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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165992/quantitative-chemical-analysis-at-the-nanoscale-using-the-ptir-technique
#1
Georg Ramer, Vladimir Aksyuk, Andrea Centrone
Photothermal induced resonance (PTIR), also known as AFM-IR, is a scanning probe technique that provides sample composition information with a lateral resolution down to 20 nm. Interest in PTIR stems from its ability to identify unknown samples at the nanoscale thanks, in first approximation, to the direct comparability of PTIR spectra with far-field infrared databases. The development of rapidly tuning quantum cascade lasers has increased the PTIR throughput considerably, making nanoscale hyper-spectral imaging within a reasonable timeframe possible...
November 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164856/aerosol-crosslinked-crown-ether-diols-melded-with-poly-vinyl-alcohol-as-specialized-microfibrous-li-adsorbents
#2
Lawrence A Limjuco, Grace Masbate Nisola, Rey Eliseo Castillo Torrejos, Jeong Woo Han, Ho Seong Song, Khino J Parohinog, Sangho Koo, Seong-Poong Lee, Wook-Jin Chung
Crown ether (CE)-based Li(+) adsorbent microfibers (MFs) were successfully fabricated through a combined use of CE diols, electrospinning, and aerosol crosslinking. The 14-16 membered CEs, with varied ring sub-units and cavity dimensions, have two hydroxyl groups for covalent attachments to poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as the chosen matrix. The CE diols were blended with PVA and transformed into microfibers via electrospinning, a highly effective technique in minimizing CE loss during MF fabrication. Subsequent aerosol glutaraldehyde (GA) crosslinking of the electrospun CE/PVA MFs stabilized the adsorbents in water...
November 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163782/bmi1-reduces-atr-activation-and-signalling-caused-by-hydroxyurea
#3
Xiaozeng Lin, Fengxiang Wei, Peter Whyte, Damu Tang
BMI1 facilitates DNA damage response (DDR) induced by double strand DNA breaks; however, it remains unknown whether BMI1 functions in single strand DNA (ssDNA) lesions-initiated DDR. We report here that BMI1 reduces hydroxyurea-elicited ATR activation, thereby reducing the S-phase checkpoints. Hydroxyurea induces ssDNA lesions, which activate ATR through binding TOPBP1 as evidenced by phosphorylation of ATR at threonine 1989 (ATRpT1989). ATR subsequently phosphorylates H2AX at serine 139 (γH2AX) and CHK1 at serine 345 (CHK1pS345), leading to phosphorylation of CDK1 at tyrosine 15 (CDK1pY15) and S-phase arrest...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162700/double-strand-dna-breaks-are-mainly-repaired-by-the-homologous-recombination-pathway-in-early-developing-swine-embryos
#4
Rodrigo C Bohrer, Naomi Dicks, Karina Gutierrez, Raj Duggavathi, Vilceu Bordignon
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are less frequent than single-strand breaks but have more harmful consequences on cell survival and physiology. Homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) are the two main pathways that are responsible for DSB repair in eukaryotic cells, but their importance for the preservation of genome stability in totipotent blastomeres of early developing embryos has not been determined. In this study, we observed that the chemical inhibition of HR or both pathways, but not NHEJ alone, increased the number of DSBs, reduced embryo development to the blastocyst stage, and resulted in embryos with higher proportions of apoptotic cells...
November 21, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161837/effect-of-seasonality-on-the-dynamics-of-an-imitation-based-vaccination-model-with-public-health-intervention
#5
Bruno Buonomo, Giuseppe Carbone, Alberto d'Onofrio
We extend here the game-theoretic investigation made by d'Onofrio et al (2012) on the interplay between private vaccination choices and actions of the public health system (PHS) to favor vaccine propensity in SIR-type diseases. We focus here on three important features. First, we consider a SEIR--type disease. Second, we focus on the role of seasonal fluctuations of the transmission rate. Third, by a simple population--biology approach we derive - with a didactic aim - the game theoretic equation ruling the dynamics of vaccine propensity, without employing 'economy--related' concepts such as the payoff...
