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"History of medicine"

Jesse Roth, Navneet Sahota, Priya Patel, Syed Faizan Mehdi, Mohammad Masum Wiese, Hafiz B Mahboob, Michelle Bravo, Daniel J Eden, Muhammad A Bashir, Amrat Kumar, Farah Alsaati, Irwin J Kurland, Wunnie Brima, Ann Danoff, Alessandra L Szulc, Valentin A Pavlov, Kevin J Tracey, Huan Yang
Obesity and the accompanying metabolic syndrome are strongly associated with heightened morbidity and mortality in older adults. In our review of more than 20 epidemiologic studies of major infectious diseases, including leaders such as tuberculosis, community-acquired pneumonia, and sepsis, obesity was associated with better outcomes. A cause-and-effect relationship between over-nutrition and survival with infection is suggested by results of two preliminary studies of infections in mice, where high fat feeding for 8-10 weeks provided much better outcomes...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Matthew J Roberts
If the history of critical care is to be addressed, the starting point must be the fundamental and defining qualities of intensive care units. These are the concentration of the sickest patients in a defined area of the hospital, staffed by the personnel most able to care for them (by virtue of specialist training), and the application of the most advanced monitoring or therapeutic techniques available at the time. In the military environment, the ability to provide critical care to ill or injured servicemen has developed in tandem with the civilian experience, but the pressures of the austere environment of the battlefield have, at times, held back military medical services from providing the highest level of care that servicemen might deserve and, indeed, expect in civilian life...
October 2016: Journal of Anesthesia History
Carlos Castañeda-Guillot
INTRODUCTION The professional practice of pediatric gastroenterology arose in Cuba as an expression of the specialty's development internationally and Cuba's new strategies in public health, and in response to national needs for health care expertise in digestive diseases of infants, older children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES Describe the history of pediatric gastroenterology's development in Cuba since its inception at the National Gastroenterology Institute in the early 1970s, its contributions, and efforts to extend it to pediatric hospitals throughout Cuba...
October 2016: MEDICC Review
Qwait AlGabbani, Lamjed Mansour, Yasser A Elnakady, Saleh Al-Quraishy, Suliman Alomar, Esam M Al-Shaebi, Abdel-Azeem S Abdel-Baki
Antimalarial drug resistance is the main therapeutic challenge to the control of the disease, making the search for new compounds as alternative treatments of central importance. Propolis has a long history of medicinal use due to its antifungal, antibacterial and antiprotozoal properties. The present study therefore aimed to evaluate the antimalarial activity of the Saudi propolis methanolic extract against Plasmodium chabaudi infection in mice. To this end, albino mice were divided into five groups: the first group was the normal control; the second, third, fourth and fifth groups were infected intraperitoneally with 10(6) P...
November 7, 2016: Parasitology Research
Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito, Marli Tenorio Cordeiro
Zika virusis an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family with two major strains, an Asian and an African strain. The main vectors involved in the transmission of Zika virus are the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Despite its identification, discovered in 1947 in the Zika forest in Uganda, only isolated and sporadic occurrences of human infection were reported within a largely asymptomatic proportion of individuals. The first reported outbreak occurred in 2007 in the Yap Island, which belongs to the Federated States of Micronesia in the Pacific Ocean, and in French Polynesia, where high attack rates occurred and the first cases of associated Guillain-Barré syndrome were reported...
September 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
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2016: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
Caitjan Gainty
This essay offers a reconsideration of the historical significance of Ernest Amory Codman's autobiographical preface to his 1934 text The Shoulder, Rupture of the Supraspinatus Tendon and Other Lesions on or about the Subacromial Bursa and its reception, in its own time and at the end of the twentieth century. It concentrates on the aesthetics of identity and the ways in which these are woven into the political, professional, and cultural contexts of these two periods. It argues finally that Codman's style of life writing, both in the autobiography and throughout his texts, served as an important historical actor that more generally demonstrates the possibilities in approaching the history of medicine from aesthetic angles...
2016: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
Pier Francesco Bassi
If we think about the launch date of Mitomycin C, we could think that this supplement is very much focused on history of Medicine, and, yes, Mitomycin certainly has been a main contributor to the history of Urology. However, it is even more striking to think that even after fifty years of its use by Urologists worlwide, Mitomycin C remains an absolute "Must". The simplicity of use, the efficacy and the tolerability of Mitomycin explain its established role. In fact, "long standing" does not mean "old". The new technologies, introduced progressively in the last decades, have fully confirmed the present and future role of this drug, that is well illustrated in the articles contained in this supplement...
October 4, 2016: Urologia
Olivier Borens, Pablo S Corona, Lars Frommelt, Stergios Lazarinis, Michael Richard Reed, Carlo Luca Romano
Total Joint Arthroplasty (TJA) continues to gain acceptance as the standard of care for the treatment of severe degenerative joint disease, and is considered one of the most successful surgical interventions in the history of medicine. A devastating complication after TJA is infection. Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), represents one of the major causes of failure and remains a significant challenge facing orthopaedics today. PJI usually requires additional surgery including revision of the implants, fusion or amputations causing tremendous patient suffering but also a heavy health economics burden...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Amir Muzur, Iva Rinčić
The "infectious" ardour of Andrija Štampar's doctrine is well known, not only through the accounts of his contemporaries but also from domestic and foreign literature. After all, this ardour has become ingrained in people and institutions, who have carried it on for decades. This article follows the life of prominent bearers of Štampar's ardour in Rijeka's history of medicine - the obstetrician and inventor Viktor Finderle (1902-1964), the epidemiologist Ante Švalba (1903-1989), the long-time director of the People's Health Centre Kajetan Blečić (1917-2005), and the former director of the Public Health Institute Vjekoslav Bakašun (b...
