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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029270/does-active-oral-sex-contribute-to-female-infertility
#1
Patrik M Bavoil, Patricia X Marques, Rebecca Brotman, Jacques Ravel
Based on recent, historical, and circumstantial evidence, we present a multifactorial hypothesis that has potential direct implications on the epidemiology and management of chlamydial infection and disease in humans. We propose that (1) like its veterinary relatives, the oculogenital pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis evolved as a commensal organism of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract primarily transmissible via the fecal-oral route; (2) in the modern era, C. trachomatis causes "opportunistic" infection at non-GI sites under conditions driven by improved sanitation/hygiene and reduced fecal-oral transmission; and (3) the rise in the practice of oral sex is contributing to the increased prevalence of C...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028977/evolving-understanding-of-the-causes-of-pneumonia-in-adults-with-special-attention-to-the-role-of-pneumococcus
#2
Daniel M Musher, Michael S Abers, John G Bartlett
Before 1945, Streptococcus pneumoniae caused more than 90% of cases of pneumonia in adults. After 1950, the proportion of pneumonia caused by pneumococcus began to decline. Pneumococcus has continued to decline; at present, this organism is identified in fewer than fewer10%-15% of cases. This proportion is higher in Europe, a finding likely related to differences in vaccination practices and smoking. Gram-negative bacilli, Staphylococcus aureus, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and Legionella are each identified in 2%-5% of patients with pneumonia who require hospitalization...
September 27, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028971/infrequent-testing-of-women-for-rectal-chlamydia-and-gonorrhea-in-the-united-states
#3
Guoyu Tao, Karen W Hoover, Melinda B Nye, Philip J Peters, Thomas L Gift, Barbara A Body
Background: Anal sex is a common sexual behavior among women that increases their risk of acquiring rectal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC). Methods: We estimated the frequency and positivity of rectal CT and GC tests for women aged 15-60 years performed by a large U.S. commercial laboratory between November 2012 and September 2015. We also estimated the frequency and positivity of pharyngeal and genital specimens also performed on the same date...
October 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028966/high-rates-of-subsequent-asymptomatic-stis-and-risky-sexual-behavior-in-patients-initially-presenting-with-primary-hiv-1-infection
#4
Dominique L Braun, Alex Marzel, Daniela Steffens, Peter W Schreiber, Christina Grube, Alexandra U Scherrer, Roger D Kouyos, Huldrych F Günthard
Introduction: Knowledge of the characteristics and risk factors of individuals with an asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection (STI) is essential for implementation of targeted STI screening strategies. Methods: Between June 2015 and January 2017 an STI screening was offered to all participants in the Zurich Primary HIV-1 Infection Study. Patients were tested for gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, and hepatitis C virus. Determinants of STI prevalence and incidence were assessed using mixed-model logistic regression and survival analysis...
October 5, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027480/a-learning-collaborative-approach-to-improve-primary-care-sti-screening
#5
M Diane McKee, Elizabeth Alderman, Deborah V York, Arthur E Blank, Rahil D Briggs, Kelsey E S Hoidal, Christopher Kus, Claudia Lechuga, Marie Mann, Paul Meissner, Nisha Patel, Andrew D Racine
The Bronx Ongoing Pediatric Screening (BOPS) project sought to improve screening for sexual activity and sexually transmitted infections (gonorrhea and chlamydia [GCC] and HIV) in a primary care network, employing a modified learning collaborative, real-time clinical data feedback to practices, improvement coaching, and a pay-for-quality monetary incentive. Outcomes are compared for 11 BOPS-participating sites and 10 non-participating sites. The quarterly median rate for documenting sexual activity status increased from 55% to 88% (BOPS sites) and from 13% to 74% (non-BOPS sites)...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027172/using-intra-chip-to-measure-protein-dna-interactions-in-intracellular-pathogens
#6
Brett R Hanson, Ming Tan
Chromatin immunoprecipitation is used to measure the binding of transcription factors to target DNA sequences in order to better understand transcriptional regulation. Here, we describe a process to analyze bacterial transcription factor binding in the context of an infected eukaryotic host cell. Using this approach, we measured the binding kinetics of three Chlamydia trachomatis transcription factors within infected cells, and demonstrated temporal changes in binding.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026452/leveraging-public-health-s-participation-in-a-health-information-exchange-to-improve-communicable-disease-reporting
#7
Ian Painter, Debra Revere, P Joseph Gibson, Janet Baseman
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases can appear and spread rapidly. Timely information about disease patterns and trends allows public health agencies to quickly investigate and efficiently contain those diseases. But disease case reporting to public health has traditionally been paper-based, resulting in somewhat slow, burdensome processes. Fortunately, the expanding use of electronic health records and health information exchanges has created opportunities for more rapid, complete, and easily managed case reporting and investigation...
