efficacy of phototherapy...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
Hanna Barchanska, Marcin Sajdak, Kornelia Szczypka, Angelika Swientek, Martyna Tworek, Magdalena Kurek
The aim of this study was to monitor the sediment, soil and surface water contamination with selected popular triketone herbicides (mesotrione (MES) and sulcotrione(SUL)), atrazine (ATR) classified as a possible carcinogen and endocrine disrupting chemical, as well as their degradation products, in Silesia (Poland). Seventeen sediment samples, 24 soil samples, and 64 surface water samples collected in 2014 were studied. After solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE), analytes were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD)...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mei-Chi Chang, Yi-Jane Chen, Eric Jein-Wein Liou, Wan-Yu Tseng, Chiu-Po Chan, Hseuh-Jen Lin, Wan-Chuen Liao, Ya-Ching Chang, Po-Yuan Jeng, Jiiang-Huei Jeng
Cardiovascular diseases (atherosclerosis, stroke, myocardiac infarction etc.) are the major systemic diseases of elder peoples in the world. This is possibly due to increased levels of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) such as 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) that damage vascular endothelial cells, induce inflammatory responses, to elevate the risk of cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and age-related macular degeneration. However the toxic effects of 7-KC on endothelial cells are not known...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Michael Mimouni, Achia Nemet, Russell Pokroy, Tzahi Sela, Gur Munzer, Igor Kaiserman
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of astigmatism axis on uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) in emmetropic eyes that underwent laser refractive surgery. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients who underwent laser in situ keratomileusis or photorefractive keratectomy between January 2000 and December 2015 at the Care-Vision Laser Centers, Tel Aviv, Israel. Eyes with a 3-month postoperative spherical equivalent between -0.5 D and 0.5 D were included in this study...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Pei T Mah, Dunja Novakovic, Jukka Saarinen, Stijn Van Landeghem, Leena Peltonen, Timo Laaksonen, Antti Isomäki, Clare J Strachan
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of compression on the crystallization behavior in amorphous tablets using sum frequency generation (SFG) microscopy imaging and more established analytical methods. METHOD: Tablets containing neat amorphous griseofulvin with/without excipients (silica, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)) were prepared. They were analyzed upon preparation and storage using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SFG microscopy...
October 13, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Rebecca A Weiss, Barry Rosenfeld
As the populations of Western countries become more diverse, the risk of inaccurately generalizing knowledge from majority ethnic groups to minority groups is increasing. However, few of the measures used in forensic assessment are based on normative samples that represent the considerable diversity present in forensic settings. This study examined 4 commonly used measures of feigning: the Dot Counting Test (DCT; Boone, Lu, & Herzberg, 2002); the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms (M-FAST; Miller, 2001); the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM; Tombaugh, 1996); and a validity scale (atypical responding; ATR) on the Trauma Symptom Inventory-2 (Briere, 2011)...
August 15, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Xuefeng Deng, Peng Xu, Wei Zou, Weiran Shen, Jianxin Peng, Kaiyu Liu, John F Engelhardt, Ziying Yan, Jianming Qiu
: Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), an emerging human pathogenic respiratory virus, is a member of the genus Bocaparvovirus of the Parvoviridae family. In human airway epithelia air-liquid interface (HAE-ALI) cultures, HBoV1 infection initiates a DNA damage response (DDR), activating all three phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PI3KKs): ATM, ATR and DNA-PKcs. In this context, activation of PI3KKs is a requirement for amplification of the HBoV1 genome (PLoS Pathog., 2016; 12:e1005399), and HBoV1 replicates only in terminally differentiated, non-dividing cells...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Virology
Xing Ma, Yingying Han, Xiaoqing Song, Trieu Do, Zhihao Yang, Jianquan Ni, Ting Xie
Stem cells in adult tissues are constantly exposed to genotoxic stress and also accumulate DNA damage with age. DNA damage has been proposed to cause stem cell loss and cancer formation. However, it remains a mystery how DNA damage leads to both stem cell loss and cancer formation. In this study, we use germline stem cells (GSCs) in the Drosophila ovary to show that DNA damage retards stem cell self-renewal and lineage differentiation in a CHK2 kinase-dependent manner. Both heatshock-inducible endonuclease I-CreI expression and X-ray irradiation can efficiently introduce double-strand breaks in GSCs and their progeny, resulting in a rapid GSC loss and an accumulation of ill-differentiated GSC progeny...
