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Laura A S Quilter, Eve Obondi, Colin Kunzweiler, Duncan Okall, Robert C Bailey, Gaston Djomand, Boaz Otieno-Nyunya, Fredrick Otieno, Susan M Graham
OBJECTIVES: In settings where laboratory capacity is limited, the WHO recommends presumptive treatment for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in asymptomatic men who have sex with men (MSM) at high risk for these infections. However, little is known about how best to target this intervention. We aimed to identify correlates of anorectal NG/CT infection in Kenyan MSM with and without anorectal symptoms and evaluate the performance of an empirical, model-based risk score to identify cases in asymptomatic men...
September 21, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Kouhei Sakai, Junji Matsuo, Takanori Watanabe, Torahiko Okubo, Shinji Nakamura, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi
We monitored Chlamydia trachomatis growth in HeLa cells cultured with either DMEM or RPMI medium containing 10% FCS under 2% or 21% O2 conditions for 2 days. Bacterial numbers, host cell numbers, and fibrosis-related gene expression in the host cells were estimated by an inclusion forming unit assay, a cell counting assay, and a PCR array, respectively. In contrast to RPMI, bacterial growth under low oxygen conditions in DMEM rapidly decreased with increasing host cell density. The addition of supplements (glucose, glutamine, vitamin B12, D-biotin, non-essential amino acids, glutathione) to the media had no effect...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Linda A Selvey, Claudia Slimings, Emma Adams, Justin Manuel
Introduction: Despite a range of interventions, annual numbers of new diagnoses of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Australia have not declined in recent years. Peer-based sexual health clinics targeting MSM, such as the M Clinic in Perth (WA, Australia), have been put in place to provide safe sex counselling and to increase testing rates among MSM and who are at high risk of HIV infection. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea among men attending the M Clinic...
September 21, 2018: Sexual Health
Chris Kenyon
Numerous PrEP guidelines recommend 3 monthly screening for gonorrhoea and chlamydia. To quantify the risk of antimicrobial resistance this may induce, we conducted a literature review of the incidence of gonorrhoea and chlamydia in PrEP studies that conducted 3 site, 3 monthly screening. We found that screening could result in macrolide consumption rates that exceed those in high macrolide consumption populations where consumption has been strongly associated with macrolide resistance.
September 17, 2018: AIDS
Danielle Cazabon, Tripti Pande, Sandra Kik, Wayne Van Gemert, Hojoon Sohn, Claudia Denkinger, Zhi Zhen Qin, Brenda Waning, Madhukar Pai
Background: Xpert® MTB/RIF, a rapid tuberculosis (TB) molecular test, was endorsed by the World Health Organization in 2010. Since then, 34.4 million cartridges have been procured under concessional pricing. Although the roll out of this diagnostic is promising, previous studies showed low market penetration. Methods: To assess 3-year trends of market penetration of Xpert MTB/RIF in the public sector, smear and Xpert MTB/RIF volumes for the year 2016 were assessed and policies from 2014-2016 within 22 high-burden countries (HBCs) were studied...
July 25, 2018: Gates open research
Jie Ren, Yuanli Guo, Lili Shao, Yuanjun Liu, Quanzhong Liu
Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infections. C. trachomatis genital infection may lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility, which are major public health problems. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of this bacterium remain unclear, and the efficacy of clinical therapeutics is unsatisfactory. In the current study, whether Vp1 can alleviate the cytotoxicity induced by Chlamydia trachomatis infection was investigated. C. trachomatis was pre-treated with BSA or purified Vp1 protein and used to infect HeLa cells...
October 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Juan Ignacio García, Meritxell Sabidó, Mikhail Nikiforov, Adriana Smith, Gabriela Hernández, Rudy Ortiz, Luis Ardani, Alba Cajas, Elsy Camey, Jordi B Torrelles, Shu-Hua Wang, Colin N J Campbell, Cinta Folch, Jordi Casabona
OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare trends in prevalence, sexual behaviour and HIV transmission knowledge data related to sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV in patients attending three STI clinics over an 8-year period in Escuintla Department, Guatemala. METHODS: STI clinic attendees were classified into transmission groups as follows: female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM) and 'high-risk heterosexuals' (HRH). Annual cross-sectional analysis and multivariable Poisson regression adjusted for sociodemographic variables were used for prevalence comparisons and adjusted prevalence trends for HIV/STI outcomes and used for adjusted trends in proportions in sexual behaviour and HIV transmission knowledge outcomes...
