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"History of medicine"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804866/virally-vectored-vaccine-delivery-medical-needs-mechanisms-advantages-and-challenges
#1
Daniel D Pinschewer
Vaccines represent one of the most successful chapters in the history of medicine. Over the past decades, the advent of recombinant cDNA technology has enabled the biomedical community to genetically engineer viruses for vaccine delivery purposes. As a starting point, this review evaluates the unmet medical needs, which drive scientists and industry to exploit such fundamentally new technology for human vaccination. The author discusses the molecular functioning, production and safety profile of replication-competent and -deficient viral vector systems, representing two fundamentally distinct classes of "genetic vaccines"...
August 14, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790500/personomics-and-precision-medicine
#2
Roy C Ziegelstein
The importance of knowing patients as individuals has been highlighted throughout the history of medicine. However, shorter visits, electronic documentation, reliance on technology, and increasing linguistic and cultural differences between patients and physicians create more challenges to effective communication than ever before. Perhaps more concerning is the greater emphasis on aspects of care considered more precisely measurable and quantifiable, the sum of which is sometimes felt to represent the patient better than knowledge of the patient himself...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790467/current-concepts-in-acetabular-positioning-in-total-hip-arthroplasty
#3
Deepu Bhaskar, Asim Rajpura, Tim Board
Being one of the most successful surgeries in the history of medicine, the indications for total hip arthroplasty have widened and are increasingly being offered to younger and fitter patients. This has also led to high expectations for longevity and outcomes. Acetabular cup position has a significant impact on the results of hip arthroplasty as it affects dislocation, abductor muscle strength, gait, limb lengths, impingement, noise generation, range of motion (ROM), wear, loosening, and cup failure. The variables in cup position are depth, height, and angular position (anteversion and inclination)...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782167/plants-of-the-melaleuca-genus-as-antimicrobial-agents-from-farm-to-pharmacy
#4
REVIEW
Javad Sharifi-Rad, Bahare Salehi, Elena Maria Varoni, Farukh Sharopov, Zubaida Yousaf, Seyed Abdulmajid Ayatollahi, Farzad Kobarfard, Mehdi Sharifi-Rad, Mohammad Hossain Afdjei, Majid Sharifi-Rad, Marcello Iriti
Plants belonging to Melaleuca genus (Myrtaceae family) are native to Oceania, where they have been used for ages by Aborigine people in Australian traditional medicine, mainly because of their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Although, M. linariifolia, M. dissitiflora, and other species of Melaleuca can also be used, the tea tree oil, an essential oil obtained from M. alternifolia shows the longest history of medicinal uses. Tea tree oil contains for the 80-90% several monoterpenes (terpinen-4-ol, α-terpinene, 1,8-cineol, p-cymene, α-terpineol, α-pinene, terpinolene, limonene, and sabinene)...
August 7, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767187/phenotype-analysis-of-congenital-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders-in-the-next-generation-sequencing-era
#5
John C Carey
The designation, phenotype, was proposed as a term by Wilhelm Johannsen in 1909. The word is derived from the Greek, phano (showing) and typo (type), phanotypos. Phenotype has become a widely recognized term, even outside of the genetics community, in recent years with the ongoing identification of human disease genes. The term has been defined as the observable constitution of an organism, but sometimes refers to a condition when a person has a particular clinical presentation. Analysis of phenotype is a timely theme because advances in the understanding of the genetic basis of human disease and the emergence of next generation sequencing have spurred a renewed interest in phenotype and the proposal to establish a "Human Phenome Project...
August 2, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755725/why-do-clinicians-need-to-study-the-history-of-medicine-and-why-should-this-journal-publish-articles-about-it
#6
EDITORIAL
Edward C Halperin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708418/vaccines-pesticides-and-narratives-of-exposure-and-evidence
#7
Elena Conis
This essay considers the cultural work performed by two public health narratives - the DDT narrative and the vaccine narrative - as they appeared in popular and professional discourse concerning two recent media events: controversy over an antivaccination film, and the emergence of a Zika global public health emergency. Like all narratives in the history of medicine, the stories historians and others tell about DDT and about vaccines organize a shared past to explain the present. They also point to a hoped-for future...