2017: Online Journal of Public Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025633/association-between-male-circumcision-and-women-s-biomedical-health-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#8
Jonathan M Grund, Tyler S Bryant, Inimfon Jackson, Kelly Curran, Naomi Bock, Carlos Toledo, Joanna Taliano, Sheng Zhou, Jorge Martin Del Campo, Ling Yang, Apollo Kivumbi, Peizi Li, Sherri Pals, Stephanie M Davis
BACKGROUND: Male circumcision reduces men's risk of acquiring HIV and some sexually transmitted infections from heterosexual exposure, and is essential for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies have also investigated associations between male circumcision and risk of acquisition of HIV and sexually transmitted infections in women. We aimed to review all evidence on associations between male circumcision and women's health outcomes to benefit women's health programmes. METHODS: In this systematic review we searched for peer-reviewed and grey literature publications reporting associations between male circumcision and women's health outcomes up to April 11, 2016...
November 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025419/strong-associations-between-national-prevalence-of-various-stis-suggests-sexual-network-connectivity-is-a-common-underpinning-risk-factor
#9
Chris Kenyon
BACKGROUND: If national peak Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence is positively associated with the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from before or early on in the HIV epidemics this would suggest common underlying drivers. METHODS: Pearson's correlations were calculated between the prevalence of seven STIs at a country-level: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and HIV...
October 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022544/lymphogranuloma-venereum-rates-increased-and-chlamydia-trachomatis-genotypes-changed-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-sweden-2004-2016
#10
Jenny Isaksson, Ola Carlsson, Åsa Airell, Susanne Strömdahl, Göran Bratt, Björn Herrmann
This study aimed to determine the incidence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in Sweden since 2004 and to study in detail a consecutive number of Chlamydia trachomatis cases in men who have sex with men (MSM) during a 10 month period (September 2014 to July 2015). LGV increased from sporadic import cases in 2004 to comprise a spread within Sweden in 2016. Initially, only the L2b ompA genotype was detected, but in 2015 half of the genotyped LGV cases were L2 genotype. The changing genotype distribution in Sweden is linked to increased LGV spread in Europe...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022366/examining-sociodemographic-risk-factors-for-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-a-population-based-cohort-study
#11
Ranjani Somayaji, Christopher Naugler, Maggie Guo, Deirdre L Church
AIM: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection in developed nations and is an important public health concern. We aimed to assess the factors associated with testing and positivity of C. trachomatis in a large population. METHODS: A retrospective study of a large Canadian health region was undertaken using 2011 census and laboratory data. Demographic and socioeconomic data from the national household survey were linked to microbiologic data for C...
October 12, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021154/laboratory-validation-of-xpert%C3%A2-ct-ng-and-tv-testing-as-performed-by-nurses-at-three-primary-healthcare-facilities-in-south-africa
#12
Remco P H Peters, Lindsey de Vos, Maduna Liteboho, Maanda Mudau, Jeffrey D Klausner, Marleen M Kock, Andrew Medina-Marino
The introduction of molecular diagnostic tests provides an important step to address the burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV).….
October 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020835/quantifying-benefits-of-using-health-information-exchange-to-support-public-health-sti-reporting-and-treatment-in-western-new-york
#13
Saira N Haque, Heather Territo, Robert Bailey, Barbara Massoudi, Ross Loomis, Gale Burstein
OBJECTIVE: To calculate average savings of using health information exchange (HIE) for demographic and treatment requests for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in Western New York, specifically the Erie County Department of Health and its catchment area. METHOD: We conducted a mixed-method case study. Qualitative methods included interviews, document review, and workflow mapping, which were used as the inputs to identify time savings. Case rates, time savings, and salary averages were used to calculate average savings...