October 11, 2016: Development
Holly Stevens, Ashley B Williams, W Matthew Michael
To better understand how the cellular response to DNA replication stress is regulated during embryonic development, we and others have established the early C. elegans embryo as a model system to study this important problem. As is the case in most eukaryotic cell types, the replication stress response is controlled by the ATR kinase in early worm embryos. In this report we use RNAi to systematically characterize ATR pathway components for roles in promoting cell cycle delay during a replication stress response, and we find that these genetic requirements vary, depending on the source of stress...
2016: PloS One
Joseph Hufton, John H Harding, Maria E Romero-González
Bacterial extra polymeric substances (EPS) have been associated with the extracellular precipitation of uranium. Here we report findings on the biomineralisation of uranium, with extracellular DNA (eDNA) used as a model biomolecule representative of EPS. The complexation and precipitation of eDNA with uranium were investigated as a function of pH, ionic strength and varying concentrations of reactants. The role of phosphate moieties in the biomineralisation mechanism was studied by enzymatically releasing phosphate (ePO4) from eDNA compared to abiotic phosphate (aPO4)...
October 11, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Thomas E Bass, Jessica W Luzwick, Gina Kavanaugh, Clinton Carroll, Huzefa Dungrawala, Gloria G Glick, Michael D Feldkamp, Reid Putney, Walter J Chazin, David Cortez
The ATR checkpoint kinase coordinates cellular responses to DNA replication stress. Budding yeast contain three activators of Mec1 (the ATR orthologue); however, only TOPBP1 is known to activate ATR in vertebrates. We identified ETAA1 as a replication stress response protein in two proteomic screens. ETAA1-deficient cells accumulate double-strand breaks, sister chromatid exchanges, and other hallmarks of genome instability. They are also hypersensitive to replication stress and have increased frequencies of replication fork collapse...
October 10, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
Peter Haahr, Saskia Hoffmann, Maxim A X Tollenaere, Teresa Ho, Luis Ignacio Toledo, Matthias Mann, Simon Bekker-Jensen, Markus Räschle, Niels Mailand
Activation of the ATR kinase following perturbations to DNA replication relies on a complex mechanism involving ATR recruitment to RPA-coated single-stranded DNA via its binding partner ATRIP and stimulation of ATR kinase activity by TopBP1. Here, we discovered an independent ATR activation pathway in vertebrates, mediated by the uncharacterized protein ETAA1 (Ewing's tumour-associated antigen 1). Human ETAA1 accumulates at DNA damage sites via dual RPA-binding motifs and promotes replication fork progression and integrity, ATR signalling and cell survival after genotoxic insults...
October 10, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
Simantini Nayak, Andreas Erbe
In acidic solution, germanium surfaces undergo a transformation to hydrogen-terminated surfaces at sufficiently negative electrode potentials. Herein, we used in situ and operando attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy coupled to electrochemical experiments to study the details of this surface transformation on Ge(111) and Ge(100) in 0.1 M HClO4. The ATR-IR data gathered during the surface transformation are consistent with an interpretation according to which an intermediate state exists of a surface with mixed termination...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
V Ozhukil Kollath, K Karan
Ultrathin films of Nafion® have attracted significant attention in recent years owing to their application in a variety of electrochemical devices. For improved mechanical integrity, the films are often subjected to a thermal treatment step. In this paper, we report a variable-temperature Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study of ultra-thin (14 to 660 nm) Nafion films on SiO2/Si substrates in the attenuated total reflection mode. A key finding is the dramatic increase in the intensity of the 636-624 cm(-1) doublet band, generally associated with CF2 wagging or helix-reversal defect, observed at around 110 °C during in situ heating...
September 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Katherine V Oliver, Annalisa Vilasi, Amandine Maréchal, Shabbir H Moochhala, Robert J Unwin, Peter R Rich
Cystinuria is the commonest inherited cause of nephrolithiasis (~1% in adults; ~6% in children) and is the result of impaired cystine reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. Cystine is poorly soluble in urine with a solubility of ~1 mM and can readily form microcrystals that lead to cystine stone formation, especially at low urine pH. Diagnosis of cystinuria is made typically by ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) detection and quantitation, which is slow, laboursome and costly. More rapid and frequent monitoring of urinary cystine concentration would significantly improve the diagnosis and clinical management of cystinuria...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
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