November 2015: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
Mikaela I Poling
While many authors have surveyed the contributions of Victor Almon McKusick, MD (21 October 1921-22 July 2008) to establishing the field of medical genetics, no authors have reviewed his significant contributions as an historian to the field of the history of medicine. In discussing relevant biographical themes and their functional influence in his life, his philosophical approach to the study of the history of medicine and his unique historiography, blending various major schools of thought into a hybrid analytical approach to historical research, was evaluated...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Sanjib Kumar Ghosh
Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771) was an Italian anatomist who introduced the anatomo-clinical concept in medicine and established anatomy as the instrument to identify the seat and etiology of any disease. He was professor of anatomy at the prestigious University of Padua for more than 50 years. His first documented text in anatomy, Adversaria Anatomica was published in three volumes between 1706 and 1719. His accurate anatomical descriptions of human organs enhanced his reputation as the most famous anatomist of Europe during that period...
September 14, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Marco Cascella
Professor Giuseppe Moscati (1880-1927) was canonized by the Catholic Church in 1987. This act recognized the extraordinary qualities of a doctor who, considering his work as a "sublime mission", dedicated his life to helping the sick. The fame of the "Holy doctor" or "doctor of the poor", as people called him, was soon widespread and, immediately after his death, made him the subject of several biographies. These treatises, mainly written by religious hagiographers, have little analyzed Moscati as a doctor and scientist, or, in rare cases, privileged the description of his medical career, touching only marginally salient aspects of his work as a scientist and researcher...
August 2016: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
Christine M Ball
The London surgeon and anaesthetist, Joseph Thomas Clover (1825-1882), and the Birmingham surgeon, Joseph Sampson Gamgee (1828-1886), are well known figures in the history of medicine. Draft letters among the surviving papers of Joseph Clover have been transcribed and reveal new information about their friendship, their financial affairs and Clover's motivation to become a full-time anaesthetist. They have also led to the discovery that Gamgee was briefly imprisoned in Warwick County Goal for debt in 1859.
August 26, 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Guijie Chen, Qingxia Yuan, Muhammad Saeeduddin, Shiyi Ou, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Hong Ye
Tea has a long history of medicinal and dietary use. Tea polysaccharide (TPS) is regarded as one of the main bioactive constituents of tea and is beneficial for health. Over the last decades, considerable efforts have been devoted to the studies on TPS: extraction, structural feature and bioactivity of TPS. However, it has been received much less attention compared with tea polyphenols. In order to provide new insight for further development of TPS in functional foods, in present review we summarize the recent literature, update the information and put forward future perspectives on TPS covering its extraction, purification, quantitative determination techniques as well as physicochemical characterization and bioactivities...
November 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Cristian Bârsu
History of science is a vast and complex domain, comprising many sub-domains, such as: the history of medicine, history of chemistry, history of physics etc. Different specialists in these sub-domains, trying to reach the general and integrative understanding of the history of science, succeeded only after they acquired a rich scientific experience in their fields of activity. One of the scientists who had interesting papers on the history of science was Valeriu Bologa (1892-1971). He was the first Romanian professor of history of medicine...
2016: Clujul Medical (1957)
Cătălin Vasilescu, Monica Salmen, Andrei Bobocea
Cervicothoracic Sympathectomy is a common indication in the treatment of Raynaud Syndrome, Palmer Hyperhidrosis or Acute Ischemia of the superior limb. Nonetheless, almost a century ago it represented one of the first innovative attempts in curing coronary heart disease. Nowadays, this indication is no more than a footnote in a volume on the History of Medicine, and a trivia fact for medical history enthusiasts. The operation's history is rather conflicting. A young Romaninan surgeon, Victor Gomoiu seems to have come up with the idea, in the early 20th century...
May 2016: Chirurgia
Uttara Basu, Bhabatosh Banik, Ru Wen, Rakesh K Pathak, Shanta Dhar
Anticancer platinum (Pt) complexes have long been considered to be one of the biggest success stories in the history of medicinal inorganic chemistry. Yet there remains the hunt for the "magic bullet" which can satisfy the requirements of an effective chemotherapeutic drug formulation. Pt(iv) complexes are kinetically more inert than the Pt(ii) congeners and offer the opportunity to append additional functional groups/ligands for prodrug activation, tumor targeting, or drug delivery. The ultimate aim of functionalization is to enhance the tumor selective action and attenuate systemic toxicity of the drugs...
August 16, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Min Zhang, Xuhui Zhang, Bin Zhang, Dongwen Wang
To better understand the basis of urinary calculi formation, we studied the composition, microstructure, and element analysis of different types of urinary calculi. Sixty people with urinary stones in Shanxi province were selected randomly. The composition of urinary stones was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The microstructure of material components was observed by a scanning electron microscopy and the elemental distribution and composition were analyzed by an X-ray energy spectrometer...
August 5, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
George M Weisz, Andrzej Grzybowski
The history of medicine has been an intriguing topic for both authors. The modern relevance of past discoveries led both authors to take a closer look at the lives and contributions of persecuted physicians. The Jewish physicians who died in the Holocaust stand out as a stark example of those who merit being remembered. Many made important contributions to medicine which remain relevant to this day. Hence, this paper reviews the lives and important contributions of two persecuted Jewish physicians: Arthur Kessler (1903-2000) and Bronislawa Fejgin (1883-1943)...
July 28, 2016: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
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