January 1, 2017: HIM Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016320/comparison-of-platforms-for-testing-antibody-responses-against-the-chlamydia-trachomatis-antigen-pgp3
#14
Sarah Gwyn, Gretchen Cooley, Brook Goodhew, Stephan Kohloff, Natalie Banniettis, Ryan Wiegand, Diana L Martin
Antibody responses to Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) antigens may be useful tools for surveillance of trachoma by estimating cumulative prevalence of infection within a population. Data were compared from three different platforms-multiplex bead array (MBA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and lateral flow assay (LFA)-measuring antibody responses against the CT antigen protein plasmid gene product 3 (Pgp3). Sensitivity was defined as the proportion of specimens testing antibody positive from a set of dried blood spots from Tanzanian 1-9-year olds who were positive for CT nucleic acid of all nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive individuals (N = 103)...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993660/molecular-evidence-of-chlamydia-pecorum-and-arthropod-associated-chlamydiae-in-an-expanded-range-of-marsupials
#15
Delaney Burnard, Wilhelmina M Huston, Jonathan K Webb, Martina Jelocnik, Andrea Reiss, Amber Gillett, Sean Fitzgibbon, Scott Carver, Janine Carrucan, Cheyne Flanagan, Peter Timms, Adam Polkinghorne
The order Chlamydiales are biphasic intracellular bacterial pathogens infecting humans and domesticated animals. Wildlife infections have also been reported, with the most studied example being Chlamydia pecorum infections in the koala, an iconic Australian marsupial. In koalas, molecular evidence suggests that spill-over from C. pecorum infected livestock imported into Australia may have had a historical or contemporary role. Despite preliminary evidence that other native Australian marsupials also carry C...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993385/prevalence-of-trichomonas-vaginalis-infection-and-protozoan-load-in-south-african-women-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Dewi J de Waaij, Jan Henk Dubbink, Sander Ouburg, Remco P H Peters, Servaas A Morré
OBJECTIVES: Trichomonas vaginalis is thought to be the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors and protozoan load of T. vaginalis infection in South African women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 604 women was conducted at 25 primary healthcare facilities in rural South Africa (Mopani district). T. vaginalis DNA was detected in vaginal and rectal swabs. In univariate and multivariate analyses, the T...
October 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992068/cost-benefit-analysis-of-a-chlamydia-trachomatis-vaccine-program-in-adolescent-girls-in-the-united-states
#17
Jared Ditkowsky, Afsana Rahman, Margaret R Hammerschlag, Stephan Kohlhoff, Tamar A Smith-Norowitz
Background: With >1.4 million cases in the United States reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012, Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a major public health concern. We examined the impact of a C trachomatis vaccination program using a decision-analysis model to estimate the effects of vaccination on C trachomatis-associated costs and morbidity. Methods: We developed a Markov model considering a cohort of 2158117 US females aged 9 to 26 years...
September 7, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991723/infections-and-chlamydia-pneumoniae-antibodies-influence-the-functional-outcome-in-thrombolysed-strokes
#18
Domenico Consoli, Simone Vidale, Marco Arnaboldi, Anna Cavallini, Arturo Consoli, Franco Galati, Donata Guidetti, Giuseppe Micieli, Maurizia Rasura, Roberto Sterzi, Danilo Toni, Domenico Inzitari
OBJECTIVE: Thrombolysis is effective in ischemic stroke patients, but some factors influence its benefit. Previous infections could increase the risk of ischemic stroke by an activation of systemic inflammation. We analysed the influence of previous infections and Chlamydia pneumoniae serology on functional outcome in thrombolysed stroke patients. METHODS: Consecutive thrombolysed stroke patients admitted during calendar year 2011 were analysed. Demographics, vascular risk factors, clinical and aetiological data were registered...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990409/hiv-primary-care-by-the-infectious-disease-physician-in-the-united-states-extending-the-continuum-of-care
#19
Seetha Lakshmi, Susan E Beekmann, Philip M Polgreen, Allan Rodriguez, Maria L Alcaide
Models of care for people living with HIV (PLWH) have varied over time due to long term survival, development of HIV-associated non-AIDS conditions, and HIV specific primary care guidelines that differ from those of the general population. The objectives of this study are to assess how often infectious disease (ID) physicians provide primary care for PLWH, assess their practice patterns and barriers in the provision of primary care. We used a 6-item survey electronically distributed to ID physician members of Emerging Infections Network (EIN)...
October 9, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989988/a-risk-based-model-for-predicting-the-impact-of-using-condoms-on-the-spread-of-sexually-transmitted-infections
#20
Asma Azizi, Karen Ríos-Soto, Anuj Mubayi, James M Hyman
We create and analyze a mathematical model to estimate the impact of condom-use and sexual behavior on the prevalence and spread of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). STIs remain a significant public health challenge globally with a high burden of some Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) in both developed and undeveloped countries. Although condom-use is known to reduce the transmission of STIs, there are a few quantitated population-based studies on the protective role of condom-use in reducing the incidence of STIs...
February 2017: Infectious disease modelling
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