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corticotrophin releasing factor

David J Owen, Lorna Wood, Barbara Tomenson, Francis Creed, James P Neilson
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether stress, anxiety and depression predict preterm birth in twin pregnancies. METHODS: A prospective cohort study with a convenience sample of women pregnant with dichorionic, diamniotic twins. They were interviewed at 24-28 weeks using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone, ACTH and cortisol levels were assessed at 28 weeks. The main outcome was premature delivery; there were 42 preterm and 73 term births...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Tomoyuki Kaneko, Katsuyuki Kaneda, Atsushi Ohno, Daiki Takahashi, Taiki Hara, Taiju Amano, Soichiro Ide, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka, Masabumi Minami
Pain is a complex experience involving sensory and affective components. Although the neuronal mechanisms underlying the sensory component of pain have been extensively studied, those underlying its affective component have yet to be elucidated. Recently, we reported that corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-induced depolarization in type II neurons within the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dlBNST) is critical for pain-induced aversive responses in rats. However, the intracellular signaling underlying the excitatory effects of CRF and the contribution of such signaling to the induction of pain-induced aversion remain unclear...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Yuxue Zhao, Changxiang Cui, Xiaochun Yu, Juanjuan Xin, Fengyan Lu, Junhong Gao, Bing Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) treatment on abnormal defaecation in a rat model of chronic heterotypic stress (CHS) and investigate the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal (n=6), CHS (n=7), and CHS+EA (n=7). Rats in the CHS group and CHS+EA groups received four different types of stressors for 7 days. For rats in the CHS+EA group, EA was applied at ST36 in the bilateral hind legs for 30 min before each stress-loading session...
September 14, 2016: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
Mary R Lee, Elise M Weerts
There is growing interest in the use of oxytocin (OT) as a potential treatment for alcohol and other substance-use disorders. OT is a neuropeptide that modulates adaptive processes associated with addiction including reward, tolerance, associative learning, memory, and stress responses. OT exerts its effects through interactions with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and multiple neurotransmitter systems including the dopamine mesolimbic reward and corticotrophin-releasing factor stress systems. The effects of OT on stress systems are of high interest, given the strong link between stress, drug use and relapse, and known dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity associated with substance-use disorders...
September 3, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Catherine A Marcinkiewcz, Christopher M Mazzone, Giuseppe D'Agostino, Lindsay R Halladay, J Andrew Hardaway, Jeffrey F DiBerto, Montserrat Navarro, Nathan Burnham, Claudia Cristiano, Cayce E Dorrier, Gregory J Tipton, Charu Ramakrishnan, Tamas Kozicz, Karl Deisseroth, Todd E Thiele, Zoe A McElligott, Andrew Holmes, Lora K Heisler, Thomas L Kash
Serotonin (also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) is a neurotransmitter that has an essential role in the regulation of emotion. However, the precise circuits have not yet been defined through which aversive states are orchestrated by 5-HT. Here we show that 5-HT from the dorsal raphe nucleus (5-HT(DRN)) enhances fear and anxiety and activates a subpopulation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (CRF(BNST)) in mice. Specifically, 5-HT(DRN) projections to the BNST, via actions at 5-HT2C receptors (5-HT2CRs), engage a CRF(BNST) inhibitory microcircuit that silences anxiolytic BNST outputs to the ventral tegmental area and lateral hypothalamus...
August 24, 2016: Nature
Anatoly A Mokrushin
Hyperactivation of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) causes glutamate excitotoxicity, a process potentially important for many neurological diseases. This study aims to investigate protective effects of the synthetic corticotrophin-releasing factor-like peptide, mystixin-7 (MTX), on model glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in vitro. The technique online monitoring of electrophysiological parameters (excitatory glutamatergic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic (AMPAR) and NMDAR-dependent postsynaptic mechanisms) in the olfactory cortex slices was used...
2016: International Journal of Peptides
Leigh C Walker, Hanna E Kastman, Jan A Koeleman, Craig M Smith, Christina J Perry, Elena V Krstew, Andrew L Gundlach, Andrew J Lawrence
Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder, and stress is a key precipitant of relapse. The nucleus incertus (NI) is highly responsive to corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and psychological stressors, receives a CRF innervation and expresses CRF1 and CRF2 receptor mRNA. Furthermore, the ascending NI relaxin-3 system is implicated in alcohol seeking in rats. Therefore, in alcohol-preferring rats, we examined the effect of bilateral injections into the NI of the CRF1 receptor antagonist, CP376395 or the CRF2 receptor antagonist, astressin-2B on yohimbine-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking...