July 14, 2017: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693349/the-wounded-maternity-in-the-fine-arts
#8
Simona Giardina, Maria Rosa Montinari
The historian Fielding Garrison wrote that the history of medicine is the history of mankind, as it encompasses all of human life. This means that the history of medicine encourages us to critically reflect not only on the information (the what, the world of facts) but also invites us to move towards understanding (the who, the world of stories). Next to the historical change, there is the anthropological duration with its baggage of immutable values that art brings to light. The merit of art is to focus not only on the biological aspects, but also on the social and emotional ones that define the mother/child relationship...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693128/pediatric-haematopoiesis-and-related-malignancies
#9
Mingwei Jin, Shumei Xu, Qi An
Survival after acute paediatric (0-14 years), adolescent (15-19 years) and young adult (20-39 years) leukaemia has improved substantially over the last five decades, particularly for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute promyelocytic leukaemia. This progress represents one of the most successful achievements in the history of medicine and has been attributed to the development of effective chemotherapy regimens, improvement in supportive care, better risk stratification, use of targeted therapies, and advances in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659198/-henry-beecher-and-medical-science-the-50th-anniversary-of-a-famous-article
#10
N Jacobs, F G Huisman
In 2016, it had been exactly half a century ago that Henry Beecher published his article 'Ethics and clinical research' in The New England Journal of Medicine. Today, this article is considered a turning point in the history of medical research ethics. On the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of this famous article, we are looking back on this turbulent period in the history of medicine.
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646848/an-analysis-of-historical-vignettes-by-ibn-sina-in-the-canon-of-medicine-on-the-structure-and-function-of-the-cardiorespiratory-apparatus
#11
Pedzisai Mazengenya, Rashid Bhikha
Ibn Sina is regarded as one of the greatest physicians, thinkers and medical scholars in the history of medicine. Ibn Sina, a Persian scholar in the medieval era, wrote a famous book of medicine, the Canon of Medicine. The book was adopted as the main textbook of medicine in most Western and Persian universities. In the present critique, we analyzed the functional and anatomic descriptions of the heart, airways and the lungs as viewed by Ibn Sina in volume three of the Canon of Medicine textbook, and compared them to modern anatomy texts...
June 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633732/to-err-is-human-can-american-medicine-learn-from-past-mistakes
#12
Jeffrey B Ritterman
The history of medicine includes many errors. Some persisted for decades and caused great harm. Several are highlighted in this article, including the mythical thymic diseases: thymic asthma and status thymicolymphaticus. Some medical mistakes, such as the diet-heart hypothesis of Ancel Keys, continue to cause harm. To avoid future errors and their associated harm, I suggest a cultural shift encouraging professional humility and greater questioning of medical dogma. Medical education focused on teaching students this history may help with this cultural shift...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630774/lead-poisoning-can-be-easily-misdiagnosed-as-acute-porphyria-and-nonspecific-abdominal-pain
#13
Ming-Ta Tsai, Shi-Yu Huang, Shih-Yu Cheng
Lead poisoning (LP) is less commonly encountered in emergency departments (ED). However, lead exposure still occurs, and new sources of poisoning have emerged. LP often goes unrecognized due to a low index of suspicion and nonspecific symptoms. We present a case of a 48-year-old man who had recurring abdominal pain with anemia that was misdiagnosed. His condition was initially diagnosed as nonspecific abdominal pain and acute porphyria. Acute porphyria-like symptoms with a positive urine porphyrin test result led to the misdiagnosis; testing for heme precursors in urine is the key to the differential diagnosis between LP and acute porphyria...