September 19, 2018: BMJ Open
Susanna Currie, Catherine H Mercer, Kevin J Dunbar, John Saunders, Sarah C Woodhall
The extent to which healthcare professionals (HCPs) and young people (YP) are aware of, and adhere to, National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP) recommendations on testing frequency is unclear. To address this two cross-sectional surveys in 2015-2016: one among genitourinary medicine (GUM) and non-GUM HCPs (n = 109) and the other among YP attending a GUM clinic in England (n = 195). For both, questions were designed to measure awareness of NCSP guidance and whether respondents acted on that knowledge...
September 19, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Luiza de Miranda Lima, Carolina René Hoelzle, Renata Toscano Simões, Maria Inês de Miranda Lima, Jordana Rodrigues Barbosa Fradico, Elvis Cristian Cueva Mateo, Danielle Alves Gomes Zauli, Victor Hugo Melo
OBJECTIVE:  To determine the frequency of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in asymptomatic women and the association of STIs with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). METHODS:  A cross-sectional study was performed, enrolling women examined in a general gynecology clinic and in a colposcopy referral center from October 2014 to October 2015. The colposcopy group consisted of 71 women, and the general gynecology group consisted of 55 women. Cervical samples were collected for cervical cytology and a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to detect human papillomavirus (HPV) and the STIs caused by the following microorganisms: Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum , and Neisseria gonorrhoeae ...
September 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Alex J Warr, Jillian Pintye, John Kinuthia, Alison L Drake, Jennifer A Unger, R Scott McClelland, Daniel Matemo, Lusi Osborn, Grace John-Stewart
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the relationship of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital infections during pregnancy and subsequent risk for infant mortality and stillbirth. METHODS: This was a nested longitudinal analysis using data from a study of peripartum HIV acquisition in Kenya. In the parent study, HIV-uninfected women were enrolled during pregnancy and followed until 9 months postpartum. For this analysis, women who tested positive for HIV at any point, had a non-singleton pregnancy or a spontaneous abortion <20 weeks were excluded...
September 18, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Florian Tagini, Gilbert Greub
Chlamydiae are a heterogeneous group of strict intracellular bacteria. Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infection. Being generally asymptomatic, C. trachomatis infections are a major cause of tubar infertility and extra-uterine pregnancy. C. pneumoniae may cause asthmatic bronchitis. C. psittaci infections, although usually developped after exposure to infected birds, has recently been documented following exposure to infected horses. Waddlia chondrophila is an emerging human pathogen of miscarriage...
September 12, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Miguel A Freiria-Eiras, Cristina Varela-Lamas
El síndrome de Fitz-Hugh-Curtis (FHCS) es la inflamación de la cápsula hepática sin afectación del parénquima asociada a una enfermedad pélvica inflamatoria. Hay muy pocos casos descritos en varones. El síntoma característico es el dolor abdominal en el cuadrante superior derecho, que hace que se confunda el cuadro con una enfermedad de la vía biliar. Son características las adherencias fuertes entre el diafragma y el hígado en forma de «cuerda de violín». Presentamos el caso de un varón de 81 años que se somete a una colecistectomía laparoscópica por pancreatitis de repetición...