February 1, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160940/morphological-transformation-of-hbmsc-from-2d-monolayer-to-3d-microtissue-on-low-crystallinity-sf-pcl-patch-with-promotion-of-cardiomyogenesis
#6
Hsin-Yu Lo, An-Li Huang, Pei-Chi Lee, Tze-Wen Chung, Shoei-Shen Wang
The effects of the stiffness of substrates on the cell behaviors of hBMSC have been investigated but the effects of the secondary structures of proteins in the substrates on the morphological transformation and differentiation of hBMSC have yet been elucidated. To investigate these issues, SP cardiac patches of poly(ε-caprolactone) (P), on which is grafted by silk (SF) with various β-sheet contents (or crystallinity) to provide various degrees of stiffness, were produced to examine the in-vitro behaviors of hBMSC during proliferation, and cardiomyogenesis on the SP patches...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160619/tendinopathy-diagnosis-and-treatment-monitoring-using-attenuated-total-reflectance-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy
#7
Tanmoy T Bhattacharjee, Mariana C Nicodemo, Luciana B Sant'Anna, Emilia A Lo Schiavo Arisawa, Leandro Raniero
Tendinopathy, an important sports injury afflicting athletes and general public, is associated with huge economic losses. The currently used diagnostic tests are subjective, show moderate sensitivity and specificity; while treatment failures persist despite advances in therapy. This highlights the need for tendinopathy diagnostic and treatment monitoring tools. The current study investigates tendon injury, natural healing and effect of treatment using ATR-FTIR complemented with histopathology. Control (C), injured (I) and treated (T) rat tendons were extracted 3, 7, 14 and 28 days post injury/treatment, representing phases of healing; and subjected to H&E staining as well as spectroscopy...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159831/design-and-development-of-low-cost-polyurethane-biopolymer-based-on-castor-oil-and-glycerol-for-biomedical-applications
#8
A C W Tan, B J Polo-Cambronell, E Provaggi, C Ardila-Suárez, G E Ramirez-Caballero, V G Baldovino-Medrano, D M Kalaskar
In the current study, we present the synthesis of novel low cost bio-polyurethane compositions with variable mechanical properties based on castor oil and glycerol for biomedical applications. A detailed investigation of the physicochemical properties of the polymer was carried out by using mechanical testing, ATR-FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Polymers were also tested in short term in-vitro cell culture with human mesenchymal stem cells to evaluate their biocompatibility for potential applications as biomaterial...
November 21, 2017: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158222/trehalose-metabolism-genes-render-rice-white-tip-nematode-aphelenchoides-besseyi-nematoda-aphelenchoididae-resistant-to-anaerobic-environment
#9
Qiaoli Chen, Feng Wang, Danlei Li, Ruizhi Zhang, Yaming Ling
After experiencing anaerobic environments, Aphelenchoides besseyi will enter a state of suspended animation known as anoxybiosis, which may use trehalose for energy supply to survive. To identify the function of trehalose metabolism, two trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) genes (Ab-tps1 and Ab-tps2) encoding enzymes catalyzing trehalose synthesis and three trehalase (TRE) genes (Ab-ntre1, Ab-ntre2 and Ab-atre) encoding enzymes catalyzing the hydrolysis of trehalose were identified and investigated. Ab-tps1 and Ab-tps2 were active when A...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157089/the-relationship-between-dna-single-stranded-damage-response-and-double-stranded-damage-response
#10
Aiqing Ma, Xianhua Dai
The damage response of DNA single-stranded breaks(SSBs) and double-stranded breaks(DSBs) are two relatively independent processes involving different signaling pathways and protein factors, but there are still many overlapping parts. All of them can activate p53 protein, then the activated p53 regulates the damage response of single-stranded breaks or double-stranded breaks in transcriptional regulation and non-transcriptional regulation. Especially, the two types of damage would compete for RPA and ATR resources in damage repair process...