2017: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604310/new-methods-in-the-history-of-medicine-streamlining-workflows-to-enable-big-data-history-projects
#14
S Wright Kennedy, Jessica C Kuzmin, Benjamin Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589308/the-medical-humanities-effect-a-pilot-study-of-pre-health-professions-students-at-the-university-of-rochester
#15
Clayton J Baker, Margie Hodges Shaw, Christopher J Mooney, Susan Dodge-Peters Daiss, Stephanie Brown Clark
Qualitative and quantitative research on the impact of medical and health humanities teaching in baccalaureate education is sparse. This paper reviews recent studies of the impact of medical and health humanities coursework in pre-health professions education and describes a pilot study of baccalaureate students who completed semester-long medical humanities courses in the Division of Medical Humanities & Bioethics at the University of Rochester. The study format was an email survey. All participants were current or former baccalaureate students who had taken one or more courses in literature and narrative in medicine, bioethics, history of medicine, and/or visual arts and healthcare during the past four years...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573238/kirkia-acuminata-oliv-a-review-of-its-ethnobotany-and-pharmacology
#16
REVIEW
Alfred Maroyi
BACKGROUND: Local communities in sub-Saharan Africa have a long history of medicinal plant usage. Like in other parts of the developing world, rural and urban communities are still dependent on herbal medicines for primary health care, and the use of herbal medicines is still an integral part of their daily life and socio-cultural life style. The objective of this paper is to summarise information on the ethnobotany and pharmacology of Kirkia acuminata Oliv. throughout its distributional range...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559713/history-of-medicine-between-tradition-and-modernity
#17
Cristian Bârsu
History of medicine is an extensive and very complex science. In a simple and classical understanding, it has an informative and associative role. Although it is not easy for students to understand the multiple implications of the history of medicine, its importance becomes more evident during their academic formation. The students must be persuaded particularly about the ethical and cultural values that history of medicine has in their training. Furthermore, history of medicine participates in creating the necessary perspective for shaping the future of medicine in the next decades...
2017: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536287/kisameet-glacial-clay-an-unexpected-source-of-bacterial-diversity
#18
Sarah L Svensson, Shekooh Behroozian, Wanjing Xu, Michael G Surette, Loretta Li, Julian Davies
Widespread antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens is providing the impetus to explore novel sources of antimicrobial agents. Recently, the potent antibacterial activity of certain clay minerals has stimulated scientific interest in these materials. One such example is Kisameet glacial clay (KC), an antibacterial clay from a deposit on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada. However, our understanding of the active principles of these complex natural substances is incomplete. Like soils, clays may possess complex mixtures of bacterial taxa, including the Actinobacteria, a clade known to be rich in antibiotic-producing organisms...
May 23, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529298/an-aspect-of-the-history-of-medicine-in-ancient-korea-as-examined-through-silla-buddhist-monks-annotations-on-the-chapter-on-eliminating-disease-in-the-sutra-of-golden-light-suvarnabh%C3%A4-sa-s%C3%A5-tra
#19
Chaekun Oh, Jongwook Jeon, Dongwon Shin
Nearly nothing is known of medicine in ancient Korea due to insufficient materials. With several extant prescriptions and esoteric methods of treating diseases alone, it is impossible to gauge in depth the management of medicine during this period. If one exception were to be cited, that would be the fact that the annotations for understanding the contents on Indian medicine in the "Chapter on Eliminating Disease" in the Sutra of Golden Light, a Buddhist sutra originating from India, reflected the medical knowledge of Buddhist monks from Silla (57 BC-935 AD) who were active immediately after the nation's unification of the two other kingdoms on the Korean Peninsula (668 AD) such as Wonhyo (617-686 AD), Gyeongheung (620?-700? AD), and Seungjang (684-? AD)...
December 2016: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474715/-the-woman-in-neurosurgery-at-the-national-institute-of-neurology-and-neurosurgery
#20
Sonia Iliana Mejía-Pérez, Claudia Cervera-Martínez, Thalía Estefanía Sánchez-Correa, Teresa Corona-Vázquezo
Women have always had a hard time in the history of medicine; Dr. Isabel Blackwell was the first woman in history to practice medicine. Dr. Diana Beck became the world´s first female neurosurgeon. The first Latin American female neurosurgeon was Dr. María Cristina García Sancho y Álvarez-Tostado. All of these women had to face a large number of social, cultural, and economic obstacles in their path; however, this situation has changed gradually. Dr. Ana Lilia Siordia Karam was the first neurosurgeon to graduate from INNN...
March 2017: Gaceta Médica de México
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