2018: Cirugia y Cirujanos
Nittaya Phanuphak, Supanit Pattanachaiwit, Tippawan Pankam, Nipat Teeratakulpisarn, Parinya Chamnan, Panita Pathipvanich, Suchart Thongpaen, Siriporn Nonenoy, Jureeporn Jantarapakde, Supabhorn Pengnonyang, Deondara Trachunthong, Thanthip Sungsing, Kittiyaporn Parasate, Sriprai Seeneewong Na Ayutthaya, Ketmookda Trairat, Kanitta Pussadee, Cheewanan Lertpiriyasuwat, Praphan Phanuphak
INTRODUCTION: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). There have been concerns that undiagnosed and untreated STIs could undermine efforts to use antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention due to genital secretion infectiousness. We evaluated the correlation between STIs and HIV RNA in anogenital compartments among HIV-positive MSM before and after ART. METHODS: MSM participants newly diagnosed with HIV were offered ART regardless of CD4 count during November 2012 to November 2015...
September 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
M Stojanov, D Baud, G Greub, N Vulliemoz
Infertility is a disease that affects one in seven couples. As male infertility affects approximately 30% of these couples with an unknown cause in half the cases, it represents a major public health concern. The classic treatment of male infertility involves intrauterine insemination, with modest outcome, and in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection, which is known to be invasive and expensive, without treating the specific cause of infertility. Male fertility is mainly evaluated through a semen assessment where abnormal parameters such as concentration and motility can be associated with a decreased chance of conception...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
Sunila Shakya, Solveig Thingulstad, Unni Syversen, Svein Arne Nordbø, Surendra Madhup, Krista Vaidya, Biraj Man Karmacharya, Bjørn Olav Åsvold, Jan Egil Afset
Introduction: We have previously determined the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women in rural Nepal. In the current study, we also wanted to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the same population. Methods: Population-based study of nonpregnant women ≥ 15 years who were married or had a history of marriage in the past, residing in five rural villages in Nepal. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, reproductive history, and genitourinary symptoms were collected, and a gynecological examination was conducted...
2018: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
G Keb, R Hayman, K A Fields
As obligate intracellular bacteria, Chlamydia spp. have evolved numerous-likely intricate- mechanisms to create and maintain a privileged intracellular niche. Recent progress in elucidating and characterizing these processes has been bolstered by the development of techniques enabling basic genetic tractability. Florescence-reported allelic exchange mutagenesis (FRAEM) couples chromosomal gene deletion with insertion of a selection cassette encoding antibiotic resistance and GFP. Similar to other bacteria, many chlamydial genes exist within polycistronic operons, raising the possibility of polar effects mediated by insertion cassettes...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Dara Zirofsky, Wendy Rekers, Cynthia Powell, Jennifer Hawley, Julia Veir, Michael Lappin
Signs of ocular infections like discharge and conjunctivitis occur commonly in cats in shelters and feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), Chlamydia felis, Mycoplasma spp, and feline calicivirus (FCV) are thought to be the most common causes. While molecular assays are available to amplify nucleic acids of each of these agents as single tests or in panels, additional information is needed concerning whether the assay results can be used to predict response to treatment. The objectives of this study were to report results for conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays that amplify nucleic acids of FHV-1, Mycoplasma spp...
June 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Paul Thibault
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2018: Phlebology
Yina Sun, Jie Kong, Jingyue Ma, Manli Qi, Ying Zhang, Long Han, Quanzhong Liu, Yuanjun Liu
Chlamydia has a unique intracellular developmental cycle, which has hindered the single protein function study of Chlamydia. Recently developed transformation system of Chlamydia has greatly advanced the chlamydial protein's function research and was used to find that a chlamydial plasmid-encoded Pgp5 protein can down-regulate plasmid-dependent genes. It is assumed, that chlamydial genomic MinD protein has a similar function to Pgp5. However, it is unknown whether MinD protein regulates the same plasmid-dependent genes...
2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Houman Faghihi, Ghazal Aftab, Seyed Mehdi Rajaei, Farnoush Arfaee
This study aimed to evaluate the bacterial flora in the conjunctival fornix of clinically normal Persian squirrels ( Sciurus anomalus). Forty healthy Persian squirrels of equal gender distribution with similar ages (approximately 2 yr) were used for this study. A total of 80 conjunctival swabs were taken from both the right and left eyes of each squirrel for aerobic and anaerobic bacterial identification. A slit-lamp examination was conducted and no external ocular disease was identified. From 80 normal eyes, Staphylococcus spp...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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