November 20, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157079/zeb1-inhibition-sensitizes-cells-to-the-atr-inhibitor-ve-821-by-abrogating-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-enhancing-dna-damage
#11
Na Song, Wei Jing, Ce Li, Ming Bai, Yu Cheng, Heming Li, Kezuo Hou, Yanrong Li, Kai Wang, Zhi Li, Yunpeng Liu, Xiujuan Qu, Xiaofang Che
The ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and rad3-related (ATR) checkpoint pathway plays an essential role in modulating cellular responses to replication stress and DNA damage to maintain genomic stability. In various tumors, cancer cells have increased dependence on ATR signaling for survival, making ATR a promising target for cancer therapy. ATR inhibitors sensitize multiple tumor cell types to radiation and DNA-damaging agents, but application of an ATR inhibitor alone shows limited efficacy. In the present study, we investigated the role of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the EMT transcription factor ZEB1 in regulating cell sensitivity to the ATR inhibitor VE-821...
November 20, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155403/phyto-assisted-synthesis-of-bio-functionalised-silver-nanoparticles-and-their-potential-anti-oxidant-anti-microbial-and-wound-healing-activities
#12
Yugal Kishore Mohanta, Kunal Biswas, Sujogya Kumar Panda, Jaya Bandyopadhyay, Debashis De, Rasu Jayabalan, Akshaya Kumar Bastia, Tapan Kumar Mohanta
Bio- synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was made by using the aqueous leaf extract of Ardisia solanacea. Rapid formation of AgNPs was observed from silver nitrate upon treatment with the aqueous extract of A. solanacea leaf. The formation and stability of the AgNPs in the colloidal solution were monitored by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The mean particle diameter of AgNPs was calculated from the DLS with an average size ∼4 nm and ∼65 nm. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of alcohols, aldehydes, flavonoids, phenols and nitro compounds in the leaf which act as the stabilizing agent...
December 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153451/a-novel-minimally-invasive-surgery-combined-with-early-exercise-therapy-promoting-tendon-regeneration-in-the-treatment-of-spontaneous-achilles-tendon-rupture
#13
Amuding Aisaiding, Jianping Wang, Rouziwanguli Maimaiti, Ayidaer Jialihasia, Rakimbaiev Aibek, Bayixiati Qianman, Nuerai Shawutali, Aynaz Badelhan, Wulan Bahetiya, Aliya Kubai, Mailamuguli Kelamu, Yeermike Nuerdoula, Elihaer Makemutibieke, Yerzat Bakyt, Jianati Wuerliebieke, Jiasharete Jielile
OBJECTIVE: Acute closed spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture often occurs in elderly individuals and is usually accompanied with many complications. Conventional surgical approaches to remove the tendon lesions and enthesophytes are highly traumatic and cause complications. In this study, a previously established minimally invasive surgical approach was modified and combined with a Kazakh exercise therapy to reduce trauma, improve wound healing, and promote tendon regeneration in the management of acute closed spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture...
October 31, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150470/platelet-rich-plasma-in-achilles-tendon-healing-2-path-2-trial-protocol-for-a-multicentre-participant-and-assessor-blinded-parallel-group-randomised-clinical-trial-comparing-platelet-rich-plasma-prp-injection-versus-placebo-injection-for-achilles-tendon-rupture
#14
Joseph Alsousou, David J Keene, Philippa A Hulley, Paul Harrison, Susan Wagland, Christopher Byrne, Michael Maia Schlüssel, Susan J Dutton, Sarah E Lamb, Keith Willett
BACKGROUND: Achilles tendon injuries give rise to substantial long-lasting morbidity and pose considerable challenges for clinicians and patients during the lengthy healing period. Current treatment strategies struggle to curb the burden of this injury on health systems and society due to lengthy rehabilitation, work absence and reinjury risk. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous preparation that has been shown to improve the mechanobiological properties of tendons in laboratory and animal studies...