July 20, 2016: Addiction Biology
Xiao Wu, Xiaoqiang Liang, Yijie DU, Yan Zhang, Meng Yang, Weiyi Gong, Baojun Liu, Jingcheng Dong, Ningxia Zhang, Hongying Zhang
The aim of the study was to examine the mechanism of action of Lidan Granule (LDG) for the prevention of gallstones using a guinea pig model. One hundred guinea pigs were divided into five groups randomly: control (standard diet and saline), model [lithogenic diet (LD) and saline], LDG-H (LD and 2 g/kg of LDG), LDG-L (LD and 1 g/kg of LDG), and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) (LD and UDCA) as the positive control. At 6 weeks, the rate of gallstone formation and weight of the adrenal gland were recorded and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured...
July 2016: Biomedical Reports
Wen-bin Ma, Xu-guang Liu, Hai-yan Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of chronological moxibustion on plasma corticosterone (CORT), corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) rats, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improvement of RA. METHODS: A total of 144 SD rats were randomly divided into normal control, model, moxibustion, sham-adrenalectomy (ADX, sham-ADX), ADX and ADX+moxibustion groups which were further separately divided into 4 subgroups (4 time-points: 12 pm, 6 am, 12 am, 6 pm, n = 6/subgroup)...
April 2016: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Li-Hua Zhao, Yanting Yin, Dehua Yang, Bo Liu, Li Hou, Xiaoxi Wang, Kuntal Pal, Yi Jiang, Yang Feng, Xiaoqing Cai, Antao Dai, Mingyao Liu, Ming-Wei Wang, Karsten Melcher, H Eric Xu
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) from the secretin-like (class B) family are key players in hormonal homeostasis and are important drug targets for the treatment of metabolic disorders and neuronal diseases. They consist of a large N-terminal extracellular domain (ECD) and a transmembrane domain (TMD) with the GPCR signature of seven transmembrane helices. Class B GPCRs are activated by peptide hormones with their C termini bound to the receptor ECD and their N termini bound to the TMD. It is thought that the ECD functions as an affinity trap to bind and localize the hormone to the receptor...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Baldwin M Way, Kirk Warren Brown, Jordan Quaglia, Nancy McCain, Shelley E Taylor
The 5-HT2C receptor is the primary serotonin receptor located in the corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) neurons of the hypothalamus. These neurons initiate the signaling cascade that culminates in cortisol release. Therefore, genetic variation in the 5-HT2C receptor gene (HTR2C) is a prime candidate for affecting cortisol reactivity to stress. Accordingly, we examined the association of a nonsynonymous polymorphism (Cys23Ser; rs6318) in HTR2C with stress reactivity in two Trier Social Stress Tests conducted at separate sites...
August 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Francesco Russo, Guglielmina Chimienti, Caterina Clemente, Giuseppe Riezzo, Benedetta D'Attoma, Manuela Martulli
GOALS: The goals of the study were to investigate in both postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) the gastric electrical activity and the gastric emptying (GE) time together with the circulating concentrations of motilin, somatostatin, corticotrophin-releasing factor, and neurotensin, and to establish whether the genetic variability in the neurotensin system genes differs between these 2 categories of functional dyspepsia (FD). BACKGROUND: The current FD classification is based on symptoms and it has been proven not to be completely satisfying because of a high degree of symptom overlap between subgroups...
April 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Hidekazu Miyake, Daisuke Mori, Tasuku Katayama, Shuu Fujiwara, Yuichi Sato, Kagaku Azuma, Kin-Ya Kubo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In humans, occlusal disharmony may cause various physical complaints, including head and neck ache, stiffness in the shoulder and neck, and arthrosis of the temporomandibular joints. Occlusal disharmony induced by raising the bite in rodents, increases plasma corticosterone levels, which leads to morphologic changes in the hippocampus and altered hippocampus-related behavior. The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system...