November 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150289/the-cause-of-multiple-sclerosis-is-autoimmune-attack-of-adenosyltransferase-thereby-limiting-adenosylcobalamin-production
#15
J L Boucher
The pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) begins with an infection by a bacterium from the class of bacteria that produce and utilize adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) and possess an adenosyl transferase enzyme (ATR); these bacteria are the exogenous antigens that cause MS. Human ATR is homologous to bacterial ATR and B cells produce anti-ATR antibodies as an autoimmune response thereby reducing the concentration of ATR and thus limiting production of AdoCbl, one of the two bioactive forms of vitamin B12. The next step in MS pathogenesis is a period of subclinical AdoCbl deficiency over a period of many years resulting in production of odd-carbon-number fatty acids that are incorporated into myelin rendering it antigenic...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145151/vildagliptin-loaded-triangular-dna-nanospheres-coated-with-eudragit-for-oral-delivery-and-better-glycemic-control-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Mirza Muhammad Faran Ashraf Baig, Sara Khan, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem, Ghulam Jilany Khan, Muhammad Tayyab Ansari
Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a multidimensional disease associated with poor glycemic control through compromised sensitivity of pancreatic islet α and β cells against glucose and dwindled secretion of insulin which is linked with the quantity of incretin hormones that are abridged by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) in diseased condition. Vildagliptin (VG) inhibits DPP-4 therefore regulates the incretins that conversely maintains glycemic control. The safe reach and absorption of VG from intestine was dubious...
November 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144413/epstein-barr-virus-hijacks-dna-damage-response-transducers-to-orchestrate-its-life-cycle
#17
REVIEW
Pok Man Hau, Sai Wah Tsao
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous virus that infects most of the human population. EBV infection is associated with multiple human cancers, including Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, a subset of gastric carcinomas, and almost all undifferentiated non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Intensive research has shown that EBV triggers a DNA damage response (DDR) during primary infection and lytic reactivation. The EBV-encoded viral proteins have been implicated in deregulating the DDR signaling pathways...
November 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141146/the-effect-of-pressure-and-temperature-on-mid-infrared-sensing-of-dissolved-hydrocarbons-in-water
#18
Charles Heath, Matthew B Myers, Bobby Pejcic
Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy using a polymer coated internal reflection element/waveguide is an established sensor platform for the detection of a range of organic and hydrocarbon molecules dissolved in water. The polymer coating serves two purposes: to concentrate hydrocarbons from the aqueous phase and to exclude water along with other interfering molecules from the surface of the internal reflection element. Crucial to reliable quantification and analytical performance is the calibration of the ATR-FTIR sensor which is commonly performed in water under mild ambient conditions (i...
November 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140371/biofunctionalization-of-titanium-granules-with-simvastatin-for-improving-osteogenic-activity-and-antibacterial-properties-ex-vivo-study
#19
Zahra Gorgin Karaji, Behzad Houshmand, Shahsanam Abbasi, Sara Shafiei, Shahab Faghihi
PURPOSE: Titanium-based biomaterials present good biocompatibility, while their osseointegration and antibacterial properties need to be improved. This study aimed to enhance the bone-bonding ability of titanium-based granules, which are intended to be used as bone graft. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The titanium granules were anodized in ethylene glycol-based electrolyte and subsequently annealed to be loaded separately with simvastatin. The samples were then inspected with attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) for drug loading...
November 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138572/current-status-of-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-inhibitors-and-future-directions
#20
REVIEW
Akihiro Ohmoto, Shinichi Yachida
Inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), which play a key role in DNA damage/repair pathways, have been developed as antitumor agents based on the concept of synthetic lethality. Synthetic lethality is the idea that cell death would be efficiently induced by simultaneous loss of function of plural key molecules, for example, by exposing tumor cells with inactivating gene mutation of BRCA-mediated DNA repair to chemically induced inhibition of PARPs. Indeed, three PARP inhibitors, olaparib, rucaparib and niraparib have already been approved in the US or Europe, mainly for the treatment of BRCA-mutant ovarian cancer...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
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