August 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
James P Herman, Jessica M McKlveen, Sriparna Ghosal, Brittany Kopp, Aynara Wulsin, Ryan Makinson, Jessie Scheimann, Brent Myers
The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is required for stress adaptation. Activation of the HPA axis causes secretion of glucocorticoids, which act on multiple organ systems to redirect energy resources to meet real or anticipated demand. The HPA stress response is driven primarily by neural mechanisms, invoking corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) release from hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons. Pathways activating CRH release are stressor dependent: reactive responses to homeostatic disruption frequently involve direct noradrenergic or peptidergic drive of PVN neurons by sensory relays, whereas anticipatory responses use oligosynaptic pathways originating in upstream limbic structures...
April 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Ana Cláudia Cipriano, Karina Santos Gomes, Ricardo Luiz Nunes-de-Souza
The amygdala (Amy) is an important center that processes threatening stimuli. Among the neurotransmitters implicated in the control of emotional states, the corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) is an important modulator, acting at CRF1 and CRF2 receptors. Few studies have investigated the role of CRF and its receptors in the Amy on anxiety in mice. Here, we investigated the effects of intra-Amy (aimed at the basolateral nucleus) injections of CRF (37.5 and 75pmol/0.1μl), urocortin 3 (UCn3, a selective CRF2 agonist; 4, 8, 16 or 24pmol/0...
May 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Bartosz Brzozowski, Agnieszka Mazur-Bialy, Robert Pajdo, Slawomir Kwiecien, Jan Bilski, Malgorzata Zwolinska-Wcislo, Tomasz Mach, Tomasz Brzozowski
BACKGROUND: Stress of different origin is known to alter so called "brain-gut axis" and contributes to a broad array of gastrointestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other functional gastrointestinal diseases. The stressful situations and various stressors including psychosocial events, heat, hypo- and hyperthermia may worsen the course of IBD via unknown mechanism. The aims of this paper were to provide an overview of experimental and clinical evidences that stress activates the brain-gut axis which results in a mucosal mast cells activation and an increase in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and other endocrine and humoral mediators...
April 4, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
M H Hu, Z Bashir, X F Li, K T O'Byrne
Comfort eating during periods of stress is a common phenomenon observed in both animals and humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of stress-induced food intake remain elusive. The amygdala plays a central role in higher-order emotional processing and the posterodorsal subnucleus of the medial amygdala (MePD), in particular, is involved in food intake. Extra-hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) is well recognised for mediating behavioural responses to stress. To explore the possible role of amygdala CRF receptor activation in stress-induced food intake, we evaluated whether a stressor such as tail-pinch, which reliably induces food intake, would fail to do so in animals bearing bilateral neurotoxic lesions of the MePD...
May 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
John G Partridge, Patrick A Forcelli, Ruixi Luo, Jonah M Cashdan, Jay Schulkin, Rita J Valentino, Stefano Vicini
Corticotrophin Releasing Factor (CRF) is a critical stress-related neuropeptide in major output pathways of the amygdala, including the central nucleus (CeA), and in a key projection target of the CeA, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BnST). While progress has been made in understanding the contributions and characteristics of CRF as a neuropeptide in rodent behavior, little attention has been committed to determine the properties and synaptic physiology of specific populations of CRF-expressing (CRF(+)) and non-expressing (CRF(-)) neurons in the CeA and BnST...
August 2016: Neuropharmacology
Mamoru Tanida, Mai Takada, Akito Kato-Kataoka, Mitsuhisa Kawai, Kouji Miyazaki, Toshishige Shibamoto
Intragastric (IG) administration of probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) decreases the sympathetic nerve outflow of anesthetized rats in a tissue-specific manner. In the present study, we examined the effects of IG administration of LcS on sympathetic activation induced by an intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and an intravenous (IV) injection of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) or interleukin (IL)-1β in urethane-anesthetized rats. The IG administration of LcS differently affected the stimulatory responses of sympathetic nerve outflow to CRF...
April 21, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Chuting Li, Yuan Liu, Dexiang Liu, Hong Jiang, Fang Pan
Several types of microRNA (miRNA) overexpression in the brain are associated with stress. One of the targets of miR-34c is the stress-related corticotrophin releasing factor receptor 1 mRNA (CRFR1 mRNA). Here we will probe into the short-term effect and long-term effect of early adolescent traumatic stress on the expression of miR-34c and CRFR1 mRNA. Traumatic stress was established by electric foot shock for six consecutive days using 28-day rats. The anxiety-like behaviors, memory damage, CRFR1 protein, CRFR1 mRNA, and miR-34c expression were detected in our study...
2016: Neural Plasticity
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